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Results 651 - 700 of 1819
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Soylu Mustafa - - 2004
In spite of a wide choice of pacemakers, there are some problems in making more rational clinical decisions for individual patients since mode selection and programming is usually performed on the basis of a clinical hunch. The aim of this study was to measure the differences in carotid flow in ...
Zanchetti Alberto - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Plaque Hypertension Lipid-Lowering Italian Study (PHYLLIS) tested whether (1) the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor fosinopril (20 mg per day) was more effective on carotid atherosclerosis progression than the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg per day), (2) pravastatin (40 mg per day) was more effective than placebo when ...
Pawar A - - 2004
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), common in aging males is often treated with alpha1-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonists. In view of known hypotensive effect of most of the alpha1-AR antagonists, this work examined the effect of a selected alpha1-AR antagonist, terazosin on the baroreceptor mediated regulation of blood pressure. The three doses of ...
El-Dawlatly Abdelazeem Ali - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is an established surgical procedure for treatment of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. To determine whether or not a carotid shunt is necessary to place, some surgeons measure the stump pressure. We conducted the current study in order to identify whether or not cerebral ...
Jennings J Richard - - 2004
Hemodynamic reactions to mental stress may contribute to atherosclerosis. We previously observed cross-sectional relationships between blood pressure reactions to a standardized stress battery and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease (KIHD) study. These are the first prospective results on this relationship. Men from 4 age cohorts ...
Lu Min - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association of hypertension and carotid atherosclerosis in a general population in China. METHODS: A population-based cardiovascular epidemiology survey was performed in a total of 1198 residents in suburban Beijing, 426 men and 776 women aged 43-73 years. Carotid plaque and the intima-media thickness were measured using ...
Bluestone A Y - - 2004
This is the second part of a two-part study that explores the feasibility of 3-D, volumetric brain imaging in small animals by optical tomographic techniques. In part 1, we demonstrated the ability to visualize global hemodynamic changes in the rat head in response to elevated levels of CO(2) using a ...
Howden Reuben - - 2004
The contribution to the regulation of forearm blood flow (FBF) by different baroreceptor populations has previously only been studied over a limited range of stimuli. Therefore, FBF and R-R interval were recorded during neck suctions and neck pressures ranging from -60 to +40 mmHg. The change in R-R interval (DeltaR-R) ...
O'Leary Deirdre M - - 2004
Paraganglia resembling the carotid body have been described in the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) of the rat and the aim of the present study was to determine if this tissue is chemosensitive. We developed a novel isolated SLN preparation superfused with HEPES-buffered Tyrode solution at 35 degrees C in vitro. ...
Volianitis S - - 2004
AIM: During arm cranking (A) blood pressure is higher than during combined arm and leg exercise (A + L), while the carotid baroreflex (CBR) is suggested to reset to control a higher blood pressure in direct relation to work intensity and the engaged muscle mass. METHOD: This study evaluated the ...
Minhas Pawan S - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Testing autoregulation is of importance in predicting risk of stroke and managing patients with occlusive carotid arterial disease. The use of small spontaneous changes in arterial blood pressure and transcranial Doppler (TCD) flow velocity can be used to assess autoregulation noninvasively without the need for a cerebrovascular challenge. We ...
Kohara Katsuhiko - - 2004
Microalbuminuria is an early marker of renal damage and has been shown to predict future cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes or hypertension, as well as in subjects in the general population. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that the presence of microalbuminuria reflects the advancement of ...
Kenny R A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Carotid sinus syndrome (CSS) is a common cause of syncope in older persons. There appears to be a high prevalence of carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) but not in Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of CSH in DLB and Alzheimer's ...
Korshunov Vyacheslav A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis of the carotid artery, called intima-media thickening (IMT), is a form of vascular remodeling that is an important predictor for cardiovascular events and has a strong genetic component. METHODS AND RESULTS: Recently, we established a mouse model of vascular remodeling based on partial ligation of the carotid, which ...
Kirkman, E.
Systemic arterial blood pressure, flow and blood volume are closely regulated by a group of interrelated mechanisms. Perhaps the most important mechanism in the moment-to-moment control of arterial blood pressure is the arterial baroreceptor reflex. This reflex influences blood pressure by modifying a series of cardiovascular parameters: heart rate, cardiac ...
Zanchetti Alberto - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In ELSA, a randomized, double-blind trial in 2334 hypertensives, 4-year antihypertensive treatment with lacidipine slowed down progression of carotid atherosclerosis significantly more than atenolol treatment. To avoid bias, the primary outcome was measured blindly at study-end on a randomized sequence of scans, but measurements were limited to the four ...
Al-Rawi Pippa G - - 2004
This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that there is a neural basis for baroreceptor deterioration during carotid endarterectomy (CEA), by investigating intraoperative hemodynamic changes induced by intraluminal carotid stretch stimulation, before and after application of local anesthetic to the adventitial layer of the carotid sinus region. This was ...
Timmers Henri J L M - - 2004
Iatrogenic bilateral denervation of carotid sinus baroreceptors may occur as a complication of carotid body tumor resection and radiation therapy of the neck. The acute phase of the resulting syndrome of baroreflex failure is characterized by a limited blood pressure buffering capacity against excessive rise or fall in response to ...
