Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1816
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Rocha Eduardo A V - - 2008
The wide use of biological sealants as a reinforcement for arterial sutures and the small experimental base in literature motivated this study. Our aim was to evaluate the flow, tear pressure, and the need of reinforcement stitches in sutured arteries after a cross-section. This research project complied with the Helsinki ...
Rae Todd C - - 2008
Several different factors have been hypothesized as explanations of variation in primate paranasal sinus size. Biomechanical forces, particularly those associated with mastication, are frequently evoked to account for differences in primate craniofacial pneumatization. To test whether masticatory stresses are responsible for maxillary sinus volume diversity, two platyrrhine species of the ...
Waki Hidefumi - - 2008
To investigate whether the rate of change in blood pressure affects the sensitivity of the aortic baroreceptor afferent response, the change in aortic nerve activity (ANA) to two different rates of ramp increase in mean blood pressure (MBP), elicited by phenylephrine administration, was determined in the rat under urethane (1.5 ...
Vermeersch S J - - 2008
Calibrated diameter distension waveforms could provide an alternative for local arterial pressure assessment more widely applicable than applanation tonometry. We compared linearly and exponentially calibrated carotid diameter waveforms to tonometry readings. Local carotid pressures measured by tonometry and diameter waveforms measured by ultrasound were obtained in 2026 subjects participating in ...
Bartoli Carlo R - - 2009
Epidemiologic studies suggest a positive association between fine particulate matter and arterial blood pressure, but the results have been inconsistent. We investigated the effect of ambient particles on systemic hemodynamics during a 5-hr exposure to concentrated ambient air particles (CAPs) or filtered air (FA) in conscious canines. Thirteen dogs were ...
Natale Francesco - - 2008
PURPOSE: To compare qualitative fundoscopy with resistance index (RI) of the central retinal artery determined using color Doppler examination as indicators of target organ damage in a large population of patients with essential hypertension. METHOD: We compared qualitative fundoscopy and central retinal artery RI (CRARI) in 459 patients with grade ...
Scarborough Donna - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The gag reflex regularly interferes with dental procedures. The authors hypothesize that applying pressure to a specific point on the palm alters the gag reflex and that hypersensitive gag reflexes may be categorized according to oropharyngeal landmarks. METHODS: Thirty-six neurologically intact subjects underwent a series of gag reflex trials ...
Siewiorek Gail M - - 2008
To assess in vitro performance of four embolic protection filters (EPFs) with a varying mass of injected particles. Evaluation is based on capture efficiency, pressure gradient, flow rate, and vascular resistance. A bench-top flow apparatus was used for in vitro testing of four devices (Spider RX, FilterWire EZ, RX Accunet, ...
Zdanowska-Frączek M - - 2008
Single crystals of pentakis (imidazolium) undecachlorodibismuthate (III); (C(3)N(2)H(5))(5)Bi(2)Cl(11), have been studied by the dielectric method at ambient and hydrostatic pressures. At ambient pressure the crystals undergo a ferroelectric phase transition of order-disorder type at 166 K. The character of the dielectric permittivity anomalies is typical of the ferroelectric phase transition close ...
Campos C E M - - 2008
Ga K-edge energy dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy measurements were employed to follow the pressure-induced semiconductor-metal phase transition of nanocrystalline GaSb produced by mechanical alloying up to 26 GPa. The results showed a slight increase of the phase transition pressures for both as-milled (8 GPa) and annealed (10 GPa) GaSb samples, ...
Kovacic Vedran - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients treated by haemodialysis (HD) have impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and increased intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery The aim of the study was to analyse the relationships between parameters of chronic HD treatment and non-invasive assessments of preclinical atherosclerosis (endothelial dysfunction and carotid IMT) ...
Bernini Giampaolo - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of plasma catecholamines on the vascular structure in humans, the effects of catecholamine normalization on the carotid wall of patients with phaeochromocytoma (PHEO) were investigated. A prospective study in patients with PHEO before and after (first follow-up: 20.5+/-1.8 months, second follow-up: 31.5+/-2.2 months) successful surgery ...
