Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1679
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Evan Andrew P - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the renal injury response in a pig model treated with a clinical dose of shock waves (SWs) delivered at a slow rate (27 SW/min) using a novel wide focal zone (18 mm), low acoustic pressure (<20 MPa) electromagnetic lithotripter (Xi Xin-Eisenmenger, XX-ES; Xi Xin Medical Instruments Co. ...
Johnson Scott T - - 2007
Neonatal asphyxia may lead to cardiac and renal complications perhaps mediated by oxygen free radicals. Using a model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation, we tested the hypothesis that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) would improve cardiac function and renal blood flow. Eighteen piglets (aged 1-4 days old, weighing 1.4-2.2 kg) were anesthetized and acutely instrumented ...
Capdevila Jorge H - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Past and recent studies of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase branch of the arachidonate cascade establish a role for this metabolic pathway in the regulation of vascular tone and tubular ion transport. Functional and electrophysiology studies indicate that the P450 eicosanoids participate in the regulation of vascular potassium ...
Boesen E I - - 2007
1. Pathological changes to the kidney, such as vascular remodelling, have been found in several models of hypertension and may contribute to the maintenance of hypertension or confer susceptibility to redeveloping hypertension after the original prohypertensive stimulus is withdrawn. 2. To investigate whether noradrenaline-induced hypertension induces persistent, functionally important changes ...
Richart Tom - - 2007
Low dietary intake of calcium stimulates the activation of vitamin D3 precursors to calcitriol in the kidney. This circulating hormone raises blood and urinary calcium by increasing both gastrointestinal absorption of calcium and bone resorption. Renal activation of vitamin D3 is under tight feedback control. Macrophages also activate vitamin D3, ...
Alhadad Alaa - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine prospectively whether inflammatory biomarkers and endothelin (ET)-1 are increased in patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS), and to investigate how treatment with percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) affects these variables during the first month after intervention. METHODS: One hundred patients with suspected RAS undergoing renal angiography were ...
Wilson Thad E - - 2007
Skin-surface cooling elicits a pronounced systemic pressor response, which has previously been reported to be associated with peripheral vasoconstriction and may not fully account for the decrease in systemic vascular conductance. To test the hypothesis that whole body skin-surface cooling would also induce renal and splanchnic vasoconstriction, 14 supine subjects ...
Tagle Rodrigo - - 2007
Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis may result in hypertension and ischemic nephropathy. Renal artery endovascular stenting has emerged as current therapy; however, the percentage of patients who benefit from this procedure is still not well established. The authors studied 116 hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic renovascular stenosis who underwent successful renal artery ...
Guohua Zeng - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To inspect the renal pelvic pressure during minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) and to investigate whether the use of the 14 to 18-Fr percutaneous tract, 8/9.8-Fr rigid ureteroscope, and a perfusion with high pressure furnished for MPCNL results in high renal pelvic pressure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 2005 ...
Harper Janice - - 2007
Many renal units still fail to return blood pressure data to the Renal Registry. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales, the percentage of HD patients achieving the combined blood pressure standard (<140/90 pre-dialysis) averages 43% (inter unit range 16-60%) and post-dialysis (<130/80) average 48% (range 22-66%). On average 27% (range ...
Craver L - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Pulse pressure (PP) increase has been associated with hypertension, ageing and chronic kidney disease. Although hyperparathyroidism and phosphate imbalance have been suspect in PP increase in hemodialysis patients, the link between these parameters and pulse pressure, in renal disease before dialysis, has not been established. METHODS AND PATIENTS: 1966 ...
Brymora Andrzej - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a well-defined factor influencing the development of cardiovascular complications in chronic renal failure. The aim of this study was to examine systemic inflammatory state defined by the level of serum haptoglobin, local inflammation defined by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) level and arterial response to phenylephrine in different ...