Aleksic M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of angiographic criteria and internal carotid artery (ICA) stump pressure for shunt placement in carotid surgery under local anaesthesia. DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial at a university hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 120 patients a cerebral angiography was initiated before undergoing carotid surgery. Seventy-five percent ...
Hashimoto Hiroyuki - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hypertensive outpatients were investigated for C-reactive protein (CRP) and carotid atherosclerosis because the influence of CRP on the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in hypertensives remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 124 outpatients (aged 40 to 79 years) in treatment for hypertension were enrolled. They underwent repeated ultrasonographic ...
Ogasawara Kuniaki - - 2004
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a rare but potentially devastating complication that typically occurs within several days after carotid endarterectomy. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old man experienced asymptomatic cerebral hyperperfusion as demonstrated by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during a 2-week period after undergoing right carotid endarterectomy. This phenomenon ...
Timmers H J L M - - 2004
The arterial baroreflex buffers abrupt transients of blood pressure and prevents pressure from rising or falling excessively. In experimental animals, baroreceptor denervation results in temporary or permanent increases in blood pressure level and variability, depending on the extent of denervation. In humans, the clinical syndrome of baroreflex failure may arise ...
Zhang Hao - - 2004
The effects of capsaicin (CAP) on the carotid sinus baroreflex were studied in 30 anaesthetized rats with perfused isolated carotid sinus. The results are as follows. (1) By perfusing the isolated carotid sinus with CAP (1 micromol/L), the functional curve of the baroreflex was shifted to the left and downward, ...
Cooper V L - - 2004
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), which is characterized by periodic inspiratory obstruction, is associated with hypertension and possibly with changes in the baroreceptor reflex. In this investigation we induced changes in inspiratory resistance and in inspiratory oxygen and carbon dioxide content, which simulate some of the changes in OSA, to determine ...
Timmers Henri J L M - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid endarterectomy (CE) may be complicated by the clinical syndrome of baroreflex failure. Alterations of baroreflex function may also account for the frequently observed blood pressure lability in the first hours following surgery. We investigated the long-term effects of unilateral CE on baroreflex control of function and ...
Yassari R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the pathogenesis of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) has been limited by the lack of adequate animal models. In this study we evaluate the time course of angiographic, hemodynamic and histopathological changes in an arteriovenous fistula in rats as a potential model. METHODS: An ...
Kristek F - - 2004
The objective of the present study was to investigate the structure of the arterial walls of the offspring stemming from nitric oxide (NO)-defective hypertensive parents. The parents were treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (40 mg kg-1 day-1) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure was measured noninvasively in six 30-day-old rats and ...
Liao Duanping - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Both carotid atherosclerosis and cerebral arteriolosclerosis are associated with stroke. However, the relationship between carotid atherosclerosis and cerebral arteriolosclerosis is unknown. We examined the association between carotid artery stiffness, a marker of early atherosclerosis, and retinal arteriolar narrowing, a marker of arteriolosclerosis, in healthy middle-aged people. METHODS: ...
Kawada Toru - - 2004
A cascade model comprised of a derivative filter followed by a nonlinear sigmoidal component reproduces the input size dependence of transfer gain in the baroreflex neural arc from baroreceptor pressure input to efferent sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). We examined whether the same model could predict the operating point dependence of ...
Yasumasu Tomiya - - 2004
Baroreceptor-cardiac reflex, which consists of baroreceptor-induced chronotropic and inotropic actions, is a very useful index of cardiac sympathovagal balance. Baroreceptor-heart rate reflex sensitivity, which reflects baroreceptor-induced chronotropic action, has been used as a marker of baroreceptor-cardiac reflex. However, it cannot be used in patients with chronotropic incompetence and/or implanted cardiac ...
Ogoh Shigehiko - - 2004
Despite the arterial baroreflex control of heart rate and blood pressure, vasovagal syncope is a common cause of loss of consciousness in people exposed to stimuli that reduce the central blood volume, such as head-up tilt. Carotid baroreflex function was evaluated using a rapid pulse train of neck pressure and ...
Moore Jonathan P - - 2004
We investigated whether the reflex responses to stimulation of pulmonary arterial baroreceptors were altered by intrathoracic pressure changes similar to those encountered during normal breathing. Dogs were anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose, a cardiopulmonary bypass was established, and the pulmonary trunk and its main branches as far as the first lobar arteries ...
Lohmeier Thomas E - - 2004
The role of baroreflexes in long-term control of arterial pressure is unresolved. To determine whether chronic activation of the baroreflex produces sustained hypotension, we developed a method for prolonged activation of the carotid baroreflex in conscious dogs. This was achieved by chronically implanting electrodes around both carotid sinuses and using ...
Steinback Craig D - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Interpretation of baroreflex cardiovascular control requires accurate assessment of pulse pressure (PP) in central arteries under conditions of varying systemic or hydrostatic pressure. The objective of this study was to examine whether changes in PP during postural stress were similar in the peripheral versus carotid arteries. DESIGN: Protocol A: ...
