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Results 201 - 250 of 1678
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Sharma Jagdish N - - 2009
The blood pressure-lowering property of the brady-kinin system has been documented for more than eight decades. The bradykinin system is involved in the mediation and modulation of the vasoconstrictor renin-angiotensin system and the vasodilators prostaglandin, prostacyclin, and nitric oxide in regulating sodium water balance, renal and cardiac hemodynamics, and blood ...
Krämer Stephanie - - 2009
The lymphocyte migration inhibitor FTY720 attenuates experimental hypertensive nephropathy. Infiltration with lymphocytes is found in both immune and nonimmune chronic kidney diseases. In a rat model of immune-initiated progressive glomerulosclerosis, selective inhibition of lymphocyte infiltration by FTY720 showed significant beneficial effects on renal fibrosis. To test whether this translates into ...
Jin Chunhua - - 2009
Studies were designed to determine the effects of increases of renal perfusion pressure on the production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) within the renal outer medulla. Sprague-Dawley rats were studied with either the renal capsule intact or removed to ascertain the contribution of changes of medullary blood flow and ...
Russ Alissa L - - 2009
Obstructive uropathy can cause irreversible renal damage. It has been hypothesized that elevated hydrostatic pressure within renal tubules and/or renal ischemia contributes to cellular injury following obstruction. However, these assaults are essentially impossible to isolate in vivo. Therefore, we developed a novel pressure system to evaluate the isolated and coordinated ...
Therrien Frédérick - - 2009
We investigated the role of angiotensin II and endothelin-1 using the angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist losartan and the endothelin ETA receptor antagonist atrasentan, in malignant hypertension and renal failure and damage induced by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition in Harlan Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. We also evaluated whether the protective effects ...
Seeliger Erdmann - - 2009
Autoregulation of renal blood flow comprises three mechanisms: the myogenic response (MR), the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), and a third mechanism (3M). The nature of 3M is unknown; it may be related to hypotensive resetting of autoregulation that probably relies on pressure-dependent stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Thus we used ...
Osborn John W - - 2009
Arterial pressure is regulated over long periods of time by neural, hormonal and local control mechanisms, which ultimately determine the total blood volume and how it is distributed between the various vascular compartments of the circulation. A full understanding of the complex interplay of these mechanisms can be greatly facilitated ...
Krum Henry H Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, - - 2009
Renal sympathetic hyperactivity is associated with hypertension and its progression, chronic kidney disease, and heart failure. We did a proof-of-principle trial of therapeutic renal sympathetic denervation in patients with resistant hypertension (ie, systolic blood pressure >/=160 mm Hg on three or more antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic) to assess safety ...
Agarwal Rajiv - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is common, and arterial pressure rhythms are impaired in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Emerging evidence suggests that consideration of excretory function together with proteinuria may provide a more holistic assessment of the extent of derangement in renal function. METHODS: To evaluate the independent relationships of estimated ...
Therrien Frédérick - - 2009
We investigated the role of angiotensin II and endothelin-1 using the angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist losartan and the endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonist atrasentan, in malignant hypertension and renal failure and damage induced by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition in Harlan Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. We also evaluated whether the protective effects ...
Riquier Anne D M - - 2009
Hypertension provokes differential trafficking of the renal proximal tubule Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) to the base of the apical microvilli and Na(+)-P(i) cotransporter 2 (NaPi2) to endosomes. The resultant diuresis and natriuresis are key to blood pressure control. We tested the hypothesis that this differential trafficking of NHE3 vs. NaPi2 ...
Ritt Martin M Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, - - 2009
Basal nitric oxide (NO) activity has a pivotal role in the regulation of glomerular hemodynamics, and in animal experiments, its alteration has been associated with morphological changes characteristic of diabetic nephropathy. Prospective observational-study during a mean follow-up of 2.1 years. 66 hypertensive patients (aged 30 to 80 years) with type ...
