Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1693
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Pricher Mollie P - - 2004
Moderate exercise elicits a relative postexercise hypotension that is caused by an increase in systemic vascular conductance. Previous studies have shown that skeletal muscle vascular conductance is increased postexercise. It is unclear whether these hemodynamic changes are limited to skeletal muscle vascular beds. The aim of this study was to ...
Loutzenhiser R - - 2004
The transmission of elevated blood pressure to the glomerulus and pressure-induced glomerular injury play central roles in the pathogenesis of kidney disease and its progression to end-stage renal failure. The renal afferent arteriole sets the pre-glomerular resistance and pressure-induced or 'myogenic' afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction is a primary mechanism protecting the ...
Maslovitz Sharon - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate renal arterial resistance to flow by Doppler indices concurrently with ascites drainage in women with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. METHODS: We conducted an interventional clinical study of 19 women with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, manifested by free peritoneal fluid. The subjects were evaluated before and after therapeutic ...
Bergström G - - 2004
There is good evidence that the renal medulla plays a pivotal role in long-term regulation of blood pressure. 'Renal medullary' blood pressure regulating systems have been postulated to involve both exocrine (pressure natriuresis/diuresis) and endocrine [renal medullary depressor hormone (RMDH)] functions. However, recent studies indicate that pressure diuresis/natriuresis dominates the ...
Phillips Robert A - - 2004
In patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis, the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) demonstrated the superiority of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in blunting progression of renal disease compared with a b blocker and a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. In addition, the study found that a blood pressure treatment ...
Hrafnkelsdóttir Thórdís - - 2004
We have shown that the capacity for local release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) from the vascular endothelium is impaired in patients with primary hypertension. Because this response is an important protective mechanism against intravascular clotting, we investigated whether this system is also defective in patients with advanced chronic kidney ...
Al-Hesayen Abdul - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The regulation of renal sympathetic activity in the setting of heart failure is largely unexplored. We used the norepinephrine spillover method to address the hypothesis that baroreflex control of renal sympathetic activity is blunted in heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were studied, 11 in a group with ...
Yim Peter J - - 2004
Atherosclerotic disease of the renal artery can lead to reduction in arterial caliber and ultimately to conditions including renovascular hypertension. Renal artery stenosis is conventionally assessed, using angiography, according to the severity of the stenosis. However, the severity of a stenosis is not a reliable indicator of functional significance, or ...
Finco Delmar R - - 2004
Systemic hypertension is hypothesized to cause renal injury to dogs. This study was performed on dogs with surgically induced renal failure to determine whether hypertension was associated with altered renal function or morphology. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) were ...
Hamza Shereen M - - 2004
We have previously shown that the splenorenal reflex controls renin release through splenic afferent and renal sympathetic nerves. We proposed that this reflex would also affect renal blood flow (RBF). RBF was measured in male Long Evans rats using transit-time flow probes. There were no significant differences between any of ...
Zeller Thomas - - 2004
PURPOSE: To report a prospective study evaluating the long-term impact of stent-supported angioplasty on renal function and blood pressure control. METHODS: In a 6-year period, 456 hemodynamically significant de novo renal artery stenoses > or =70% were treated in 340 consecutive hypertensive patients (223 men; mean age 66+/-10 years, range ...
Biancofiore G - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The incidence and clinical relevance of increased intraabdominal pressure after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has not yet been evaluated despite the finding that occurrence of this condition in postsurgical critically ill patients may impair various organ functions. The aim of this study was to assess whether the occurrence of ...
Eiam-Ong Somchit - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanism(s) of acute hypercalcemia-induced hypertension in dogs. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Adult male mongrel dogs were intravenously infused with: 1) normal saline solution, 2) CaCl2 solution, 3) CaCl2 + calcium channel blocker (verapamil), 4) CaCl2 + selective alpha-1 adrenergic receptor blocker (prazosin), or 5) CaCl2 + verapamil ...
Lurbe Empar - - 2004
In hypertensive renal disease in children, several risk factors influence the development and the rate of progression of renal damage, including blood pressure levels, proteinuria, lipid disorders, and genetic differences. The impact of blood pressure on renal structures, the most important of the factors, depends not only on blood pressure ...
Weaver Fred A - - 2004
This study was undertaken to define the long-term effects of renal revascularization on blood pressure, and renal and cardiac function in patients with Takayasu arteritis-induced renal artery stenosis (TARAS). Twenty-seven patients (25 women; mean age, 27 years) with TARAS underwent intervention. Primary, primary assisted, and secondary patency rates were determined, ...
Jin Xiao-Hong - - 2004
Pressure-natriuresis is the physiological protective mechanism whereby elevation of blood pressure induces a rapid increase in renal sodium (Na+) excretion. Pressure-natriuresis abnormalities are common to all forms of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that pressure-natriuresis is mediated by renal interstitial (RI) cGMP and protein kinase G (PKG). We used anesthetized, ...
Treves S Ted - - 2004
We investigated the feasibility of using (191m)Ir (half-life, 5 s) to measure rapid dynamic alterations in differential renal blood flow. METHODS: A nonobstructive constant renal pelvic pressure model was used. The renal pelves of 6 New Zealand White rabbits were drained by use of bilateral catheters, and increased hydrostatic pressure ...
