Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1711
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Madeddu Paolo - - 2007
The pathogenesis of arterial hypertension often involves a rise in systemic vascular resistance (vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling) and impairment of salt excretion in the kidney (inappropriate salt retention despite elevated blood pressure). Experimental and clinical evidence implicate an imbalance between endogenous vasoconstrictor and vasodilator systems in the development and maintenance ...
Mitchell Jason A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Renal stent placement improves or cures hypertension in only 60-70% of patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS) and uncontrolled hypertension. There is a need to better identify patients who are likely to respond to percutaneous renal revascularization. We investigated whether an abnormal renal fractional flow reserve (FFR) would predict ...
Cravedi Paolo - - 2007
In diabetic and nondiabetic chronic nephropathies, high blood pressure and urinary loss of proteins represent major determinants of progressive renal function decline. Reducing blood pressure with drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system also lowers glomerular hypertension and ameliorates glomerular sieving properties, thus reducing proteinuria. Reducing urinary protein levels with angiotensin-converting ...
Anderson Warwick P - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the responses of total peripheral resistance and arterial pressure to vasoconstrictor agents are amplified as renovascular hypertension develops in dogs. METHODS: After baseline measurements, the effects of renal artery stenosis (1K, 1C hypertension) were studied in groups of untreated and enalapril-treated dogs early (1-3 weeks) and ...
Armentano Matthew J - - 2007
The effects of short-term oral creatine (Cr) supplementation on exercise performance and on blood pressure and renal function were assessed. Thirty-five healthy, active duty, U.S. Army volunteers (20 men and 15 women; age, 22-36 years) at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, supplemented their diet for 7 days with 20 g/day of ...
Houston Mark C - - 2007
Mercury, cadmium, and other heavy metals have a high affinity for sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, inactivating numerous enzymatic reactions, amino acids, and sulfur-containing antioxidants (NAC, ALA, GSH), with subsequent decreased oxidant defense and increased oxidative stress. Both bind to metallothionein and substitute for zinc, copper, and other trace metals reducing the ...
Moreira Thiago S - - 2007
In the present study we compared the effects produced by moxonidine (alpha2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline agonist) injected into the 4th cerebral ventricle and into the lateral cerebral ventricle on mean arterial pressure, heart rate and on renal, mesenteric and hindquarter vascular resistances, as well as the possible action of moxonidine on central alpha1- ...
Staub D - - 2007
PURPOSE: Colour coded duplex sonography (DS) is widely used for the assessment of renal artery stenosis (RAS). Different criteria have been specified for the detection of significant RAS. The aim of our study was to compare routinely used DS criteria, both with intra-arterial pressure gradients and arteriographic degree of stenosis, ...
Ebenezar Kesavarao Kumar - - 2007
Both prostaglandins (PGs) PGE(2) and PGI(2) can act as renal vasodilators, these effects being exacerbated when the renin-angiotensin system is activated. Therefore, we hypothesized that PGs would play a more predominant role in modulating renal haemodynamics in the newborn period, when the renin-angiotensin system is activated. To this end, the ...
Cupples William A - - 2007
The kidney displays highly efficient autoregulation so that under steady-state conditions renal blood flow (RBF) is independent of blood pressure over a wide range of pressure. Autoregulation occurs in the preglomerular microcirculation and is mediated by two, perhaps three, mechanisms. The faster myogenic mechanism and the slower tubuloglomerular feedback contribute ...
Williams Jan M - - 2007
This study examined the role of changes in renal interstitial pressure on the renal levels of cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid and compared the effects of inhibition of the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids with 1-aminobenzotriazole on the pressure-natriuretic response versus that seen after administration of ...
Cibulskyte Donata - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Most experimental studies of chronic ciclosporin A (CsA) nephrotoxicity have been performed in rodents; however, the pig possesses several advantages. The aim of this study was to investigate renal functional and structural changes during CsA treatment with 20 mg/kg/day for 6 months in a pig model. METHODS: Gottingen minipigs ...
Kane Garvan C - - 2007
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Restenosis following percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) remains a concern even in the era of adjuvant stenting. The optimal form of therapy, and particularly the role of repeat PTRA in the treatment of recurrent hypertension associated with renal artery restenosis, is largely unknown. The aims of this study were ...
Kirkpatrick Andrew W - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The abdominal compartment syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition with frequent renal involvement. There are few if any means of inferring subclinical effects before organ dysfunction. Because intrarenal pressure correlates with renal sonographic indices in other renal diseases, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between ...
Peco-Antić Amira - - 2007
Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome is a manifestation of severe hypertension related to renal ischemia. The most common underlying cause of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome in adults is severe atherosclerotic reno-vascular disorder while in children the most common cause of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome is unilateral congenital renal artery stenosis due to some form ...
Kanbay Mehmet - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia has been associated with the development of hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal disease. However, there is no data about the effect of lowering uric acid level on hypertension, renal function, and proteinuria in patients with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >60 ml/min. We therefore conducted a prospective study to investigate ...
