Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1839
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Lujan Heidi L - - 2008
We recently documented sex differences in the susceptibility to reperfusion-induced sustained ventricular tachycardia and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in conscious rats. However, the effect of sex on ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade is under-investigated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that gonadal hormones influence the ventricular arrhythmia threshold (VAT) induced ...
Masoli Osvaldo - - 2008
This aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of endothelial dysfunction in patients with primary hypertension and to determine the usefulness of nebivolol, a selective beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent, as a potential treatment for endothelial dysfunction. Of 176 patients with stage I hypertension, 36 patients (20%), the majority of ...
Mierzwa M - - 2008
The primary alpha and the secondary Johari-Goldstein (JG) beta relaxations of supercooled glass-forming neat epoxy resin and 2-picoline in mixture with tristyrene are monitored by broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy at ambient pressure and elevated pressures. For different combinations of pressure and temperature that maintain the alpha-relaxation time constant, the frequency ...
de Nigris Filomena - - 2008
Nebivolol is a cardioselective beta-blocker (BB) currently used for the treatment of hypertension. It has mild vasodilating properties attributed to its interaction with the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway, a property not shared by other BBs. Carvedilol is a nonselective ss-adrenergic receptor antagonist that also blocks alpha1-adrenergic receptors and is a potent ...
Kiriazis H - - 2008
The role of beta-adrenoceptors in heart disease remains controversial. Although beta-blockers ameliorate the progression of heart disease, the mechanism remains undefined. We investigated the effect of beta-adrenoceptors on cardiac hypertrophic growth using beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoreceptor knockout and wild-type (WT) mice. Mice were subjected to aortic banding or sham surgery, and ...
Savoia Carmine C Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B. Davis-Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, - - 2008
Some antihypertensive agents may improve resistance artery remodeling in hypertensive patients whereas other agents may not, for similar blood pressure reduction. We questioned whether the selective mineralocorticoid receptor blocker eplerenone improves resistance artery remodeling in hypertensive patients versus the beta-blocker atenolol. Sixteen hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to double-blind daily ...
Lakkireddy Dhanunjaya - - 2008
We retrospectively evaluated perfusion defect presence, extent, and severity in 158 consecutive patients receiving beta blockers, who underwent adenosine single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and coronary angiography. Seventy-six patients (group 1) had their beta blockers withdrawn 48 hours prior to testing, and 82 patients (group 2) remained ...
Ma?yszko Jolanta - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is associated with hemostatic abnormalities and endothelial dysfunction. thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a glycoprotein linking coagulation and fibrinolysis. Objectives. We evaluated TAFI concentrations in patients with essential hypertension in relation to blood pressure. Additionally, we studied TAFI activator, thrombin activity (thrombin-antithrombin complexes--TAT, prothrombin fragments F1 + ...
Ignarro Louis J - - 2008
Nebivolol is a racemic combination of d-nebivolol (+SRRR nebivolol) and l-nebivolol (-RSSS nebivolol) that differs chemically from other beta-blockers, with an absolutely symmetrical configuration developing from a central nitrogen atom. D-nebivolol and l-nebivolol divaricate pharmacologically and therapeutically, with a noticeably different profile from that of conventional beta-blockers; for instance, the ...
Owczarek Jacek - - 2008
Beta-blockers are widely used in clinical practice. It is connected with their multiple cardiac effects: slowing heart rate, decrease of myocardial contractility and lowering of systemic blood pressure. Early use of beta-blocker in acute myocardial infarction reduces the risks of reinfarction and ventricular fibrillation. However, the above effects may be ...
Bakris George L - - 2008
Few patients with hypertension meet recommended target blood pressure goals, and most hypertensive patients require at least 2 antihypertensive medications from different pharmacologic classes to adequately lower blood pressure. beta-Blockers are guideline-recommended for the treatment of hypertension with compelling indications. beta-Blockers differ with respect to pharmacology (particularly receptor biology and ...
Stafylas Panagiotis C - - 2008
Although beta-blockers have been previously shown to effectively reduce blood pressure (BP) and have been used for hypertension treatment for over 40 years, their effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients remains controversial and its use in uncomplicated hypertension is currently under debate. However, data on the above ...