Tang Lijun - - 2009
Exposure to clinically relevant doses of glucocorticoids during fetal life increases blood pressure in adult male and female sheep. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to betamethasone at 80-81 days of gestation on renal function in ewes and rams at 1.5 yr of ...
Novellas R - - 2008
In dogs, diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism are causes of hypertension associated with increases in vascular peripheral resistance. In human patients, the renal resistive index (ri) and pulsatility index (pi) are related to hypertension and diabetes and are used as indicators of disease severity. In this study the renal vascular resistance ...
Griffin Karen A KA Department of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, 2160 South First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153, USA. - - 2008
Antihypertensive therapy remains the most effective strategy for slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, in proteinuric nephropathies, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are less effective than other antihypertensives unless normotension is achieved. This is because the glomerular capillaries, rather than larger vessels, are the primary site of hypertensive ...
Crutchley Teresa A - - 2009
This retrospective study examines the relationship between the renal resistive index (RI) and blood pressure and renal function response after open and percutaneous intervention for atherosclerotic renovascular disease (AS-RVD). From March 1997 to December 2005, 86 patients (46 women, 40 men; mean age, 68 +/- 10 years) underwent renal duplex ...
Rouach Yannick - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of 3 biologic hemostatic devices with that of conventional suture during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in a hypertensive porcine model. Improving hemostasis, urinary tract closure, and the warm ischemia (WI) time are important in the development of LPN. METHODS: A total of 40 pigs were ...
Tebot I - - 2009
To assess the roles of feeding behavior (eating and rumination) and systemic arterial pressure (SAP) on determination of the circadian rhythm of renal blood flow (RBF), 20 sheep fitted with ultrasonic flow-metering probes around both renal arteries and a submandibular balloon to monitor jaw movements (6 of them with a ...
Lee Siew Yi - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effectiveness of unilateral nephrectomy in the treatment of renal hypertension in adults with an atrophic kidney, and set out to establish whether this is an appropriate mode of treatment for renal hypertension not otherwise controlled by antihypertensive drugs or other surgical procedures. METHODS: We conducted ...
Xia Min - - 2008
The present study was designed to take advantage of telemetry data acquisition and develop an easy and reliable system to servocontrol renal perfusion pressure (RPP). Digitized pressure signals from lower abdominal aorta in rats, reflecting RPP, was obtained by a telemetry device and dynamically exported into an Excel worksheet. A ...
Shau Yio-Wha - - 2009
Decreased renal perfusion plays an important role in the progression toward renal failure. In this study, a novel measure was proposed to quantify renal perfusion using canine model. Serial renal vascular images at different vascular areas including the whole vascular tree, interlobar, arcuate and interlobular vessels were captured. Image processing ...
Maeder Micha T - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In heart failure (HF), renal dysfunction is associated with an adverse prognosis. Impaired renal perfusion from left ventricular dysfunction is thought to be a principal underlying mechanism. Less is known about the influence of venous congestion, including the potential contribution of tricuspid regurgitation (TR). METHODS AND RESULTS: Echocardiograms and ...
Corriere Matthew A - - 2008
This retrospective review examines periprocedural morbidity and early functional responses to primary renal artery angioplasty and stenting (RA-PTAS) for patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease (RVD). Consecutive patients undergoing primary RA-PTAS for hemodynamically significant atherosclerotic RVD with hypertension and/or ischemic nephropathy were identified from a prospectively maintained registry. Hypertension responses were ...
Mortensen Jens - - 2008
It has been demonstrated in pigs that endoluminal administration of norepinephrine reduces the increase in renal pelvic pressure during perfusion. The purposes were to describe concentration-response relationship and receptor mechanism of the effect of norepinephrine on muscle function of pyeloureter and to reveal possible side effects on cardiovascular and renal ...
Hirayama Aki - - 2008
The effect of the calcium channel blocker azelnidipine on the redox status of a murine hypertension model was analyzed and imaged using in vivo low frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A murine two kidney-one clip (2K1C) hypertension model was produced by a clipping of the right renal artery. The resulting ...