Cuspidi Cesare - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of stratifying cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients on the basis of retinal changes such as arteriolar narrowing or arterio-venous crossing has been criticized. AIM: Objectives of the study were: (i) to compare the prevalence of retinal abnormalities detected by non-mydriatic retinography with that of other quantitative ...
Kamarck Thomas W - - 2004
Daily experiences of demand and control were examined as correlates of carotid artery atherosclerosis among healthy adults (ages 50-70). Mediating effects of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were also explored. Participants (n=337) collected ABP and recorded daily experiences, using electronic diaries, over two 3-day periods. Carotid artery intima-medial thickness (IMT) was ...
Takiuchi S - - 2004
Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) assessed by ultrasonography is regarded as an early predictor of general arteriosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension. However, the methods of measuring IMT have not been globally standardized, and it remains unclear whether conventional measurement of IMT represents the prevalence of hypertensive target organ damage. In ...
Zhang Dongmei - - 2003
The neural mechanisms of the thermoregulatory control of core and skin temperatures in response to heat and cold stresses have been well clarified. However, it has been unclear whether baroreceptor reflexes are involved in the control of core and skin temperatures. To investigate how the arterial baroreceptor reflex modulates the ...
Duschek Stefan - - 2003
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of hypotension on attentional and motor performance. Twenty-six moderately hypotensive subjects (mean systolic blood pressure = 108.8 mmHg) were compared to 29 normotensive controls (mean systolic blood pressure = 123.5 mmHg). The participants were presented with two standard German ...
Fadel Paul J - - 2003
The variable pressure neck chamber has provided an invaluable research tool for the non-invasive assessment of carotid baroreflex (CBR) function in human investigations. The ability to construct complete stimulus-response curves and define specific parameters of the reflex function curve permits statistical comparisons of baroreflex function between different experimental conditions, such ...
Tzourio C - - 2003
The relationship between migraine and blood pressure is controversial. We studied the association between migraine and blood pressure in a population-based sample of elderly patients. Participants were 1373 subjects 59-71 years of age. Lifetime migraine was diagnosed according to the International Headache Society criteria by a headache specialist. Blood pressure ...
Tsioufis Costas - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Exaggerated carotid sinus stimulation (CSStim) responses are associated with advancing age, hypertension, and atherosclerotic disease. However, there is little information regarding the contribution of the functional arterial status in the degree of CSStim responses at the very early stages of the hypertensive disease. METHODS: Carotid sinus stimulation (with simultaneous ...
Seyrek Neslihan - - 2003
Arteriosclerosis is characterized by stiffening of arteries. The incremental elastic modulus (Einc) measurement is a good marker of arterial wall stiffness. Metabolic, inflammatory and hemodynamic alterations cause structural changes and vascular complications in end stage renal disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the factors that may ...
McKevitt F M - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid intervention by carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or endovascular treatment may cause hemodynamic change. The immediate and long-term effects on blood pressure after these procedures were assessed. METHODS: Patients were randomized to CEA (n=49) or endovascular treatment (n=55) that comprised percutaneous transluminal angioplasty alone (n=31), balloon-expandable stent (n=13), ...
Timmers Henri J L M - - 2003
Experimental denervation in animals has shown that carotid baro- and chemoreceptors play an eminent role in maintaining blood pressure and blood gas homeostasis. Denervation of carotid sinus baro- and chemoreceptors in humans may occur as a complication of invasive interventions on the neck or after experimental surgical treatment in asthma. ...
Hwang Chi-Shin - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combined duplex criteria are commonly used in vascular laboratories for evaluating carotid stenosis. However, most of these combinations are empirical, and systemic validation is lacking. This study was completed using a multiple regression method to evaluate the accuracy of different combined duplex criteria for detecting threshold carotid ...
Cooper H E - - 2004
The precise contribution of the CO2-dependent respiratory rhythm to sinus arrhythmia in eupnea is unclear. The respiratory rhythm and sinus arrhythmia were measured in 12 normal, unanesthetized subjects in normocapnia and hypocapnia during mechanical hyperventilation with positive pressure. In normocapnia (41 +/- 1 mmHg), the respiratory rhythm was always detectable ...
Mulcahy Ríona - - 2003
The authors' objective was to determine circadian blood pressure behavior and the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension in patients with cardioinhibitory carotid sinus syndrome. A prospective consecutive series of 160 patients (mean age, 72 [65-83]) with recurrent syncope attributed to cardioinhibitory carotid sinus syndrome was recruited. Mean maximal slowing of heart ...
Huber P E - - 2003
The development of accurate, safe, and efficient gene delivery remains a major challenge towards the realization of gene therapeutic prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the ability of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), a form of mechanical wave transmission, to act as a noninvasive tool for ...
Saleh T M - - 2003
The functional significance of neuropeptides and neurohormones throughout the neuroaxis has been the focus of considerable research over the past 25 years. These "gut peptides" or "reproductive hormones" have been localized within nuclei responsible for the relay of visceral afferent information to the forebrain. The presence of peptides and hormones ...
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