Prisant L Michael - - 2008
Beta-blockers are well-established therapeutic agents in the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, these agents are highly heterogeneous. Beta-blockers differ in their ancillary pharmacologic properties, which are clinically important. Nebivolol is a highly selective beta(1)-adrenergic receptor blocker that induces vasodilation through stimulation of the endothelial nitric oxide/L-arginine pathway. As ...
Chen Wei - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nervous activity, which is regulated by the beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR), is an important determinant of the arterial wall-stiffening process. This study examines the genetic influence of beta-AR gene polymorphisms (beta(1)-AR Arg389Gly, beta(2)-AR Arg16Gly, and beta(3)-AR Trp64Arg) on arterial stiffness in black and white young adults. METHODS: The study ...
Takaki Akira - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Beta is an index of arterial stiffness independent of blood pressure. Beta of the thoracic descending aorta (TDA) has been obtained by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new noninvasive estimation of beta. METHODS AND RESULTS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ...
Bangalore Sripal - - 2007
Traditionally, beta-blockers, used as first-line agents to treat uncomplicated hypertension, were recommended by national and international guidelines despite a paucity of evidence regarding their cardiovascular benefit. However, evidence from recent trials and meta-analyses has questioned the use of beta-blockers as preferred agents. This article reviews the data available from clinical ...
Wu Akira - - 2007
Beta-blockers have long being used as first-line therapy for hypertension as their use had resulted in a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in controlled clinical trials. A recent meta-analysis comparing beta-blockers to all other anti-hypertensive drugs taken together has found that stroke reduction was sub-optimal. Specifically, atenolol was associated ...
Caeiro Ximena - - 2008
Considerable evidence has been gathered involving the endogenous opioid system in blood pressure regulation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of administering beta-Endorphin into the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) and whether this administration was capable of modulating the pressor response ...
McConville Patrick - - 2007
Differences in energy metabolism during beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (AR) stimulation have been shown to translate to differences in the elicited functional responses. It has been suggested that differential access to glycogen during beta(1)- compared with beta(2)-AR stimulation may influence the peak functional response and modulation of the response during ...
Butkovskaya Nadezhda - - 2007
A high-pressure turbulent flow reactor coupled with a chemical ionization mass-spectrometer was used to determine the branching ratio of the HO(2) + NO reaction: HO(2) + NO --> OH + NO(2) (1a), HO(2) + NO --> HNO(3) (1b). The branching ratio, beta = k(1b)/k(1a), was derived from the measurements of ...
Jaber Wissam A - - 2007
Understanding diastolic function mandates feasible and accurate methods to construct and compare the diastolic pressure (P)-volume (V) relationship (PVR). This study compared the relaxation-corrected single beat (RC-SB) to the multiple-beat (MB) (vena cava occlusion) method for constructing the diastolic PVR in 26 young normal or old hypertensive dogs before and ...
Ablad Bengt - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To study whether and how a lipophilic and a hydrophilic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist affects ventricular fibrillation (VF) after coronary artery occlusion in a rabbit model with high sympathetic and low cardiac vagal activation. DESIGN: Rabbits were treated for 3 weeks (series 1) or 2 hours (series 2) with metoprolol, atenolol ...
Barbier J - - 2007
1. beta(3)-Adrenoceptors (AR) have been reported to be present in numerous species, where they mediate multiple responses. 2. The aim of the present study was to determine whether beta(3)-AR are present in intact rat heart and the functional implications of beta(3)-AR stimulation. The response to the cardiac beta(3)-AR-selective agonist BRL37344 ...
Pedersen Michala E - - 2007
Although well established in treating hypertension and cardiovascular (CV) disease, clinical trial data suggest that beta-blockers (eg, atenolol) may be less effective than other antihypertensive classes in reducing stroke and CV mortality despite similar blood pressure (BP) reductions. One possible explanation is that atenolol is less effective in reducing central ...