Rastan Aljoscha - - 2008
AIMS: To evaluate the technical performance of a dedicated renal stent device and the clinical outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty patients with 55 renal artery stenoses (RAS) >70% (66 +/- 12 years, 58% male) were included in this non-randomised, prospective, multicentre registry. Primary endpoint was the primary patency rate at ...
Hamada Toshihiro - - 2008
The angiotensin receptor blocker losartan inhibited urate transporter 1 (URAT1) according to in vitro experiments. However, it is still unknown whether the inhibitory effect of losartan on URAT1 contributes to its uricosuric action in humans. Thirty-two patients with hypertension and nine patients with idiopathic renal hypouricemia (five with and four ...
Khoury Wisam - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Physiologic renal changes associated with pneumoperitoneum (PNP) have been described and various underlying mechanisms have been suggested. We investigated the possibility that PNP-associated renal damage is pressure dependent, and that oxidative stress is thereby involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy Wistar rat kidneys (n=10 per group) were isolated. They were ...
Hollis A R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Norepinephrine increases arterial blood pressure but may have adverse effects on renal blood flow. Fenoldopam, a dopamine-1 receptor agonist, increases urine output in normotensive foals. The combination of norepinephrine and fenoldopam may lead to improved renal perfusion compared with an infusion of norepinephrine alone. The combined effects of these ...
Simon Jörg - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Following clamping of the renal hilus, warm ischemia is an issue in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. If ischemia longer than 30 min is anticipated, special protective measures are needed. The aim of this study was to develop a solely laparoscopic technique for in situ cold perfusion of kidneys during laparoscopic ...
Iliescu Radu - - 2008
Autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) occurs via myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanisms that are engaged by pressure changes within preglomerular arteries and by tubular flow and content, respectively. Our understanding of autoregulatory function in the kidney largely stems from experiments in anesthetized animals where renal perfusion pressure is ...
Hamano Kumiko - - 2008
Albuminuria can be caused by endothelial dysfunction as a result of ischemic nephropathy rather than classic diabetic nephropathy. We studied whether renal vascular resistance (resistive index [RI]) of the main renal arteries could be associated with albuminuria and further assessed the relationship between RI and aorta stiffness measured by brachial-ankle ...
Lüss Hartmut - - 2008
Renal function frequently deteriorates in decompensated heart failure (DHF) patients, and one determinant is reduced renal blood flow. This may, in part, result from low cardiac output (CO), reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP), and venous congestion. The combined impact of both venous congestion (elevated right atrial pressure [RAP]) and low ...
Mishina Mika - - 2008
In order to determine whether hypertension would develop in dogs with chronic renal failure, we performed 7/8 renal ablation in 6 healthy dogs and compared pre- and post-ablation blood pressures determined by telemetry. One month after the renal ablation, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were significantly increased (p<0.05), creatinine clearance ...
Schoppet M - - 2008
Vascular calcification is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A number of calcification inhibitors have been defined recently, including inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)), an important physicochemical inhibitor of hydroxyapatite crystal growth. Increased hydrolysis of PP(i) by tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) may occur in renal failure and act to enhance mineralization ...
Michel Maurice Stephan - - 2008
PURPOSE: We evaluated the pressure and flow relation of a newly developed continuous-flow ureterorenoscope (URS) in comparison with a common ureterorenoscope in an ex-vivo urinary tract model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ureterorenoscopies were performed with the newly developed 10.5F continuous-flow URS with separate inflow and outflow channel and a conventional 10.5F ...
Drouin A - - 2008
High resting heart rate is a predictor for total and cardiovascular mortality independent of other risk factors in patients with coronary artery disease. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction of resting heart rate with the cardiac pacemaker I(f) current inhibitor ivabradine prevents the endothelial dysfunction associated with dyslipidaemia. Three-month-old ...
