Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1551
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Kitakaze M - - 1998
We examined whether nisoldipine, a calcium (Ca) channel blocker, increases coronary blood flow (CBF) without decreasing aortic blood pressure (AoP) with ischemic and nonischemic hearts, and whether the presence of cellular acidosis in ischemic myocardium contributes to the augmentation of coronary vasodilation due to nisoldipine. In 42 dogs, coronary perfusion ...
He M X - - 1998
The mechanism responsible for the abrupt fall in myocardial contractile function following coronary artery obstruction is unknown. The "vascular collapse theory" hypothesizes that the fall in coronary perfusion pressure after coronary artery obstruction is responsible for contractile failure during early ischemia. To test the role of vascular collapse in downregulating ...
Seiler C - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated two methods for the quantitative measurement of collaterals using intracoronary (IC) blood flow velocity or pressure measurements. BACKGROUND: The extent of myocardial necrosis after coronary artery occlusion is substantially influenced by the collateral circulation. So far, qualitative methods have been available to assess the human coronary ...
Vassallo P F - - 1998
Myocardial contractility depends on several mechanisms such as coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and flow as well as on alpha 1-adrenoceptor stimulation. Both effects occur during the sympathetic stimulation mediated by norepinephrine. Norepinephrine increases force development in the heart and produces vasoconstriction increasing arterial pressure and, in turn, CPP. The contribution ...
Taylor A J - - 1998
Stress test parameters indicating the presence and extent of coronary artery disease have traditionally included such variables as exercise duration, and the blood pressure and ST-segment responses to exercise. The three-minute systolic blood pressure ratio, another important indicator of significant coronary artery disease, is a useful and readily obtainable measure ...
Sipkema P - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of cardiac contraction on left coronary artery pressure-flow relations at different vascular volumes and to compare these relations in the beating heart with those in the heart arrested in systole and diastole. METHODS: Maximally vasodilated, Tyrode perfused, rabbit hearts (n = 6) with an intra-ventricular ...
Nekooeian A A - - 1998
1. Recently we demonstrated that the administration of an A2A adenosine receptor agonist, CGS 21680, to anaesthetized rats with acute heart failure (1 h post-coronary artery ligation) resulted in an increase in cardiac output. In the present investigation, the effects of CGS 21680 on cardiac output, vascular resistance, heart rate, ...
Suresh K - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for angina and exertional ischemia in patients with coronary disease. HYPOTHESIS: It is hypothesized that the ability of EECP to enhance the recruitment or development of coronary collaterals in coronary artery disease may be determined by the ...
Le Grand B - - 1998
The effects of the 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist, sumatriptan, on coronary flow (CF) and left ventricular function in the isolated perfused guinea pig heart were investigated in the presence and absence of coronary endothelial dysfunction induced by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 microM). Hearts were ...
Laine H - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether functional abnormalities in coronary vasomotion are present in young healthy asymptomatic men fulfilling the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for borderline hypertension. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported reduced coronary flow reserve in middle-aged subjects with sustained hypertension and hypertension-induced microvascular ...
Vacca G - - 1998
Administration of growth hormone in humans has been reported variably to affect arterial blood pressure and ventricular contractility. The present study was undertaken in anaesthetized pigs to establish whether increases in the blood levels of growth hormone primarily affect haemodynamic variables and to determine the mechanisms involved. In pigs anaesthetized ...
Kudej R K - - 1998
Several models purported to represent hibernating myocardium involve a coronary stenosis (CS) to reduce blood flow (BF) and function without eliciting necrosis in anesthetized pigs. The goal of the present study was to determine whether sustained moderate reduction in coronary BF in conscious pigs induced hibernating myocardium, ie, perfusion-contraction matching ...
Mirko R A - - 1998
Studies were undertaken for a mathematical analysis of reactive hyperaemia in the isolated rat heart with and without electrical pacing and the introduction of a new parameter i.e., rate of reactive hyperaemia, to evaluate reactive hyperaemia. Rate of reactive hyperaemia is represented as a change of coronary perfusion pressure in ...