Wu M-J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Recent experimental evidence has suggested that pressure may play an important role in the pathogenesis of arthritic diseases such as temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), rheumatic diseases and osteoarthritis. This study examines the effects of hydrostatic pressure (HP) on cytoskeleton and protein production of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), transforming growth factor-beta ...
Pellinger Thomas K - - 2007
Sympatho-excitatory manoeuvres are used to study vascular responsiveness in humans, but it is unclear if circulating adrenaline attenuates peripheral vasoconstriction during these manoeuvres. We hypothesized that vasoconstrictor responses to three manoeuvres (neck pressure, unilateral thigh-cuff release and isometric handgrip) would be greater after the administration of the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol. ...
Nagai Tokihisa - - 2007
Migraine is a common subtype of headache. Epidemiological studies have revealed that migraine could be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke even in elderly subjects. Arterial stiffness is one of the major pathophysiological bases of stroke. In the present study, we cross-sectionally investigated the possible relationship between migraine and ...
Hirsch Sheldon - - 2007
Prescription audits document that patients with resistant hypertension are often treated with several vasodilators, with less emphasis on diuretics and beta-blockers. Patients who do not respond to several vasodilators appear to be vasodilator-insensitive; they may be a selected-out cohort who require diuresis or catecholamine suppression for further blood pressure control.
Molinari Claudio - - 2007
Prolactin has been associated with many effects and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders, although little is known about its vascular effects. The present study was designed to determine the primary effect of prolactin on regional vascular beds and the mechanisms involved. In 37 anesthetized pigs, ...
Lakomkin V L - - 2007
Long-term administration of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor atorvastatin to rats was accompanied by an increase in the relative weight of the heart and decrease in the rate of pressure development in the isovolumic heart. During oxidative stress induced by addition of 100 microM H2O2 to the perfusate, the decrease ...
Zhao Qiang - - 2007
To investigate the expression of beta(3)-adrenoceptors in rats with chronic heart failure, and to explore the effect of beta-blockers on beta(3)-adrenoceptor expression. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into Sham (n = 10) and heart failure (n = 22) groups. The heart failure group was treated with normal saline (Heart ...
Westhoff T H - - 2007
Aerobic physical exercise is broadly recommended as a helpful adjunct to obtain blood pressure control in hypertension. Beta-blockade interacts with heart rate, sympathetic tone, maximal workload and local lactate production. In the present randomized-controlled study, we compared the cardiovascular effects of an endurance training programme in elderly hypertensives with or ...
Laowattana Somchai - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Because activated sympathetic tone is associated with poorer outcome after stroke, we investigated whether beta-blocker treatment was associated with lesser stroke severity and improved outcome. METHOD: We prospectively studied 111 patients with stroke. Stroke severity on presentation gauged by Canadian Neurologic Scale (CanNS) and medication use verified from medical ...
Agabiti Rosei Enrico - - 2007
beta-Adrenoceptor antagonists (beta-blockers) have historically been considered an effective and safe option for first-line treatment of hypertension. However, very recently, it has been proposed that beta-blockers should no longer be considered suitable for first-line therapy in the patient with uncomplicated hypertension because of unfavourable morbidity and mortality data. New evidence ...
Arnold Anne-Sophie - - 2007
OBJECTIVES:Beta-blockers are widely used and effective for treating hypertension, acute myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure, but they present side-effects mainly due to antagonism of beta2-adrenergic receptor (AR). Currently available beta-blockers are at best selective but not specific for beta1 or beta2-AR. METHODS: To specifically inhibit the expression of the ...
Torigoe Ichiro - - 2007
The efficient seeding of cells into porous scaffolds is important in bone tissue engineering techniques. To enhance efficiency, we modified the previously reported cell seeding techniques using low-pressure conditions. In this study, the effects of low pressure on bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) of rats and the usefulness of the ...
Cruz Nildris - - 2007
Heart failure (HF) is a multifactorial and progressive disease that has been linked to activation of the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic systems. In recent years, beta-blockers have been shown to improve the status of HF patients, although the precise mechanisms remain unclear. The present study evaluates the effect of beta-blockade with ...
