Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 802
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Jacobson A F - - 1994
Although caffeine attenuates the vasodilatation produced by dipyridamole and adenosine, and is therefore contraindicated when these agents are used for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, caffeine levels in clinical patients undergoing standard imaging protocols have not been studied. Eight-six patients undergoing clinically indicated intravenous dipyridamole (n = 75) or adenosine (n = ...
Ikeda Y - - 1994
This study was designed to examine the effects of an adenylate cyclase activator, NKH477, on epicardial and endocardial contraction and coronary blood flow (CoF) in the presence or absence of ischemia and to compare it to those of adenosine. We measured coronary pressures (CoP), coronary blood flow, epicardial and endocardial ...
Wilson D F - - 1994
Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in vivo is dependent on the degree of reduction of the intramitochondrial reducing power ([NADH]/[NAD+], cytoplasmic energy state ([ATP]/[ADP][Pi]) and intracellular oxygen pressure. Each parameter is independently regulated, and increased reducing power by activating the mitochondrial dehydrogenases allows higher energy state at a given rate of ATP ...
Ernst M - - 1994
The effects on brain metabolism of the intravenous (i.v.) administration of dextroamphetamine was assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (18-FDG) in 8 adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). During the 3-hour 18-FDG PET session, each adult underwent the initial scan following i.v. infusion of placebo and a second ...
Hale S L - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: A preconditioning mimetic agent could be useful therapy for cardiac ischaemic events; stimulation of adenosine receptors has been proposed as a preconditioning mediator. The ability of adenosine-receptor activation to mimic ischaemic preconditioning was tested in an in vivo rabbit model. METHODS: Adenosine (15 mg, a maximally tolerated dose, n ...
Wittenberg B A - - 1993
By sequestering intracellular myoglobin of cardiac muscle cells in the nonfunctioning carboxymyoglobin form, carbon monoxide blocks myoglobin-facilitated diffusion of oxygen, as well as myoglobin-mediated oxidative phosphorylation. Here, we explore the hypothesis that the carbon monoxide blockade of myoglobin function may be responsible at the cellular level for a component of ...
Kitai T - - 1993
The energy metabolism of the heart and the liver was assessed in brain-dead dogs by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mean blood pressure and pulse rate changed respectively from 136.1 +/- 9.3 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM) and 126.7 +/- 4.4/min in the control period, to 212.9 +/- 15.8 ...
Hak J B - - 1993
We investigated whether a glycolytic burst contributes to the initial adaptation of ATP synthesis to increased cardiac metabolic demand. Six isolated rabbit hearts were perfused with glucose-containing Tyrode solution at 28 degrees C. In venous and arterial samples the lactate concentration was determined with a sensitive enzymatic cycling method. After ...
Martin S E - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: Whether intracoronary papaverine or adenosine leads to reductions in regional left ventricular function was tested. METHODS: Fifteen anaesthetised dogs were prepared to record aortic pressure, left ventricular pressure dP/dt, electrocardiogram, regional ventricular shortening, and phasic and mean left circumflex coronary blood flow, and to give intracoronary boluses of papaverine ...
Heller G V - - 1993
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of intravenous theophylline given before intravenous adenosine for thallium-201 imaging. Sixteen patients with known reversible thallium-201 defects were randomized to a double-blind crossover study of a 45-minute infusion of placebo or theophylline (given as the ethylenediamine salt, aminophylline, mean concentration 16.1 mg/L) ...
Zanzinger J - - 1993
We investigated the effects of inhibition of both nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) on agonist-induced relaxations in the coronary system. Chronically instrumented conscious dogs (n = 4) were prepared for the measurement of coronary blood flow (CBF), coronary diameter of the left circumflex artery (LCX), mean ...
Altura B M - - 1993
Hemodynamic and 31P-NMR spectroscopic studies were performed on intact, perfused working rat hearts exposed to low (0.3 mM) extracellular Mg([Mg2+]o). Low [Mg2+]o perfusion resulted in rapid and significant falls in cardiac output, coronary flow, stroke volume, developed pressure and the rate-pressure product. Concomitant with this O2 consumption decreased and lactate ...
