Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1697
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Hamano Kumiko - - 2008
Albuminuria can be caused by endothelial dysfunction as a result of ischemic nephropathy rather than classic diabetic nephropathy. We studied whether renal vascular resistance (resistive index [RI]) of the main renal arteries could be associated with albuminuria and further assessed the relationship between RI and aorta stiffness measured by brachial-ankle ...
Lüss Hartmut - - 2008
Renal function frequently deteriorates in decompensated heart failure (DHF) patients, and one determinant is reduced renal blood flow. This may, in part, result from low cardiac output (CO), reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP), and venous congestion. The combined impact of both venous congestion (elevated right atrial pressure [RAP]) and low ...
Mishina Mika - - 2008
In order to determine whether hypertension would develop in dogs with chronic renal failure, we performed 7/8 renal ablation in 6 healthy dogs and compared pre- and post-ablation blood pressures determined by telemetry. One month after the renal ablation, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were significantly increased (p<0.05), creatinine clearance ...
Schoppet M - - 2008
Vascular calcification is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A number of calcification inhibitors have been defined recently, including inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)), an important physicochemical inhibitor of hydroxyapatite crystal growth. Increased hydrolysis of PP(i) by tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) may occur in renal failure and act to enhance mineralization ...
Michel Maurice Stephan - - 2008
PURPOSE: We evaluated the pressure and flow relation of a newly developed continuous-flow ureterorenoscope (URS) in comparison with a common ureterorenoscope in an ex-vivo urinary tract model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ureterorenoscopies were performed with the newly developed 10.5F continuous-flow URS with separate inflow and outflow channel and a conventional 10.5F ...
Drouin A - - 2008
High resting heart rate is a predictor for total and cardiovascular mortality independent of other risk factors in patients with coronary artery disease. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction of resting heart rate with the cardiac pacemaker I(f) current inhibitor ivabradine prevents the endothelial dysfunction associated with dyslipidaemia. Three-month-old ...
Wühl Elke - - 2008
Childhood chronic kidney disease commonly progresses toward end-stage renal failure, largely independent of the underlying disorder, once a critical impairment of renal function has occurred. Hypertension and proteinuria are the most important independent risk factors for renal disease progression. Therefore, current therapeutic strategies to prevent progression aim at controlling blood ...
Yildirim Erkan - - 2008
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to diagnose hypertension- induced renal microvascular dysfunction using renal diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to identify any correlation between blood pressure level and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 77 consecutive patients (41 women and 36 men). ...
O'Tierney Perrie F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although it has been well established that atrial natriuretic peptide gene-disrupted (ANP-/-) mice are a useful model of salt-sensitive hypertension, surprisingly little is known about the control of their intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and pressure-natriuresis mechanism, key components in blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte regulation. The aim of this ...
Drieghe Benny - - 2008
AIMS: A ratio of distal renal pressure to aortic pressure (P(d)/P(a)) <0.90 can be considered a threshold for defining a significant renal artery stenosis (RAS). The aim of this study was to compare renal angiography (QRA) and colour duplex ultrasound (CDUS) to pressure measurements in assessing RAS. METHODS AND RESULTS: ...
Visser Folkert W - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In hypertension, sodium sensitivity (SS) of blood pressure is associated with renal hemodynamic abnormalities related to increased activity of the renal renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS). The renal mechanisms of SS in normotensives are unknown. Therefore, we studied whether SS is related to renal hemodynamics and renal responsiveness to angiotensin ...
Mullens Wilfried - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether changes in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) with aggressive diuretic or vasodilator therapy are associated with improvement in renal function in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). BACKGROUND: Elevated IAP (>or=8 mm Hg) is associated with intra-abdominal organ dysfunction. There is potential for ascites and visceral ...
Stadlbauer Vanessa - - 2008
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It has been proposed that activation of the sympathetic nervous system causes a rightward shift in the renal autoregulatory curve such that renal blood flow is critically dependent on renal perfusion pressure and that this contributes to the development of the hepatorenal syndrome. The aims of the ...