Cockcroft John - - 2007
Nebivolol is a third generation beta-blocker, which can be distinguished from other beta-blockers by its hemodynamic profile. It combines beta-adrenergic blocking activity with a vasodilating effect mediated by the endothelial L-arginine nitric oxide (NO) pathway. The effects of nebivolol have been compared with other beta-blockers and also with other classes ...
Cicuta Pietro - - 2007
We investigate the surface viscoelasticity of beta-lactoglobulin and beta-casein spread surface monolayers using a recently discovered method. Step compressions are performed, and the surface pressure is measured as a function of time. This is a common experiment for surface monolayers. However in our experiments the pressure is recorded by two ...
Maki K C - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of consuming foods containing oat beta-glucan on blood pressure, carbohydrate homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. SETTING: The trial was conducted at two clinics. SUBJECTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Ninety-seven men and women with resting systolic blood pressure 130-179 mm ...
Sethi Rajat - - 2007
To examine whether cardiac hypertrophy is associated with changes in beta-adrenoceptor signal transduction mechanisms, pressure overload (PO) was induced by occlusion of the abdominal aorta and volume overload (VO) by creation of an aortocaval shunt for 4 and 24 wk in rats. After hemodynamic assessment of the animals, the left ...
Ulger Zulal - - 2006
Increased iron stores have been implicated in the association with increased risk of cardiovascular events. We evaluated whether the abdominal aortic stiffness was altered in the patients with beta-thalassemia major in relation with body iron load. Sixty-two (32 males and 30 females) beta-thalassemia major patients aged 16.47 +/- 4.8 years ...
Afonso Ricardo A - - 2006
Carvedilol's adrenergic antagonism does not fully explain its therapeutic actions. We therefore tested the hypothesis that its action is associated with an increase in NO synthesis. Wistar rats (male, 9 weeks, n = 10) anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital were used. Arterial NO concentration ([NO]), determined by chemiluminescence, and mean arterial ...
Kuijt-Evers L F M - - 2007
In the current study, the relationship between objective measurements and subjective experienced comfort and discomfort in using handsaws was examined. Twelve carpenters evaluated five different handsaws. Objective measures of contact pressure (average pressure, pressure area and pressure-time (P-t) integral) in static and dynamic conditions, muscle activity (electromyography) of five muscles ...
Plotino Gianluca - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the moment when reduced pressure is applied on dye penetration patterns. STUDY DESIGN: Nine hundred and sixty glass capillary tubes of different inner diameter (0.3 mm and 0.8 mm), divided into 48 groups, were submerged into dye in ...
Burniston Jatin G - - 2006
The beta(2)-adrenoceptor (beta(2)-AR) agonists clenbuterol and fenoterol have similar beneficial effects in animal models of heart failure. However, large doses of clenbuterol can induce cardiomyocyte death, and it is not known which of these agents has the most favourable therapeutic profile. We have investigated the cardiotoxicity of clenbuterol and fenoterol ...
Panjrath Gurusher S - - 2006
Beta-blockers are used commonly worldwide in clinical practice for lowering blood pressure. Most of the agents in this class are efficacious in reducing blood pressure, although they vary widely in their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. This variability may confer significant differences in clinical benefits associated with use of specific agents. ...
Beitelshees Amber L - - 2006
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the correlation between ambulatory and clinic blood pressure in assessing antihypertensive response to beta-blockade, to test whether blood pressure response to metoprolol is associated with the heart rate response, and to determine whether exercise and resting heart rate responses to metoprolol are correlated. DESIGN: Post hoc ...
Bakris George L - - 2006
Patients at high risk for hypertension may require several therapeutic agents to lower their blood pressure to guideline-recommended targets. Some antihypertensive agents are more effective than others in protecting against cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Numerous beta-blocking agents have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the ...
Kramer John W - - 2006
[reaction: see text] A readily prepared bimetallic catalyst is capable of effecting epoxide carbonylation to produce beta-lactones at substantially lower CO pressures than previously reported catalyst systems. A functionally diverse array of beta-lactones is produced in excellent yields at CO pressures as low as 1 atm. This procedure allows for ...
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