Tsagalis G - - 2007
The central concept of the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is that the heart and the kidney should be regarded not solely as individual organs but rather as a dipole with multiple interconnections. The interplay between the heart and the kidney seems complex and multifactorial: cardiac output, regulation of extracellular volume, blood ...
Lledo-Garcia E - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in an experimental model the effects of the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil on kidney grafts autotransplanted after a period of 45 minutes of warm ischemia and 60 minutes of hypothermic pump perfusion. METHODS: Nine laboratory large-white pigs were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 4): oral ...
Leistner Rasmus - - 2007
Storz Medical AG (Kreutzlingen/Switzerland) has developed a new electromagnetic shockwave (SW) generator, the "SLX-F2", which allows the user to choose between a small-focus, high-pressure treatment regime or a wide-focus, low-pressure option. The aim of this study was to investigate, under standardized conditions, the impact of these two different treatment regimes ...
Siddiqui Tariq S - - 2007
The angiographic assessment of renal artery stenosis (RAS) is often difficult and not reliable. A hyperemic systolic pressure gradient (HSPG) >20 mm Hg provides the highest concordance rate of 100% with an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) minimal lumen cross sectional area <8.6 mm(2) to predict the severity of RAS. We present ...
Khosravi M B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypotension, massive transfusion, liver disease, coexistent renal dysfunction, and decreased glomerular filtration rate during the anhepatic phase are major hazards for kidney function. We undertook this study to determine the change in urine output during clamping. METHOD: Twenty-four patients without preexistent renal disease, who were undergoing liver transplantation ...
Safar Michel E - - 2007
In subjects with chronic renal disease, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) is the most modifiable cardiovascular (CV) risk factor that enables prevention of the progression of chronic kidney disease renal failure and the occurrence of CV events. Although large-artery stiffness and wave reflections are the principal hemodynamic determinants of SBP, ...
Mitchell Jason A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Renal stent placement improves or cures hypertension in only 60-70% of patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS) and uncontrolled hypertension. There is a need to better identify patients who are likely to respond to percutaneous renal revascularization. We investigated whether an abnormal renal fractional flow reserve (FFR) would predict ...
Madeddu Paolo - - 2007
The pathogenesis of arterial hypertension often involves a rise in systemic vascular resistance (vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling) and impairment of salt excretion in the kidney (inappropriate salt retention despite elevated blood pressure). Experimental and clinical evidence implicate an imbalance between endogenous vasoconstrictor and vasodilator systems in the development and maintenance ...
Cravedi Paolo - - 2007
In diabetic and nondiabetic chronic nephropathies, high blood pressure and urinary loss of proteins represent major determinants of progressive renal function decline. Reducing blood pressure with drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system also lowers glomerular hypertension and ameliorates glomerular sieving properties, thus reducing proteinuria. Reducing urinary protein levels with angiotensin-converting ...
Armentano Matthew J - - 2007
The effects of short-term oral creatine (Cr) supplementation on exercise performance and on blood pressure and renal function were assessed. Thirty-five healthy, active duty, U.S. Army volunteers (20 men and 15 women; age, 22-36 years) at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, supplemented their diet for 7 days with 20 g/day of ...
Houston Mark C - - 2007
Mercury, cadmium, and other heavy metals have a high affinity for sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, inactivating numerous enzymatic reactions, amino acids, and sulfur-containing antioxidants (NAC, ALA, GSH), with subsequent decreased oxidant defense and increased oxidative stress. Both bind to metallothionein and substitute for zinc, copper, and other trace metals reducing the ...
Anderson Warwick P - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the responses of total peripheral resistance and arterial pressure to vasoconstrictor agents are amplified as renovascular hypertension develops in dogs. METHODS: After baseline measurements, the effects of renal artery stenosis (1K, 1C hypertension) were studied in groups of untreated and enalapril-treated dogs early (1-3 weeks) and ...