Wühl Elke - - 2008
Childhood chronic kidney disease commonly progresses toward end-stage renal failure, largely independent of the underlying disorder, once a critical impairment of renal function has occurred. Hypertension and proteinuria are the most important independent risk factors for renal disease progression. Therefore, current therapeutic strategies to prevent progression aim at controlling blood ...
Yildirim Erkan - - 2008
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to diagnose hypertension- induced renal microvascular dysfunction using renal diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to identify any correlation between blood pressure level and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 77 consecutive patients (41 women and 36 men). ...
O'Tierney Perrie F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although it has been well established that atrial natriuretic peptide gene-disrupted (ANP-/-) mice are a useful model of salt-sensitive hypertension, surprisingly little is known about the control of their intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and pressure-natriuresis mechanism, key components in blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte regulation. The aim of this ...
Drieghe Benny - - 2008
AIMS: A ratio of distal renal pressure to aortic pressure (P(d)/P(a)) <0.90 can be considered a threshold for defining a significant renal artery stenosis (RAS). The aim of this study was to compare renal angiography (QRA) and colour duplex ultrasound (CDUS) to pressure measurements in assessing RAS. METHODS AND RESULTS: ...
Visser Folkert W - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In hypertension, sodium sensitivity (SS) of blood pressure is associated with renal hemodynamic abnormalities related to increased activity of the renal renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS). The renal mechanisms of SS in normotensives are unknown. Therefore, we studied whether SS is related to renal hemodynamics and renal responsiveness to angiotensin ...
Mullens Wilfried - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether changes in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) with aggressive diuretic or vasodilator therapy are associated with improvement in renal function in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). BACKGROUND: Elevated IAP (>or=8 mm Hg) is associated with intra-abdominal organ dysfunction. There is potential for ascites and visceral ...
Stadlbauer Vanessa - - 2008
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It has been proposed that activation of the sympathetic nervous system causes a rightward shift in the renal autoregulatory curve such that renal blood flow is critically dependent on renal perfusion pressure and that this contributes to the development of the hepatorenal syndrome. The aims of the ...
Jung Helene U - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Ureterorenoscopy causes complications that may be related to high intrarenal pressures generated during irrigation. Endoluminal isoproterenol administration has been shown to reduce pelvic pressure in pigs. The objective of this study was to investigate possible systemic side-effects of isoproterenol irrigation during ureterorenoscopy in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven patients ...
Umgelter Andreas - - 2008
Circulatory dysfunction in cirrhotic patients may cause a specific kind of functional renal failure termed hepato-renal syndrome (HRS). It contributes to the high incidence of renal failure in cirrhotic intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Fluid therapy may aggravate renal failure by increasing ascites and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). This study investigates ...
Bakris George L - - 2008
Blood pressure control reduces decline of kidney function. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers offer renoprotection to a small extent beyond that attributable to blood pressure lowering. These agents also reduce proteinuria, a risk marker for renal disease progression. Accumulating evidence indicates that their antiproteinuric effect correlates with their ...
Novellas Torroja, Rosa
The kidneys and the eyes are sensitive to blood pressure changes. The kidney participates in blood pressure control and renal disease can cause arterial hypertension and be aggravated by hypertension, entering a vicious circle between both alterations. In human patients with hypertension, increased vascular resistance is observed in renal and ...
Blake Rashida - - 2007
Chronic kidney disease, stage 3 or higher, affects approximately 20 million people in the United States. Aggressive management of blood pressure is critical to slow the decline in renal function. Despite adequate control, however, patients continue to progress to end-stage renal disease. A surrogate marker for renal parenchymal injury is ...
Evan Andrew P - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the renal injury response in a pig model treated with a clinical dose of shock waves (SWs) delivered at a slow rate (27 SW/min) using a novel wide focal zone (18 mm), low acoustic pressure (<20 MPa) electromagnetic lithotripter (Xi Xin-Eisenmenger, XX-ES; Xi Xin Medical Instruments Co. ...
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