Drew Rachel C - - 2008
We examined the effects of muscle mechanoreflex stimulation by passive calf muscle stretch, at rest and during concurrent muscle metaboreflex activation, on carotid baroreflex (CBR) sensitivity. Twelve subjects either performed 1.5 min one-legged isometric plantarflexion at 50% maximal voluntary contraction with their right or left calf [two ischaemic exercise (IE) ...
Shaoling Huang Huang - - 2008
Our group has developed targeted echogenic liposomes (ELIP) for targeted ultrasound enhancement of atheroma as well as targeted therapeutic delivery. Nitric oxide (NO) has potent biological activities but is too labile for in-vivo vascular delivery. We have developed a methodology to entrap NO, cause local prolonged release and retain NO ...
Cloutier Guy - - 2008
Carotid plaque rupture leading to stroke involves alteration of arterial wall mechanical properties. This paper addresses reproducibility and potential clinical impact of non-invasive vascular elastography. Fifteen symptomatic and 15 asymptomatic patients with greater than 50% stenoses of their internal carotids, and 15 control subjects were scanned independently by two radiologists. ...
Kadoglou N P E - - 2008
OBJECTIVES/DESIGN: Carotid plaque echogenicity quantified by the Gray-Scale Median (GSM) score has been associated with plaque vulnerability. The aim of this study was to assess whether intensive lipid-lowering treatment with atorvastatin in patients with carotid artery stenosis ameliorates novel vascular calcification inhibitors, such as osteopontin (OPN) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), and ...
Aizawa Kunihiko - - 2008
AIMS: This cross-sectional study compared carotid artery stiffness in metabolic syndrome (MS) subjects with high-normal blood pressure (HNBP) and/or impaired glucose regulation. METHODS: Eighty-nine subjects (40M and 49F, 53.5+/-9.3 years) with either HNBP, impaired glucose regulation, or both were studied. The following measurements were included: risk factors for MS (waist ...
Ruitenbeek Astrid G - - 2008
The effect of age and blood pressure on the carotid and the radial artery distensibilities was investigated. Patients referred to the outpatient clinic of the Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatric Medicine were asked to participate in the study. The carotid and radial artery distensibility coefficients were measured. Linear regression ...
Kolachalama Vijaya B - - 2008
A Bayesian surrogate modeling technique is proposed that may be able to predict an optimal bypass graft configuration for patients suffering with stenosis in the internal carotid artery (ICA). At the outset, this statistical technique is considered as a means for identifying key geometric parameters influencing haemodynamics in the human ...
Wang Chun-Yan - - 2008
The effects of ginkgolide B on the carotid sinus baroreflex (CSB) were studied in the perfused isolated carotid sinus of 30 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley male rats. The results were as follows. (1) By perfusing with ginkgolide B (0.1, 1, 10 mumol/L), the functional curve of the baroreflex was shifted to the ...
Cieri E - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The clinical significance of Haemodynamic Depression (HD) during carotid stenting (CAS) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and predictors of HD during CAS in a single centre experience. METHODS: A prospective protocol for CAS was applied in a 15-month interval. Patients with restenosis, ...
Higaki Takuya - - 2008
X-ray diffraction of liquid CuI, CuBr and CuCl has been measured up to 19 GPa using synchrotron radiations. Static structure factor S(Q) and pair distribution function g(r) were obtained. For liquid CuI, CuBr and CuCl, S(Q) and g(r) change their shapes continuously with increasing pressure, indicating anisotropic compression of the local ...
Yang Cuizhuo - - 2008
The study of the structural transition in nanoscale materials is of particular interest for their potential applications. In the present study, we have observed a lower temperature T = 250 °C for the phase transition from the sphalerite structure to the wurtzite structure in ZnS nanoparticles under a pressure of 1 GPa, ...