Kyriakides Z S - - 1998
This study examined the effects of different atrioventricular (AV) intervals, during AV sequential pacing, on hemodynamics and coronary blood flow in individuals with normal hearts. Left anterior descending artery blood flow velocity was measured, using intracoronary Doppler, in 17 normal individuals. Five pacing tests were applied in random order for ...
Murray A - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To develop a technique for automatic inflation of a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) balloon, with continuous measurement of the balloon pressure and volume; to validate the technique for determining the mechanical characteristics of coronary arteries. METHODS: During necropsy examination of the hearts of nine patients, 17 coronary artery ...
Pagel P S - - 1998
We examined the systemic and coronary hemodynamic effects of five combinations of R- and S-verapamil enantiomers (R/S; 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 50/50, and 20/80%, respectively) in conscious dogs chronically instrumented for measurement of aortic and LV pressure, +dP/dt, subendocardial segment length, coronary blood flow velocity, and aortic blood flow. Dogs received ...
Fujinaga H - - 1998
A 50-yr-old man developed constrictive pericarditis following an episode of acute pericarditis. Cardiac catheterization revealed a typical early diastolic dip and plateau configuration in both the right and left ventricular pressure curves. The coronary flow velocity pattern determined using an intracoronary Doppler guidewire showed an abrupt decrease in peak velocity ...
Kyriakidis M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and coronary flow are impaired in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). This study was designed to evaluate the impact of cardiac and circulatory ACE inhibition on such derangements. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty patients with HOCM underwent cardiac ACE inhibition with intracoronary (IC) enalaprilat (0.05 mg/min ...
Herijgers P - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Brain death induces important haemodynamic changes in rats, with a drop in arterial blood pressure, left ventricular developed pressure and dP/dtmax to less than 50% of its control value. Myocardial damage was reported to contribute to this paradigm. The role of potential underlying pathogenetic mechanisms, such as a circulating ...
Li P - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is reported to reduce myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias, and hypertension. To investigate the physiological mechanisms underlying these observations, a model of reflex-induced, reversible myocardial ischemia was developed to test the effects of median nerve stimulation as a surrogate for electroacupuncture. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chloralose-anesthetized cats were instrumented to measure ...
Gauthier N S - - 1998
The goal of the present study was to compare two common types of isolated working mouse heart models, setting afterload either with (1) a hydrostatic fluid column, or (2) a mechanical resistor. Cardiovascular function in both models was determined by volume- and pressure-loading protocols. During volume loading, both models demonstrated ...
McCulloch A D - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The sensitive relationship between regional myocardial perfusion and local systolic deformation during acute myocardial ischemia is not independent of the transmural location or segment orientation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of fiber orientation and transmural location on the relationships between regional myocardial flow and ...
Dschietzig T - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: Myocardial ischemia plays a central role in the development of right ventricular failure after acute pulmonary embolism. This study investigates whether pulmonary mediators act specifically on coronary tone and cardiac contractile function in acute pulmonary microembolization and whether such effects are altered in the case of early systemic atherosclerosis. ...
Paolocci N - - 1998
The present study shows that isolated, perfused hearts from rats orally infected with Trichinella spiralis have a reduced left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), heart rate (HR) and coronary flow (CF). This reduction is considerably enhanced by a single bolus (100 pM) of PAF (platelet activating factor, an eosinophil activator), especially ...
Lader A S - - 1998
The capacitative properties of the major left coronary arteries, left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), and left circumflex (LCX), were studied in 19 open-chest isolated dog hearts. Capacitance was determined by using ramp perfusion and a left ventricular-to-coronary shunt diastolic decay method; both methods gave similar results, indicating a ...