Jung Helene U - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Ureterorenoscopy causes complications that may be related to high intrarenal pressures generated during irrigation. Endoluminal isoproterenol administration has been shown to reduce pelvic pressure in pigs. The objective of this study was to investigate possible systemic side-effects of isoproterenol irrigation during ureterorenoscopy in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven patients ...
Umgelter Andreas - - 2008
Circulatory dysfunction in cirrhotic patients may cause a specific kind of functional renal failure termed hepato-renal syndrome (HRS). It contributes to the high incidence of renal failure in cirrhotic intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Fluid therapy may aggravate renal failure by increasing ascites and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). This study investigates ...
Bakris George L - - 2008
Blood pressure control reduces decline of kidney function. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers offer renoprotection to a small extent beyond that attributable to blood pressure lowering. These agents also reduce proteinuria, a risk marker for renal disease progression. Accumulating evidence indicates that their antiproteinuric effect correlates with their ...
Novellas Torroja, Rosa
The kidneys and the eyes are sensitive to blood pressure changes. The kidney participates in blood pressure control and renal disease can cause arterial hypertension and be aggravated by hypertension, entering a vicious circle between both alterations. In human patients with hypertension, increased vascular resistance is observed in renal and ...
Blake Rashida - - 2007
Chronic kidney disease, stage 3 or higher, affects approximately 20 million people in the United States. Aggressive management of blood pressure is critical to slow the decline in renal function. Despite adequate control, however, patients continue to progress to end-stage renal disease. A surrogate marker for renal parenchymal injury is ...
Evan Andrew P - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the renal injury response in a pig model treated with a clinical dose of shock waves (SWs) delivered at a slow rate (27 SW/min) using a novel wide focal zone (18 mm), low acoustic pressure (<20 MPa) electromagnetic lithotripter (Xi Xin-Eisenmenger, XX-ES; Xi Xin Medical Instruments Co. ...
Johnson Scott T - - 2007
Neonatal asphyxia may lead to cardiac and renal complications perhaps mediated by oxygen free radicals. Using a model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation, we tested the hypothesis that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) would improve cardiac function and renal blood flow. Eighteen piglets (aged 1-4 days old, weighing 1.4-2.2 kg) were anesthetized and acutely instrumented ...
Capdevila Jorge H - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Past and recent studies of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase branch of the arachidonate cascade establish a role for this metabolic pathway in the regulation of vascular tone and tubular ion transport. Functional and electrophysiology studies indicate that the P450 eicosanoids participate in the regulation of vascular potassium ...
Boesen E I - - 2007
1. Pathological changes to the kidney, such as vascular remodelling, have been found in several models of hypertension and may contribute to the maintenance of hypertension or confer susceptibility to redeveloping hypertension after the original prohypertensive stimulus is withdrawn. 2. To investigate whether noradrenaline-induced hypertension induces persistent, functionally important changes ...
Richart Tom - - 2007
Low dietary intake of calcium stimulates the activation of vitamin D3 precursors to calcitriol in the kidney. This circulating hormone raises blood and urinary calcium by increasing both gastrointestinal absorption of calcium and bone resorption. Renal activation of vitamin D3 is under tight feedback control. Macrophages also activate vitamin D3, ...
Alhadad Alaa - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine prospectively whether inflammatory biomarkers and endothelin (ET)-1 are increased in patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS), and to investigate how treatment with percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) affects these variables during the first month after intervention. METHODS: One hundred patients with suspected RAS undergoing renal angiography were ...
Wilson Thad E - - 2007
Skin-surface cooling elicits a pronounced systemic pressor response, which has previously been reported to be associated with peripheral vasoconstriction and may not fully account for the decrease in systemic vascular conductance. To test the hypothesis that whole body skin-surface cooling would also induce renal and splanchnic vasoconstriction, 14 supine subjects ...