Moreira Thiago S - - 2007
In the present study we compared the effects produced by moxonidine (alpha2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline agonist) injected into the 4th cerebral ventricle and into the lateral cerebral ventricle on mean arterial pressure, heart rate and on renal, mesenteric and hindquarter vascular resistances, as well as the possible action of moxonidine on central alpha1- ...
Staub D - - 2007
PURPOSE: Colour coded duplex sonography (DS) is widely used for the assessment of renal artery stenosis (RAS). Different criteria have been specified for the detection of significant RAS. The aim of our study was to compare routinely used DS criteria, both with intra-arterial pressure gradients and arteriographic degree of stenosis, ...
Ebenezar Kesavarao Kumar - - 2007
Both prostaglandins (PGs) PGE(2) and PGI(2) can act as renal vasodilators, these effects being exacerbated when the renin-angiotensin system is activated. Therefore, we hypothesized that PGs would play a more predominant role in modulating renal haemodynamics in the newborn period, when the renin-angiotensin system is activated. To this end, the ...
Cupples William A - - 2007
The kidney displays highly efficient autoregulation so that under steady-state conditions renal blood flow (RBF) is independent of blood pressure over a wide range of pressure. Autoregulation occurs in the preglomerular microcirculation and is mediated by two, perhaps three, mechanisms. The faster myogenic mechanism and the slower tubuloglomerular feedback contribute ...
Williams Jan M - - 2007
This study examined the role of changes in renal interstitial pressure on the renal levels of cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid and compared the effects of inhibition of the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids with 1-aminobenzotriazole on the pressure-natriuretic response versus that seen after administration of ...
Kirkpatrick Andrew W - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The abdominal compartment syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition with frequent renal involvement. There are few if any means of inferring subclinical effects before organ dysfunction. Because intrarenal pressure correlates with renal sonographic indices in other renal diseases, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between ...
Kane Garvan C - - 2007
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Restenosis following percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) remains a concern even in the era of adjuvant stenting. The optimal form of therapy, and particularly the role of repeat PTRA in the treatment of recurrent hypertension associated with renal artery restenosis, is largely unknown. The aims of this study were ...
Peco-Antić Amira - - 2007
Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome is a manifestation of severe hypertension related to renal ischemia. The most common underlying cause of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome in adults is severe atherosclerotic reno-vascular disorder while in children the most common cause of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome is unilateral congenital renal artery stenosis due to some form ...
Tanguay Teddie Annette - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) develops in 23% of all critically ill patients. Hypotension occurs in 25% to 50% of patients during intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) for ARF. Blood volume (BV) monitoring has been used in chronic renal failure, with limited use in ARF during IHD. Continuous BV monitoring in the ...
Kanbay Mehmet - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia has been associated with the development of hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal disease. However, there is no data about the effect of lowering uric acid level on hypertension, renal function, and proteinuria in patients with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >60 ml/min. We therefore conducted a prospective study to investigate ...
Cibulskyte Donata - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Most experimental studies of chronic ciclosporin A (CsA) nephrotoxicity have been performed in rodents; however, the pig possesses several advantages. The aim of this study was to investigate renal functional and structural changes during CsA treatment with 20 mg/kg/day for 6 months in a pig model. METHODS: Gottingen minipigs ...
Lohmeier Thomas E - - 2007
Recent studies indicate that suppression of renal sympathetic nerve activity and attendant increments in renal excretory function are sustained baroreflex-mediated responses in hypertensive animals. Given the central role of the kidneys in long-term regulation of arterial pressure, we hypothesized that the chronic blood pressure-lowering effects of the baroreflex are critically ...
Jung Helene U - - 2006
We searched to review experimental and clinical trials concerning the capabilities of impacting on the ureteric and pelvic activity by means of pharmacological stimulation. Ureteropyeloscopy may cause high renal pelvic pressure. The normal pressure is in the range of 5-15 mmHg whereas pressure of 410 mmHg has been measured during ...