Tal R - - 2004
ACS is prevalent in various surgical conditions and in a large percentage of critically ill patients. Measuring the IAP is important in the early diagnosis of ACS and can be easily done by measuring the intravesical pressure. ACS adversely affects many organ systems; the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction is probably ...
Luft Friedrich C - - 2004
PURPOSE OF VIEW: A major clinical trial and a meta-analysis completed within the past year addressed the issue of renal disease progression after blood pressure-lowering treatment in patients with hypertension and diminished renal function. Important human and animal studies have addressed mechanistic issues regarding renal disease progression. These advances warrant ...
Goddard Jane - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Endothelin (ET) is implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic renal failure (CRF). We therefore studied the systemic and renal hemodynamic effects of ET receptor antagonists in CRF and examined differences between selective ETA, selective ETB, and combined ETA/B receptor blockade. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, ...
Torbjörnsdotter Torun B - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a relation between dipping/nondipping status and end-organ damage (measured as renal glomerulopathy) and long-term renal function in order to predict the development of nephropathy in normoalbuminuric patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Analysis of renal biopsy and ambulatory blood pressure measurements ...
Miyashita Kazuhisa - - 2004
Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has been reported to induce hypertension. We investigated the effect of a single injection of rHuEPO on blood pressure in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) and in patients with predialysis chronic renal failure (CRF). Forty-one patients receiving HD and 36 patients with predialysis CRF received an intravenous ...
Auge Brian K - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: New-generation flexible ureteroscopes allow the management of proximal ureteral and intrarenal pathology with high success rates, including complete removal of ureteral and renal calculi. One problem is that the irrigation pressures generated within the collecting system can be significantly elevated, as evidenced by pyelovenous and pyelolymphatic backflow ...
Egan J A - - 2004
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a recognized complication of malignant hypertension (HTN). Such patients have blood pressures > or = 200/140 mmHg but the condition is defined by the presence of papilledema and is frequently complicated by acute renal failure. Here we report two patients with severe HTN (systolic > or ...
Guild Sarah-Jane - - 2004
1. We investigated how sympathetic nerve activity and renal perfusion pressure (RPP) interact in controlling renal haemodynamics in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rabbits. 2. Renal blood flow (RBF) was reduced by electrical renal nerve stimulation (0.5-8 Hz), with RPP set using an extracorporeal circuit to 65, 100 and 135 mmHg. 3. Responses of ...
Therapondos George - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Terlipressin is a vasopressin analog that may improve renal function in hepatorenal syndrome by mechanisms as yet unknown. The authors investigated the effect of the drug on systemic, hepatic and renal hemodynamics in cirrhosis. METHODS: Six patients with cirrhosis and ascites were studied (five Child's B and ...
Komeno Masaharu - - 2004
To clarify the role of nitric oxide (NO) in hemodialysis (HD)-related hypotension, the relationship between plasma NO metabolites (NOx) and blood pressure changes, and the effect of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a NO synthase inhibitor, on changes in blood pressure were evaluated in an experimental renal dysfunctional dog model. In order to ...
Shinohara Makoto - - 2004
A newborn girl with neuroblastoma presented with hypertension (blood pressure 200/140 mm Hg). The concentration of active renin in the ipsilateral renal vein was exceedingly high compared with those in the other venous systems, and angiography results showed narrowing of the contralateral 2 renal arteries. The tumor regressed in size ...
Griffin Karen A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Hypertension plays a major role in the progression of both experimental and clinical chronic renal disease. However, the pathogenesis of the more slowly developing glomerulosclerosis that is seen even in the absence of overt hypertension, both in renal mass reduction models and in humans with chronic renal disease, remains ...
Wuerzner Grégoire - - 2004
Depending on its magnitude, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been shown to induce a progressive activation of neurohormonal, renal tubular, and renal hemodynamic responses, thereby mimicking the renal responses observed in clinical conditions characterized by a low effective arterial volume such as congestive heart failure. Our objective was to ...
Ritz Eberhard - - 2003
Renal disease is closely associated with hypertension. On the one hand, kidney disease provokes hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension aggravates the progression of renal dysfunction. The pathomechanisms through which the kidney raises blood pressure have been considerably clarified in recent years. In experimental and clinical studies, it could be ...
Ogata Chinami - - 2003
The heart and kidneys are important target organs in hypertension. Early signs of hypertensive target organ damage can be detected by evaluating left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and intrarenal hemodynamics using Doppler ultrasonography. However, it has not been sufficiently clarified whether cardiac damage and renal impairment progress in parallel, especially ...
Johnson D Brooke - - 2003
PURPOSE: Radio frequency ablation (RFA) is evolving as a nephron sparing treatment alternative for select patents with small renal tumors. The impact of ablated tissue on the remaining kidney parenchyma is unknown. To assess this impact we evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment serum creatinine (sCr), and blood pressure of patients treated ...