Taha Mahmoud M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Carotid angioplasty and stenting is used for treatment of carotid stenosis. Stent deployment may induce HDI and thereby cause systemic or neurologic deficits. This study defines characteristics and predictors of HDI with CAS. METHODS: A total of 132 patients who had undergone CAS were evaluated for periprocedural and postprocedural ...
Slingerland L I - - 2008
Continuous direct measurement of feline arterial blood pressure (ABP) was carried out via a modified method with percutaneous, ultrasound guided catheterization of the common carotid artery. In 21 healthy, conscious cats the ABP was measured during rest, alertness and activity. Furthermore, the ABP response to being petted by familiar and ...
Alipov N N - - 2008
The relationship between dromotropic and chronotropic components of various cardiac reflexes was studied in cats. Intravenous infusion of blood was mainly accompanied by unidirectional negative chronotropic and dromotropic effects, but the dynamics of these effects was different. Clumping of the carotid arteries in most animals induced unidirectional negative chronotropic and ...
Shi Xiangrong - - 2008
The cause of the age-related impairment of arterial baroreflex function remains ill-defined; moreover, it is unknown whether this impairment results from aging per se or from an inactive lifestyle associated with aging. In this study, we sought to: 1) determine whether elderly individuals who maintained an active lifestyle had an ...
Kosch Markus - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive drugs may have differential, pressure-independent effects on hypertension-associated alterations of arterial function. We compared the effects of a 12-week therapy with the AT(1)-receptor antagonist valsartan (Val) versus the beta-blocker metoprolol (Met) on arterial stiffness and endothelial function in mildly hypertensive patients at rest and during generalized sympathetic stimulation. ...
Giannattasio Cristina - - 2008
Diabetes is associated with a reduction of arterial distensibility. Limited information exists regarding whether or how early this appears in the course of the disease. We studied 54 normoglycemic, normotensive, healthy offspring of 2 parents with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 55 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Carotid diastolic ...
Hammer Gregory B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an alpha2-adrenergic agonist that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for short-term (<24 h) sedation in adults. It is not approved for use in children. Nevertheless, the use of DEX for sedation and anesthesia in infants and children appears to be increasing. There are ...
Federman Daniel G - - 2008
Despite the well established risks of persistently elevated blood pressure, as well as the benefits of controlling such elevations, hypertension remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. These VA researchers compared the rates of antihypertensive medication intensification between resident physicians, midlevel practitioners, and attending physicians.
Stead Latha G - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Several studies demonstrated that patients with low blood pressure upon presentation with acute ischemic stroke have worse outcomes. Elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) directly improves cerebral perfusion. Phenylephrine is a selective alpha-1 agonist with peripheral vasoconstrictive effect, raising the blood pressure without constricting brain vessels. METHODS: We report a ...
Sigurdardottir V - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the echogenicity of carotid artery plaques and the following risk factors: circulating oxLDL, hsCRP, the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and several of the traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study of 513 sixty-one-year-old men. ...
Grönroos Paula - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), which is measured by ultrasound, is used in the assessment of early atherosclerotic changes, and has been associated with apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism in many studies comprising elderly subjects. However, results are still inconclusive and data relating to young adults are missing. Whether common ...
Ino-Oka Eiji - - 2008
BACKGROUND: It is generally thought that the sole function of baroreceptors is for the regulation of rapid blood pressure fluctuations caused by postural changes and other motion. However, recent studies have suggested that baroreceptors may also be involved in blood pressure control in the chronic phase. PURPOSE: The study was ...
Protogerou A D - - 2008
The increased severity of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with a parallel increase in the incidence of cardiovascular events. Whether the increased severity of OSAS is in fact associated with impaired arterial properties has never been thoroughly studied. In patients with OSAS who carry a high burden of ...
Wladyka Cynthia L - - 2008
The ion channels responsible for the pattern and frequency of discharge in arterial baroreceptor terminals are, with few exceptions, unknown. In this study we examined the contribution of KCNQ potassium channels that underlie the M-current to the function of the arterial baroreceptors. Labelled aortic baroreceptor neurons, immunohistochemistry and an isolated ...