Tagle Rodrigo - - 2007
Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis may result in hypertension and ischemic nephropathy. Renal artery endovascular stenting has emerged as current therapy; however, the percentage of patients who benefit from this procedure is still not well established. The authors studied 116 hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic renovascular stenosis who underwent successful renal artery ...
Guohua Zeng - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To inspect the renal pelvic pressure during minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) and to investigate whether the use of the 14 to 18-Fr percutaneous tract, 8/9.8-Fr rigid ureteroscope, and a perfusion with high pressure furnished for MPCNL results in high renal pelvic pressure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 2005 ...
Harper Janice - - 2007
Many renal units still fail to return blood pressure data to the Renal Registry. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales, the percentage of HD patients achieving the combined blood pressure standard (<140/90 pre-dialysis) averages 43% (inter unit range 16-60%) and post-dialysis (<130/80) average 48% (range 22-66%). On average 27% (range ...
Craver L - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Pulse pressure (PP) increase has been associated with hypertension, ageing and chronic kidney disease. Although hyperparathyroidism and phosphate imbalance have been suspect in PP increase in hemodialysis patients, the link between these parameters and pulse pressure, in renal disease before dialysis, has not been established. METHODS AND PATIENTS: 1966 ...
Brymora Andrzej - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a well-defined factor influencing the development of cardiovascular complications in chronic renal failure. The aim of this study was to examine systemic inflammatory state defined by the level of serum haptoglobin, local inflammation defined by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) level and arterial response to phenylephrine in different ...
Tsagalis G - - 2007
The central concept of the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is that the heart and the kidney should be regarded not solely as individual organs but rather as a dipole with multiple interconnections. The interplay between the heart and the kidney seems complex and multifactorial: cardiac output, regulation of extracellular volume, blood ...
Lledo-Garcia E - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in an experimental model the effects of the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil on kidney grafts autotransplanted after a period of 45 minutes of warm ischemia and 60 minutes of hypothermic pump perfusion. METHODS: Nine laboratory large-white pigs were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 4): oral ...
Leistner Rasmus - - 2007
Storz Medical AG (Kreutzlingen/Switzerland) has developed a new electromagnetic shockwave (SW) generator, the "SLX-F2", which allows the user to choose between a small-focus, high-pressure treatment regime or a wide-focus, low-pressure option. The aim of this study was to investigate, under standardized conditions, the impact of these two different treatment regimes ...
Siddiqui Tariq S - - 2007
The angiographic assessment of renal artery stenosis (RAS) is often difficult and not reliable. A hyperemic systolic pressure gradient (HSPG) >20 mm Hg provides the highest concordance rate of 100% with an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) minimal lumen cross sectional area <8.6 mm(2) to predict the severity of RAS. We present ...
Khosravi M B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypotension, massive transfusion, liver disease, coexistent renal dysfunction, and decreased glomerular filtration rate during the anhepatic phase are major hazards for kidney function. We undertook this study to determine the change in urine output during clamping. METHOD: Twenty-four patients without preexistent renal disease, who were undergoing liver transplantation ...
Safar Michel E - - 2007
In subjects with chronic renal disease, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) is the most modifiable cardiovascular (CV) risk factor that enables prevention of the progression of chronic kidney disease renal failure and the occurrence of CV events. Although large-artery stiffness and wave reflections are the principal hemodynamic determinants of SBP, ...
Mitchell Jason A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Renal stent placement improves or cures hypertension in only 60-70% of patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS) and uncontrolled hypertension. There is a need to better identify patients who are likely to respond to percutaneous renal revascularization. We investigated whether an abnormal renal fractional flow reserve (FFR) would predict ...
Madeddu Paolo - - 2007
The pathogenesis of arterial hypertension often involves a rise in systemic vascular resistance (vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling) and impairment of salt excretion in the kidney (inappropriate salt retention despite elevated blood pressure). Experimental and clinical evidence implicate an imbalance between endogenous vasoconstrictor and vasodilator systems in the development and maintenance ...