Kupriyanov V V - - 1993
The response of cytosolic phosphates ([ATP], [PCr], [Pi] and [ADP]) in rat hearts retrogradely perfused with different oxidizable substrates to increased workload induced by elevated coronary flow (CF) or by addition of inotropic agents has been investigated. Hearts were perfused with glucose (11 mM), pyruvate (5 mM), lactate (3 mM) ...
Murphy E - - 1993
Preconditioning with brief intermittent periods of ischemia has been shown to lessen the detrimental effects of a subsequent sustained (30-60 min) period of ischemia. Because adenosine has been suggested to be the mediator of preconditioning, we were interested in investigating whether adenosine antagonists would block the effect of preconditioning on ...
Webb R L - - 1993
Three highly A2a-selective adenosine agonists were examined for their effects on blood pressure during chronic administration in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats. Sodium 4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-beta-D-ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2 -yl] amino]ethyl]benzenepropionate (CGS 21680C) 2-[(2-cyclohexyl-ethyl)amino]adenosine (CGS 22492) and 2-[[2-(1-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethyl]amino]adenosine (CGS 22989) were administered at a rate of 0.25 and 0.5 micrograms/kg/min i.v. for 2 weeks using osmotic ...
Kito K - - 1993
Hepatic blood flow (HBF) and energy metabolism during moderate hypotension induced by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and nicardipine were studied by in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy. HBF was determined by the deuterated water clearance method by using deuterium magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and energy metabolism was estimated from the changes in the ...
Read M A - - 1993
1. The vasoactive effects of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine and other purines in the foetal circulation of the human placenta were examined. Single lobules of the placenta were bilaterally perfused in vitro with Krebs buffer (maternal and foetal sides 5 ml min-1 each, 95% O2:5% CO2, 37 degrees C). Changes ...
Van Wylen D G - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Adenosine is a well known vasodilator believed to contribute to metabolic adjustments of the coronary circulation. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in interstitial fluid adenosine, adenosine metabolites, and lactate during prolonged regional, non-ischaemic myocardial hypoxia. METHODS: To induce regional hypoxia, the left anterior descending coronary ...
Gidday J M - - 1993
PURPOSE: To determine if the purine vasodilator adenosine participates in mediating autoregulatory dilations of the retinal microcirculation in vivo. METHODS: The retinal microcirculation of isoflurane-anesthetized newborn pigs was observed by videomicroscopy (x310). Systemic hypoxia (PaO2 = 24 +/- 1 mm Hg; n = 8) or hemorrhagic hypotension (MABP = 41 ...
Smolenski R T - - 1993
A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic technique is presented allowing purine catabolite determination in a whole blood extract without a prior purification step. The method was applied to determine the timing and the profile of myocardial nucleotide catabolite release during reperfusion of the transplanted human heart. Samples of arterial ...
Heinle S - - 1993
Echocardiography and thallium-201 imaging with coronary vasodilators such as dipyridamole have been shown to be useful in detecting the presence and prognostic significance of coronary artery disease. Adenosine, a potent and direct coronary vasodilator, has a shorter physiologic half-life than dipyridamole, which exerts its effect by blocking the cellular uptake ...
Mason B A - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: We determined the cardiorespiratory effects of maternal adenosine administration on the ewe and fetus. STUDY DESIGN: Adenosine was infused intravenously to five pregnant ewes as graded (25 to 400 micrograms/min per kilogram) and constant (200 micrograms/min per kilogram) infusions and as a single injection (200 micrograms/kg). Heart rate, arterial ...
Hak J B - - 1993
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acidosis on the mean response time of mitochondrial oxygen consumption to steps in heart rate and in left ventricular balloon volume. The mean response time may be viewed as the average delay between a change in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ...
Nichols D G - - 1993
We tested whether fatigue of the piglet diaphragm is associated with inadequate oxidative metabolism as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). An MRS measured ratio of inorganic phosphate to phosphocreatine (Pi/PCr) > or = 1 was taken as evidence of inadequate oxidative metabolism. Piglets (n = 10) underwent phrenic nerve ...
Shen Y T - - 1993
The systemic, coronary and regional vascular responses to the K+ATP channel opener lemakalim were compared to other potent vasodilators (i.e., nifedipine, adenosine, nitroglycerin and acetylcholine). Experiments were performed in 12 conscious dogs 2 to 4 weeks after implantation of aortic catheters and flow probes on the ascending aorta, left circumflex ...