Tanguay Teddie Annette - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) develops in 23% of all critically ill patients. Hypotension occurs in 25% to 50% of patients during intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) for ARF. Blood volume (BV) monitoring has been used in chronic renal failure, with limited use in ARF during IHD. Continuous BV monitoring in the ...
Lohmeier Thomas E - - 2007
Recent studies indicate that suppression of renal sympathetic nerve activity and attendant increments in renal excretory function are sustained baroreflex-mediated responses in hypertensive animals. Given the central role of the kidneys in long-term regulation of arterial pressure, we hypothesized that the chronic blood pressure-lowering effects of the baroreflex are critically ...
Jung Helene U - - 2006
We searched to review experimental and clinical trials concerning the capabilities of impacting on the ureteric and pelvic activity by means of pharmacological stimulation. Ureteropyeloscopy may cause high renal pelvic pressure. The normal pressure is in the range of 5-15 mmHg whereas pressure of 410 mmHg has been measured during ...
Handa S Paul - - 2006
PURPOSE: Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disorder. In addition to renal structure and function abnormalities, the cardiovascular changes (extra renal manifestations) are the frequent findings observed in these subjects. This pilot study describes the viscoelastic properties of the aorta, a predisposing factor for ...
Pat Betty - - 2007
African Americans have an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to hypertension and arteriosclerosis and increased death due to coronary artery disease, compared with whites. The pathogenesis of CKD involves the increased presence and activation of myofibroblasts and macrophages, promotion of tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and effects of tubulointerstitial cell ...
Maduwegedera D - - 2007
Previously, we demonstrated that adult blood pressure was increased in offspring of rabbit mothers with chronic secondary renal hypertension. Our study identified sex-specific differences in the programming of hypertension, with female, not male, offspring, having increased blood pressure at 30 wk of age. The aim of this study was to ...
Hollis A R - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Norepinephrine is a potent vasopressor that increases arterial blood pressure but may have adverse effects on renal blood flow. The combination of norepinephrine and dobutamine may lead to improved renal perfusion compared to an infusion of norepinephrine alone. The effects of these drugs in the normotensive neonatal foal have ...
Li Ningjun - - 2007
Recent studies have demonstrated that inhibition of renal medullary heme oxygenase (HO) activity and carbon monoxide (CO) significantly decreases renal medullary blood flow and sodium excretion. Given the crucial role of renal medullary blood flow in the control of pressure natriuresis, the present study was designed to determine whether renal ...
De Bruyne Bernard - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to define "significant" renal artery stenosis (i.e., a stenosis able to induce arterial hypertension). BACKGROUND: The degree of renal artery stenosis that justifies an attempt at revascularization is unknown. METHODS: In 15 patients, transstenotic pressure measurements were obtained before and after unilateral stenting. ...
Yamaleyeva Liliya M - - 2007
Estrogen depletion markedly exacerbates hypertension in female congenic mRen2. Lewis rats, a model of tissue renin overexpression. Because estrogen influences nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO may exert differential effects on blood pressure, the present study investigated the functional expression of NOS isoforms in the kidney of ovariectomized (OVX) mRen2. ...
Singal Rohit K - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Renal injury is common after open-heart surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass contributes to the problem. We compared conventional nonpulsatile perfusion (NP) to biologically variable perfusion (BVP), which uses a computer controller to restore physiological beat-to-beat variability to roller pump flow. We hypothesized BVP would decrease renal injury after deep hypothermic circulatory ...
Ratto Elena - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in the general population as well as in hypertension and end-stage renal disease. We investigated the relationship between a recently proposed ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived index of arterial stiffness and early signs of renal damage in patients with primary hypertension. DESIGN ...
Raja Kameron - - 2006
The kidneys are essential organs responsible for a multitude of bodily functions. One of the most important roles involves the regulations of intravascular volume and concentration of fluids in the body by producing urine. In addition, the kidneys are involved in regulation of blood pressure, detoxification of harmful substances, secretion ...
Oliver William C WC - - 2006
Fenoldopam, a selective dopamine-1-receptor agonist, decreases arterial blood pressure rapidly, with a brief duration of action similar to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), but in contrast to SNP, it increases renal blood flow. We compared the hemodynamic and renal effects of fenoldopam in patients undergoing abdominal aortic surgery requiring cross-clamping of the ...
Iliescu Radu - - 2006
The mechanisms by which male sex hormones modulate cardiovascular function are a subject of contemporary interest. Several lines of evidence indicate that androgens can exert acute vasorelaxing effects. On the other hand, chronic exposure to androgens has been shown to promote increases in blood pressure and compromise renal function. In ...
Jones Noah J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the hemodynamic significance of intermediate RAS by measuring translesional systolic pressure gradients (TSPG), using a pressure-sensing guidewire at baseline and after acetylcholine (ACh) induced hyperemia, following selective renal artery angiography. BACKGROUND: Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a cause of reversible hypertension and nephropathy. Stenting effectively ...
Serra X - - 2007
This paper describes the effect of high pressure (400MPa and 600MPa) applied to frozen hams at early stages of the dry-cured ham process: green hams (GH) and hams at the end of the resting stage (ERS), on the appearance, some texture and flavour parameters and on the instrumental colour characteristics ...