Cravedi Paolo - - 2007
In diabetic and nondiabetic chronic nephropathies, high blood pressure and urinary loss of proteins represent major determinants of progressive renal function decline. Reducing blood pressure with drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system also lowers glomerular hypertension and ameliorates glomerular sieving properties, thus reducing proteinuria. Reducing urinary protein levels with angiotensin-converting ...
Armentano Matthew J - - 2007
The effects of short-term oral creatine (Cr) supplementation on exercise performance and on blood pressure and renal function were assessed. Thirty-five healthy, active duty, U.S. Army volunteers (20 men and 15 women; age, 22-36 years) at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, supplemented their diet for 7 days with 20 g/day of ...
Houston Mark C - - 2007
Mercury, cadmium, and other heavy metals have a high affinity for sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, inactivating numerous enzymatic reactions, amino acids, and sulfur-containing antioxidants (NAC, ALA, GSH), with subsequent decreased oxidant defense and increased oxidative stress. Both bind to metallothionein and substitute for zinc, copper, and other trace metals reducing the ...
Anderson Warwick P - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the responses of total peripheral resistance and arterial pressure to vasoconstrictor agents are amplified as renovascular hypertension develops in dogs. METHODS: After baseline measurements, the effects of renal artery stenosis (1K, 1C hypertension) were studied in groups of untreated and enalapril-treated dogs early (1-3 weeks) and ...
Moreira Thiago S - - 2007
In the present study we compared the effects produced by moxonidine (alpha2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline agonist) injected into the 4th cerebral ventricle and into the lateral cerebral ventricle on mean arterial pressure, heart rate and on renal, mesenteric and hindquarter vascular resistances, as well as the possible action of moxonidine on central alpha1- ...
Staub D - - 2007
PURPOSE: Colour coded duplex sonography (DS) is widely used for the assessment of renal artery stenosis (RAS). Different criteria have been specified for the detection of significant RAS. The aim of our study was to compare routinely used DS criteria, both with intra-arterial pressure gradients and arteriographic degree of stenosis, ...
Ebenezar Kesavarao Kumar - - 2007
Both prostaglandins (PGs) PGE(2) and PGI(2) can act as renal vasodilators, these effects being exacerbated when the renin-angiotensin system is activated. Therefore, we hypothesized that PGs would play a more predominant role in modulating renal haemodynamics in the newborn period, when the renin-angiotensin system is activated. To this end, the ...
Cupples William A - - 2007
The kidney displays highly efficient autoregulation so that under steady-state conditions renal blood flow (RBF) is independent of blood pressure over a wide range of pressure. Autoregulation occurs in the preglomerular microcirculation and is mediated by two, perhaps three, mechanisms. The faster myogenic mechanism and the slower tubuloglomerular feedback contribute ...
Williams Jan M - - 2007
This study examined the role of changes in renal interstitial pressure on the renal levels of cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid and compared the effects of inhibition of the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids with 1-aminobenzotriazole on the pressure-natriuretic response versus that seen after administration of ...
Kirkpatrick Andrew W - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The abdominal compartment syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition with frequent renal involvement. There are few if any means of inferring subclinical effects before organ dysfunction. Because intrarenal pressure correlates with renal sonographic indices in other renal diseases, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between ...
Kane Garvan C - - 2007
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Restenosis following percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) remains a concern even in the era of adjuvant stenting. The optimal form of therapy, and particularly the role of repeat PTRA in the treatment of recurrent hypertension associated with renal artery restenosis, is largely unknown. The aims of this study were ...
Peco-Antić Amira - - 2007
Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome is a manifestation of severe hypertension related to renal ischemia. The most common underlying cause of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome in adults is severe atherosclerotic reno-vascular disorder while in children the most common cause of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome is unilateral congenital renal artery stenosis due to some form ...
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