Handa S Paul - - 2006
PURPOSE: Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disorder. In addition to renal structure and function abnormalities, the cardiovascular changes (extra renal manifestations) are the frequent findings observed in these subjects. This pilot study describes the viscoelastic properties of the aorta, a predisposing factor for ...
Pat Betty - - 2007
African Americans have an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to hypertension and arteriosclerosis and increased death due to coronary artery disease, compared with whites. The pathogenesis of CKD involves the increased presence and activation of myofibroblasts and macrophages, promotion of tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and effects of tubulointerstitial cell ...
Maduwegedera D - - 2007
Previously, we demonstrated that adult blood pressure was increased in offspring of rabbit mothers with chronic secondary renal hypertension. Our study identified sex-specific differences in the programming of hypertension, with female, not male, offspring, having increased blood pressure at 30 wk of age. The aim of this study was to ...
Hollis A R - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Norepinephrine is a potent vasopressor that increases arterial blood pressure but may have adverse effects on renal blood flow. The combination of norepinephrine and dobutamine may lead to improved renal perfusion compared to an infusion of norepinephrine alone. The effects of these drugs in the normotensive neonatal foal have ...
Li Ningjun - - 2007
Recent studies have demonstrated that inhibition of renal medullary heme oxygenase (HO) activity and carbon monoxide (CO) significantly decreases renal medullary blood flow and sodium excretion. Given the crucial role of renal medullary blood flow in the control of pressure natriuresis, the present study was designed to determine whether renal ...
De Bruyne Bernard - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to define "significant" renal artery stenosis (i.e., a stenosis able to induce arterial hypertension). BACKGROUND: The degree of renal artery stenosis that justifies an attempt at revascularization is unknown. METHODS: In 15 patients, transstenotic pressure measurements were obtained before and after unilateral stenting. ...
Yamaleyeva Liliya M - - 2007
Estrogen depletion markedly exacerbates hypertension in female congenic mRen2. Lewis rats, a model of tissue renin overexpression. Because estrogen influences nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO may exert differential effects on blood pressure, the present study investigated the functional expression of NOS isoforms in the kidney of ovariectomized (OVX) mRen2. ...
Oliver William C WC - - 2006
Fenoldopam, a selective dopamine-1-receptor agonist, decreases arterial blood pressure rapidly, with a brief duration of action similar to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), but in contrast to SNP, it increases renal blood flow. We compared the hemodynamic and renal effects of fenoldopam in patients undergoing abdominal aortic surgery requiring cross-clamping of the ...
Singal Rohit K - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Renal injury is common after open-heart surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass contributes to the problem. We compared conventional nonpulsatile perfusion (NP) to biologically variable perfusion (BVP), which uses a computer controller to restore physiological beat-to-beat variability to roller pump flow. We hypothesized BVP would decrease renal injury after deep hypothermic circulatory ...
Iliescu Radu - - 2006
The mechanisms by which male sex hormones modulate cardiovascular function are a subject of contemporary interest. Several lines of evidence indicate that androgens can exert acute vasorelaxing effects. On the other hand, chronic exposure to androgens has been shown to promote increases in blood pressure and compromise renal function. In ...
Ratto Elena - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in the general population as well as in hypertension and end-stage renal disease. We investigated the relationship between a recently proposed ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived index of arterial stiffness and early signs of renal damage in patients with primary hypertension. DESIGN ...
Raja Kameron - - 2006
The kidneys are essential organs responsible for a multitude of bodily functions. One of the most important roles involves the regulations of intravascular volume and concentration of fluids in the body by producing urine. In addition, the kidneys are involved in regulation of blood pressure, detoxification of harmful substances, secretion ...
Jones Noah J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the hemodynamic significance of intermediate RAS by measuring translesional systolic pressure gradients (TSPG), using a pressure-sensing guidewire at baseline and after acetylcholine (ACh) induced hyperemia, following selective renal artery angiography. BACKGROUND: Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a cause of reversible hypertension and nephropathy. Stenting effectively ...
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