Achike F I - - 1993
1. The addition of adenosine, CO2 and lactate to the venous blood draining an isolated constant-flow perfused gracilis muscle was studied in anaesthetized and artificially ventilated dogs during twitch and tetanic contractions. 2. Venous adenosine concentration increased from 154 +/- 33 nM (mean +/- S.E.M.) to 279 +/- 121 or ...
Leone R J RJ - - 1993
Twenty-six beagles of either sex, weighing 10.4 +/- 0.3 kg, were used to investigate the role of adenosine in the genesis of ventricular arrhythmias during systemic hypoxia. After instrumentation dogs were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: 14 dogs were pretreated before hypoxia with adenosine deaminase (n = ...
Fenton R A - - 1993
Endogenous interstitial adenosine may protect the hypoxic heart by attenuating beta-adrenergic-induced contractile and metabolic responses, thereby reducing energy utilization. Constant-flow perfused rat hearts were used to study: 1) the effect of hypoxia on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced increase in interstitial adenosine, as estimated with epicardial surface transudates, and 2) the role of ...
Zäll S - - 1993
In the early postoperative period after coronary artery bypass surgery, arterial hypertension commonly occurs which requires intravenous vasodilator therapy. Purine adenosine is a potent vasodilator and when exogenously administered it decreases systemic arterial blood pressure effectively. We evaluated the effects of adenosine on central hemodynamics and renal function when used ...
Kwiatkowska-Patzer B - - 1993
The potent virulence factor exotoxin A, produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has been reported to suppress the synthesis of the alpha-subunit of cardiac Gi protein and may have general effects upon synthesis of other myocardial proteins. To determine whether such exotoxin A actions influence specific functional properties of the intact heart, ...
Zäll S - - 1993
The effects of adenosine and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on central hemodynamics and myocardial blood flow and metabolism were investigated postoperatively after elective coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery in ten sedated and mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit. During three consecutive 15-min periods, SNP (0.8 +/- 0.1 micrograms.kg-1 x ...
Mitchell K D - - 1993
Experiments were performed in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rats to determine the effects of activation of P2 purinoceptors sensitive to ATP on glomerular capillary pressure, as estimated from proximal tubule stop-flow pressure (SFP) measurements, and on the magnitude of maximal tubuloglomerular feedback-mediated reductions in SFP. To selectively expose nephrons in vivo to ...
Adkins W K - - 1993
Previous studies indicate that adenosine attenuates phorbol myristate acetate-(PMA) induced canine lung injury, but the mechanism has not been explained. To evaluate adenosine's protective mechanism, isolated and blood-perfused dog lungs were challenged by PMA (50 micrograms) under control conditions and after both pre- and post-treatment with adenosine and pretreatment with ...
Fozard J R - - 1993
The cardiovascular effects of N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), a selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist and 2-[p-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21,680), a selective A2 receptor agonist have been investigated in the pithed rat with blood pressure raised to normal levels with angiotensin II. Cumulative intravenous administration of CPA, 0.3-10 micrograms/kg, induced dose-related falls in blood ...
Ferrannini E - - 1993
Myocardial muscle is considered to be a target tissue for insulin action, but direct measurements of insulin's effects on cardiac hemodynamics and intermediary metabolism in humans are scarce. We combined great cardiac vein (GCV)/arterial catheterization with the euglycemic insulin clamp technique and thermodilution in six healthy middle-aged (53 +/- 2 ...
Ince C - - 1993
Heterogeneity in the hypoxic state of Tyrode-perfused rat hearts was studied using NADH and Pd-porphine videofluorometry. Ischemic as well as high-flow anoxia resulted in a homogeneous rise of tissue NADH fluorescence, whereas normoxic recovery from both types of anoxia caused transiently persisting patchy fluorescent areas. Patterns were always the same ...
Koos B J - - 1993
The mechanism by which adenosine increases heart rate was investigated in 21 chronically catheterized fetal sheep (> 0.8 term). Intra-arterial infusion of adenosine (0.16 mg.min-1.kg fetal wt-1) for 1 h significantly increased fetal heart rate within 5 min with maximum values of approximately 68 beats/min above the control mean of ...