Granger Joey P - - 2006
The kidneys play a central role in the long-term regulation of blood pressure and in the pathogenesis of hypertension. A common defect that has been found in all forms of hypertension examined to date is a hypertensive shift in the pressure-natriuresis relationship. A major objective of this brief review is ...
Paris Bruno - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the causes and frequency of kidney infarction associated with hypertension, and the blood pressure and renal function outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed the records of patients with kidney infarction documented by angiography and referred to a hypertension unit. RESULTS: Spontaneous kidney infarction was documented in 55 of 18,287 ...
Hosgood S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Normothermic preservation provides metabolic support to an ischaemically damaged organ before use as a kidney transplant. Optimal conditions for ex vivo preservation have not yet been established. This study examined the effects of arterial pressure on renal preservation using isolated haemoperfused kidneys. METHODS: An isolated organ preservation system, developed ...
Mathieu Myrielle - - 2006
To investigate the effects of preventive angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor treatment with ramipril in dogs with progressively severe experimentally induced heart failure. 20 dogs. Dogs were randomly allocated to receive no treatment (control) or ramipril (0.125 mg/kg, PO, daily) for 7 weeks. Physical examination, repetitive catheterization of the right side ...
Lasaitiene Daina - - 2006
Over the past decade, compelling studies have highlighted the fundamental role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in renal development and long-term control of renal function and arterial pressure. The present review provides an update of the understanding of how the RAS controls nephrogenesis and nephrovascular development. In addition, the investigations ...
Toblli Jorge E - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Male erectile dysfunction increases in prevalence in patients with severe chronic renal failure. Since arterial hypertension induces significant damage in cavernous tissue (CT), and considering that hypertension is extremely common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the ...
Voiculescu Adina - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to find predictors to identify patients with hypertension who will not improve after removal of renal artery stenosis (RAS). METHODS: Prospective study of patients with unilateral stenosis (>60% diameter reduction) and hypertension in 24-h measurements despite antihypertensive drugs, who underwent revascularization (surgery/angioplasty). Examinations ...
Kalk Philipp - - 2006
1. Chronic renal disease is associated with oxidative stress, reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) dysfunction. Recently, we discovered BAY 58-2667, a compound activating heme-deficient or oxidized sGC in a NO-independent manner. 2. We assessed potential of BAY 58-2667 in preventing cardiac and renal target organ ...
Mozaffari M S - - 2006
Taurine modulates blood pressure and renal function. As the kidney plays a pivotal role in long-term control of arterial pressure, we tested the hypothesis that taurine-deficient rats display maladaptive renal and blood pressure responses to uninephrectomy. Control and taurine-deficient (i.e., beta-alanine-treated) rats with either one or two remaining kidneys were ...
Gheorghiade Mihai - - 2006
The neurohormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a promising target in the treatment of heart failure because AVP promotes congestion and hyponatremia, each of which is associated with poor outcomes. Diuretics are standard therapy for heart failure, but they have several limitations, including worsening renal function and hyponatremia. Blocking AVP leads ...
Langenberg C - - 2006
Reduced renal blood flow (RBF) is considered central to the pathogenesis of septic acute renal failure (ARF). However, no controlled experimental studies have continuously assessed RBF during the development of severe septic ARF. We conducted a sequential animal study in seven female Merino sheep. Flow probes were implanted around the ...
Guo Xiaohua - - 2006
It is well established that activation of endothelin B (ETB) receptor induces natriuresis and diuresis and thus reduces blood pressure. However, the site of action of ETB receptor is debatable. The present study was undertaken to address the role of renal medullary ETB receptor in renal excretory function. In volume-expanded ...
Malpas Simon C - - 2006
With increasing evidence that the sympathetic nervous system plays a critical role in the development of hypertension, focus is turning to how these signals translate to a chronic increase in arterial pressure. The kidney's role in the control of salt and water homeostasis makes it an obvious target for such ...
Qi Wei - - 2006
The purpose of the present study was to determine the cardiovascular effects of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U-50488H at two stages of postnatal maturation under physiological conditions. Experiments were carried out firstly to define systemic and renal haemodynamic responses to kappa-opioid receptor activation and, secondly, to determine whether these effects ...
Yuan Lijun - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To detect Doppler ultrasonographic velocimetry alterations of renal main arteries in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). STUDY DESIGN: The peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities (Vs, Vd), resistivity and pulsatility indices (RI, PI), systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D ratio), acceleration time (AT) and systolic acceleration (SA) of renal main arteries were obtained in 17 ...
Loutzenhiser Rodger R Smooth Muscle Research Group, Univ. of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. - - 2006
When the kidney is subjected to acute increases in blood pressure (BP), renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are observed to remain relatively constant. Two mechanisms, tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and the myogenic response, are thought to act in concert to achieve a precise moment-by-moment regulation of GFR ...
Syme Harriet M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Tubulointerstitial kidney disease is a common cause of illness and death in pet cats and is typically not associated with overt proteinuria. HYPOTHESIS: Proteinuria would be independently related to survival in cats with renal failure, with or without hypertension. ANIMALS: The study included 136 client-owned cats; 28 apparently normal, ...
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