Kralios A C - - 1998
Coronary venous hypertension induced by partial coronary sinus obstruction (CSO) in the dog, prevents or delays the predictable ventricular fibrillation (VF) of the early phase of acute ischemia. Also, CSO acting presumably through enhanced myocardial hydration, normalizes the inhomogenous extracellular potassium ([K+]o) accumulation, a major factor in producing the electrophysiological ...
Ghaleh B - - 1998
Coronary vascular responses to acetylcholine (ACh, 3 micrograms/kg i.v.), nitroglycerin (NTG, 25 micrograms/kg i.v.), and a 20-s coronary artery occlusion (reactive hyperemia, RH) were investigated in seven conscious dogs with severe left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and chronic coronary pressure overload (CCPO) due to supravalvular aortic banding and in seven control ...
Saitoh C - - 1998
The effect of nicardipine hydrochloride (NIC, CAS 54527-84-3, Perdipine) on myocardial metabolism was investigated in an experimental model of ischemic acute heart failure (AHF) induced by coronary ligation in anesthetized dogs. The left anterior descending and/or circumflex coronary ligation decreased coronary sinus blood flow (CBF), maximum rate of rise of ...
Julius S - - 1998
The reduction of coronary mortality is not as large as one would expect from the observed blood pressure lowering in trials of antihypertensive medications. This is not surprising; hypertension is a complex disease where the high blood pressure is only one of numerous coronary risk factors. Sympathetic overactivity in hypertension, ...
Zambaldi G - - 1998
BACKGROUND: In some patients with chronic stable angina the beneficial effects of nitrates may result not only from a reduction in venous return, but also from their action on coronary circulation. In these patients, rate-pressure product at ischemia (RPPI) increases to > 2500 bpm x mmHg after sublingual nitrates (SLN). ...
Louden C - - 1998
Structurally and pharmacologically diverse vasodilators are known to lower blood pressure, increase heart rate, and produce acute injury to right coronary arteries in the dog. Administration of low concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) to anesthetized dogs causes coronary vasoconstriction and reductions in coronary blood flow. Therefore, pharmacologic blockade of endothelin receptors ...
Gerová M - - 1998
The question was addressed whether short-term (4 hour) NO deficiency, inducing an increase in blood pressure in anaesthetized dogs, does influence proteosynthesis in the myocardium and coronary arteries. A potentially positive answer was to be followed by the study of the supporting role of ornithine decarboxylase for the polyamines pathway. ...
Ytrehus K - - 1998
Pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs were instrumented for hemodynamic measurements and cooled by heat exchange tubes. Through a catheter in the coronary sinus, blood samples were obtained and plasma leukotrienes measured using a high-pressure liquid chromatography technique. Hemodynamic function was significantly reduced during cooling, and during subsequent rewarming hemodynamic function was only partly ...
Zeng Z - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), a Chinese plant-derived medicine, on coronary vasoconstriction and related electrocardiographic and histologic changes caused by endothelin-1 (ET-1), and on plasma ET-1 levels. ET-1 (75 pmol) was administered into the left coronary artery (LCA) in anesthetized closed-chest dogs with ...
Kozlowski D - - 1998
The treatment of choice in patients with drug-resistant atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia is radiofrequency fast or slow pathway ablation. Ablation of the reentrant circuit in the region of the His bundle, when approached from the anterior-superior region (fast pathway); can result in complete AV block. This is less likely if ...
Neligan P C - - 1997
This study was designed to investigate the retrograde arterial pressures in the distal ends of the superior thyroid (n = 20) and facial arteries (n = 8). These pressures were compared with mean systemic arterial pressure (n = 20) as well as retrograde pressure in the radial artery (n = ...
Fantidis P - - 1997
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of systemic MgSO4 infusion on subendocardial and subepicardial perfusion. Seventeen spontaneously breathing piglets were examined. Myocardial perfusion was measured using radiolabeled microspheres at baseline, 30 and 60 min after either MgSO4 (80 mg/kg) or saline infusion. Blood pressure, heart rate, ...