Hashimoto K - - 1993
Administration of exogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a vasodilator during cardiopulmonary bypass was assessed in consecutive adult patients (n = 24) who demonstrated a high arterial perfusion pressure (mean, > 90 mm Hg). The action of ATP was characterized by rapid induction and stabilization of the blood pressure level. The ...
Wesley R C RC - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the effect of a selective A1 adenosine receptor antagonist (N-0861) on postdefibrillation cardiovascular depression to determine whether antagonist mediated enhanced postdefibrillation haemodynamic recovery is due to reversal of the antiadrenergic action of adenosine, an A1 receptor mediated effect. METHODS: Halothane-nitrous oxide anaesthetised Duroc pigs ...
Wainwright C L - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: Adenosine has previously been shown to protect against ischaemia induced ventricular arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to determine whether stimulation of A1 adenosine receptors with a selective agonist also protects against arrhythmias, and to attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Large White/Welsh Landrace cross breed domestic ...
Janier M F - - 1993
To evaluate the role of adenosine receptors in the mediation of adenosine-induced protection of the heart during ischemia and reperfusion, isolated rabbit hearts were perfused at constant flow with 1 microM adenosine started before low-flow ischemia followed by reperfusion. Adenosine delayed the time of onset of ischemic contracture [to 28 ...
Garlick P B - - 1993
NMR spectroscopy, possibly, does not detect 100% of large molecules such as glycogen (mol.wt = 10(7)-10(9)). Using both NMR and chemical quantification methods, we have, therefore, determined the NMR visibility of cardiac glycogen (defined as the ratio of the NMR value to the chemical value, expressed as a percentage) in ...
Blum H - - 1993
A number of cardiac metabolic intermediates, namely, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), H+, phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and related functions of these intermediates, Gibbs' free energy of ATP hydrolysis (delta G) and phosphorylation ratio [ATP/(ADP.Pi)], are thought to adjust mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation rates to conform to mechanical demand. ...
Aussedat J - - 1992
We report studies on the isolated hearts of rats treated with triiodothyronine (0.2 mg/kg daily) for 14 days, on spontaneously hypertensive rats (12 and 21 weeks old, Lyon strain) and on their respective controls. A 30% increase in cardiac weight was developed with triiodothyronine and a 40% increase in heart ...
Tanaka K - - 1992
A new gating NMR technique triggered by pulses for the cardiac pacing of isolated, perfused rat heart is described. This technique is suitable for obtaining spectra at the same positions over the cardiac cycle with the same RF pulse repetition time and with constant heart rate. Accordingly, each recovered magnetization ...
Ely S W - - 1992
We employed an isolated guinea-pig heart model perfused at constant pressure (70 cmH2O) to test the hypothesis that inhibition of adenosine metabolism increases interstitial adenosine concentrations (as measured with epicardial discs) and coronary flow. Iodotubercidin (ITU, 1 microM) and EHNA (erythro-9-[2-hydroxy-3-nonyl] adenine, 5 microM) were used to inhibit adenosine kinase ...
Orito K - - 1992
Vasodepressor mechanisms of adenosine were investigated in spinally-anesthetized dogs. An i.v.-infusion of adenosine (0.1-10 mumol/kg/min) caused a slowly developing and sustained decrease in blood pressure (BP). This vasodepression was antagonized by glibenclamide, a blocker of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels. On the other hand, a transient decrease in BP caused by ...
De Scheerder I K - - 1992
The effect of repeated short anoxic or ischemic periods on ATP breakdown and cardiac function remains controversial. To analyze this issue further and to study the regulation of adenine nucleotide breakdown during recurrent cardiac anoxia, we compared two different protocols of intermittent anoxia. Four rat hearts, perfused according to Langendorff, ...
Haywood G A - - 1992
BACKGROUND: Elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance is an important determinant of right ventricular function in patients with end-stage biventricular heart failure. Vasodilator drug therapy directed at the pulmonary vasculature is used in the hemodynamic assessment of patients for orthotopic heart transplantation, and therapy aimed at decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance and ...
Yanagi S - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The excessive release of adenosine has been reported to cause hyperaemia and to attenuate ischaemic injury in microembolised hearts. The direct effects of exogenous adenosine on cardiac performance were investigated in microembolised guinea pig hearts with the simultaneous measurement of phosphate compounds. METHODS: 21 male guinea pig hearts were ...
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