César de Oliveira Paulo - - 2003
Much effort has been made in recent years to clarify metabolic and renal function changes in sepsis. A number of studies performed in different models of sepsis have been described. One such model that is frequently used is cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rats. This model resembles human sepsis ...
Dodic M - - 2003
Low-dose dexamethasone treatment is used in pregnancies where the fetus is suspected to be at risk of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). In order to see if such treatment had long-term effects, pregnant ewes were treated with dexamethasone (20 micro g/kg maternal body weight) or saline from 25 to 45 days ...
Stehouwer Coen D A - - 2003
Several studies, some population-based, have plasma homocysteine levels linked to blood pressure, especially systolic pressure. In one large and carefully conducted epidemiological study, each 5 micromol/l increase in plasma homocysteine was associated with an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 0.7/0.5 mmHg in men and 1.2/0.7 mmHg in ...
Lindström Pernilla - - 2003
The effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and volume expansion on renal function in the rat were studied to gain more knowledge of the oliguria seen during laparoscopic procedures and to reduce the detrimental renal effects of IAP. IAP was elevated to 5 or 10 mmHg by insufflation of CO(2) ...
Zeller Thomas - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous stent-supported angioplasty is a treatment option for atherosclerotic ostial renal artery stenosis. Improvement of renal function by such intervention, however, is controversial and thought to be limited to specific subsets, such as nondiabetic patients and bilateral stenoses. In this prospective study, we investigated predictors for improvement of renal ...
Zhang Qi - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of percutaneous renal artery intervention on renal function and blood pressure in patients with renal artery stenosis. METHODS: Eighty-seven patients with severe uni- or bi-lateral renal artery stenosis (luminal diameter narrowing >/= 70%) and clinical hypertension received renal artery stenting between January 2002 and December ...
Wenzel Ulrich O UO University Hospital of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Pav. 61, Martinistrasse 52, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany. - - 2003
Vasopeptidase inhibitors are a new class of compounds that inhibit both angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase. This study determined whether treatment with the vasopeptidase inhibitor omapatrilat (OMA) produced different effects on renal and cardiovascular structure compared with inhibition of ACE by enalapril (ENP) in rats with two-kidney, one clip ...
Cakmak Mahmut - - 2003
Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between the high-pressure and high-resistance arterial system and the venous system with opposite features. Due to its lower resistance, the blood preferentially flows via the fistula rather than through the capillary bed. The amount of shunt flow depends on its size and proximity to the ...
Campese Vito M - - 2003
Increasing evidence indicates that afferent impulses from injured kidney may activate areas of the brain involved in the noradrenergic regulation of blood pressure and largely contribute to the development and maintenance of hypertension associated with renal diseases. A new model of hypertension developed in our laboratory by an intrarenal injection ...
Al-Hakim W - - 2003
A man born in 1944 presented with an episode of macroscopic haematuria during a urinary tract infection in 1988. He was unusually tall at 2 metres. An intravenous pyelogram and an abdominal ultrasound disclosed the presence of bilaterally enlarged polycystic kidneys and a polycystic liver. There was a family history ...
Puttinger Heidi - - 2003
Hypertensive nephropathy is among the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. Once renal function is severely impaired, the effects of strict control of blood pressure on the recovery of renal function remain elusive. Published case series suggest that optimal control of blood pressure results in regression of renal failure to ...
Colyer William R WR - - 2003
Renal ischemia due to renal artery stenosis (RAS) is an important cause of secondary hypertension and renal insufficiency. Several methods are available to diagnose RAS; however, the identification of clinically significant lesions remains problematic. We measured the translesional systolic pressure gradient (TSPG) with a 4 Fr catheter and a 0.014" ...
Simon Geza - - 2003
1. Functional and structural vasoconstriction of renal cortical arteries is the earliest change leading to hypertension. In the present study, the interaction of a subpressor dose of angiotensin (Ang) II, a 2% NaCl diet and sympathetic stimulation in the form of overnight cold exposure was investigated in the development of ...
Shi Shang-Jin - - 2003
The deficiency of Npr1 [genetic determinant of natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA)] increases arterial pressures and causes hypertensive heart disease in mice similar to those seen in untreated human hypertensive patients. However, the quantitative role of NPRA in mediating the renal responses to blood volume expansion remains uncertain. To determine ...
Kane Garvan C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Despite the advances in antihypertensive therapy and renal revascularization, there remains a group of patients in whom renovascular disease leads to renal atrophy and treatment-resistant hypertension. METHODS: We performed an observational cohort study in which we reviewed blood pressures, renal function, and predictors of response in 74 patients who ...
Momen Afsana - - 2003
During exercise, the sympathetic nervous system is activated, which causes vasoconstriction. The autonomic mechanisms responsible for this vasoconstriction vary based on the particular tissue being studied. Attempts to examine reflex control of the human renal circulation have been difficult because of technical limitations. In this report, the Doppler technique was ...
Edwards Matthew S - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between renovascular disease (RVD) and cross-sectional measures of blood pressure and renal function among participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). METHODS: The CHS is a prospective cohort study of cardiovascular disease among elderly Americans. As part of an ...
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