Klues H G - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic mechanisms leading to myocardial ischemia in patients with myocardial bridging. Myocardial bridging is known to induce angina and even severe myocardial ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 12 symptomatic patients with myocardial bridges, quantitative coronary angiography was performed to obtain ...
Fan D - - 1997
In anesthetized pigs, we investigated whether asynchrony (delta T) and nonuniformity (regional differences) in contractility (delta E) could describe the interaction between normal and stunned myocardium. Mechanical interaction was evaluated by regional postsystolic work (PSW) before and after production of stunning by a 5-min occlusion of the left circumflex coronary ...
Klautz R J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: After the Fontan operation the right atrium and, thus, the coronary sinus are connected to the pulmonary arterial system, which causes the coronary venous pressure to increase. We investigated the acute effects of elevation of coronary venous pressure on baseline hemodynamics, coronary venous flow, and left ventricular contractility. METHODS: ...
Ishibashi Y - - 1997
The effect of the nitric oxide donor ITF 1129 and nitroglycerin (NTG) on myocardial blood flow was examined in dogs with a Doppler velocity probe, hydraulic occluder, and indwelling microcatheter in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Studies were performed during treadmill exercise in the presence of a coronary ...
Waksman R - - 1997
PURPOSE: Repeat balloon angioplasty is likely to induce intimal proliferation, which is associated with a higher restenosis rate. This study examined the effect of intracoronary ionizing radiation on restenotic lesions using repeat balloon injury in a normolipemic swine. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eight domestic normolipemic pigs underwent overstretch balloon angioplasty with ...
Parodi O - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The comparative effects of calcium channel blockers and ACE inhibitors on myocardial blood flow (MBF) in hypertensive patients after long-term treatment are still unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty hypertensive subjects with normal coronary arteries were randomly assigned to verapamil 240 to 480 mg/d or enalapril 10 to 40 mg/d. ...
Minshall R D - - 1997
The purpose of this research was to test whether the positive inotropic and antiarrhythmic effects of bradykinin are due solely to increases in coronary flow. Rat hearts were perfused at constant pressure (75 cm H2O) and temperature (37 degrees C). Coronary flow was measured using an electronic drop counter. Contractile ...
Fujita Y - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Although isoflurane may cause subendocardial hypoperfusion in the presence of coronary stenosis because of its coronary arteriolar dilatory effects, it is not known how the subendocardial microcirculation is affected. The authors examined the effects of isoflurane on poststenotic subendocardial microvessels with coronary stenosis. METHODS: The authors observed subendocardial microvessels ...
Ito W D - - 1997
Monocytes are activated during collateral artery growth in vivo, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) has been shown to be upregulated by shear stress in vitro. In order to investigate whether MCP-1 enhances collateral growth after femoral artery occlusion, 12 rabbits were randomly assigned to receive either MCP-1, PBS, or no ...
Pijls N H - - 1997
BACKGROUND: In the selection of patients eligible for minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MICABG), knowledge about the pathophysiologic significance of individual coronary stenoses is important. Only if the lesion amenable to MICABG can be identified as the culprit lesion, and other lesions can be demonstrated not to be responsible ...
Kuhn H - - 1997
AIM: To develop a new catheter-based method of treatment in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. METHOD: Does abolition of the blood supply to the subaortic part of the septum lead to regional myocardial ischaemia and a decrease in the left ventricular outflow tract gradient? To find this out, in 10 ...
Vacca G - - 1997
The present study was undertaken in anaesthetized pigs to determine whether distension of the uterus reflexly affects the aortic blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular inotropic state and the coronary circulation. Experiments were performed in 17 pigs anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose and artificially ventilated. Coronary blood flow was measured with an ...
Roekaerts P M - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Alpha 2-adrenergic agonists have peripheral vasoconstrictive effects and central sympatholytic and sedative effects. Whereas the latter are the basis of their use in anesthesia, the former could limit their clinical application. METHODS: To study whether a vasodilator could alleviate the systemic and coronary vasoconstrictor effects of dexmedetomidine without influencing ...
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