Lee Thomas S - - 2008
Limited information on a correlation between carotid stump pressure and cerebral oximetry changes associated with cross-clamping of carotid vessels during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) prompted us to prospectively evaluate 38 consecutive CEAs in 37 patients. The authors used the INVOS-4100 cerebral oximeter to measure cerebral oximetry (cerebral oxygen saturation) before (t1) ...
Feng Bin - - 2007
Arterial baroreceptors are essential for neurocirculatory control, providing rapid hemodynamic feedback to the central nervous system. The pressure-dependent discharge of carotid and aortic baroreceptor afferents has been extensively studied. A common assumption has been that circumferential deformation of the arterial wall is the predominant mechanical force affecting baroreceptor discharge. However, ...
Moritz Stefan - - 2007
BACKGROUND: This study compares the accuracy of cerebral monitoring systems in detecting cerebral ischemia during carotid endarterectomy. METHODS: The authors compared transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), stump pressure (SP) measurement, and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) in 48 patients undergoing carotid surgery during regional anesthesia. Cerebral ischemia was assumed ...
Loa I - - 2007
The crystal structure of YTiO(3) at high pressures up to 30 GPa has been investigated by means of synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction (T = 295 K). The variation of the Ti-O bond lengths with pressure evidences a distinct change in the distortion of the TiO(6) octahedra at around 10 GPa, which is discussed ...
Yamamoto K - - 2007
AIM: Intraoperative hypoperfusion ischemia is one factor that leads to perioperative stroke during carotid endarterectomy. Selective shunting is one way to reduce intraoperative hypoperfusion, but to shunt selectively needs a sensitive and simple monitoring system together with the rules for insertion. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a monitoring system that ...
Filippone John D - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is not uncommon for hypertension to be resistant to the effects of medical therapy, and this poses a significant risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus is a novel treatment for hypertension, and has been shown to reduce blood pressure by activating ...
Arita R - - 2007
By means of a combination of the local density approximation and dynamical mean field theory (LDA + DMFT), we study the possibility of making a d(1) analogue of d(9) cuprates on the basis of Sr(2)VO(4). We calculate the electronic structure of Sr(2)VO(4) under pressure, and show that while the material ...
Matsumoto Naoki - - 2007
High-pressure structures of Ar(H(2))(2) are studied with possible molecular dissociation and metallization using density functional theory in the local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation energy. We have estimated the transition pressure from the low-pressure MgZn(2)-type structure to the high-pressure AlB(2)-type structure to be around ...
Howitt Lauren - - 2007
Snoring-associated vibration energy transmission from the upper airway to the carotid artery has been hypothesized as a potential atherosclerotic plaque initiating/rupturing event that may provide a pathogenic mechanism linking snoring and embolic stroke. We examined transmission of oscillatory pressure waves from the pharyngeal lumen to the common carotid artery wall ...
Dahan Albert - - 2007
Human breathing is regulated by feedback and feed-forward control mechanisms, allowing a strict matching between metabolic needs and the uptake of oxygen in the lungs. The most important control mechanism, the metabolic ventilatory control system, is fine-tuned by two sets of chemoreceptors, the peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies (located ...
Muldoon Matthew F - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Central nervous system serotonergic neurotransmission appears to play a role in mood disorders, eating habits, and sleep, and also modulates blood pressure and metabolism. This investigation tested a hypothesized association between central serotonergic functioning and preclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: Subjects were 244 adults 30 to 55 years of ...
Aleksic M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Induced hypertension is widely recommended as a protective measure in carotid endarterectomy (CEA) to prevent shunt insertion. In this study changes of systemic blood pressure were evaluated in relation to the shunt rate when CEA was performed under local anaesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 930 CEAs performed for a ...
Melenovsky Vojtech - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Peripheral wave reflection augments central blood pressure and contributes to cardiac load. This pressure augmentation is not quantifiable from brachial cuff pressure but can be determined from carotid pulsations using the augmentation index (AI). However, carotid tonometry is technically challenging and difficult to standardize in practice. We tested whether ...
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