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Results 301 - 350 of 883
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Siebenaller JF - - 1999
The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the receptor-stimulated exchange of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) for guanosine diphosphate (GDP) on the a subunit of G proteins were studied in two congeneric marine teleost fishes that differ in their depths of distribution. The poorly hydrolyzable GTP analog [35S]guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate ([35S]GTP[S]) was used to ...
Zahedi A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Stimuli such as inferoposterior myocardial infarction and right coronary injection with radiographic contrast media evoke a vasodepressor reflex characterized by bradycardia and hypotension (Bezold-Jarisch reflex). Dipyridamole acts by adenosine-mediated coronary vasodilation to disclose myocardial perfusion heterogeneity for thallium-201 scintigraphy. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a relationship between the ...
Gardiner S M - - 1999
1. To determine the putative contribution of K(ATP)-channels to the haemodynamic sequelae of endotoxaemia, three experiments were carried out in different groups of conscious, chronically-instrumented, unrestrained, male Long Evans rats. 2. In the first experiment, pretreatment with the K(ATP)-channel antagonist, glibenclamide, abolished the initial hypotension, but not the renal vasodilatation ...
Phillis J W - - 1999
Experiments were performed on isolated, nonworking rat hearts perfused at constant pressure according to the Langendorff technique to evaluate the role of adenosine in hypercapnia-evoked coronary vasodilation. Hypercapnia/acidosis resulted in increases in heart rate and coronary flow rates in conjunction with a decrease in ventricular contractile tensions. The adenosine deaminase ...
Arakawa J - - 1999
The present study was carried out to determine the effect of 5-(N, N-dimethyl)-amiloride (DMA), a specific inhibitor of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, on the cardiac mechanical and metabolic derangements induced by palmitoyl-L-carnitine (PALCAR). Rat hearts were perfused aerobically at a constant flow according to the Langendorff technique, while being paced electrically. ...
Chung Y - - 1999
1H/(31)P NMR has followed the metabolic response to increased work in the glucose- and pyruvate-perfused rat myocardium during a heart cycle and at the steady state. With electrical pacing and dobutamine, the heart O(2) consumption increases by 56%. The phosphocreatine (PCr) level initially declines, but recovers within 15 min to ...
Fukata Y - - 1999
Usefulness of the Doppler method under continuous infusion of adenosine triphosphate disodium (ATP) for improvement of accuracy in the diagnosis of the left internal thoracic arterial graft (LITA) patency was examined using transthoracic ultrasonic echocardiography. 1) Influence of ATP on the Doppler velocity in a graft was examined in 7 ...
Mateo P - - 1999
To study the relation among mitochondrial energy supply, cardiac performance, and energy transfer through creatine kinase (CK), two acute models of inhibition of ATP synthesis were compared in the isovolumic acetate-perfused rat heart. Similar impairments of mechanical performance (rate-pressure product, RPP) were achieved by various stepwise decreases in O(2) supply ...
Rongen G A - - 1999
By stimulating afferent nerve endings in skeletal muscle, heart, kidney and the carotid body, adenosine infusion evokes a receptor-specific sympatho-excitatory reflex in humans that overrides its direct negative chronotropic effect. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine increases heart rate by suppressing parasympathetic and augmenting sympathetic components of heart rate variability. ...
Taguchi T - - 1999
The effects of YM934 [2-(3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-6-nitro-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-4-yl) pyridine N-oxide], an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channel opener, on stunned myocardium were examined. Forty eight anesthetized dogs were subjected to 15 min of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. To elucidate the possible contribution of the cardioprotective ...
Kalsi K K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Impaired energy metabolism in the failing human heart could be an important mechanism of functional deterioration. The purpose of this study was to assess the changes of myocardial energy metabolism in the human heart at end-stage heart failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The left ventricular myocardium of patients undergoing heart ...
Bache R J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: High cardiac workloads produced by catecholamine infusion result in loss of myocardial phosphocreatine (PCr) and accumulation of inorganic phosphate (Pi) which are more prominent in heart with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) than in normal hearts. Since ischemia can cause changes in phosphorylated compounds similar to those during catecholamine stimulation, ...
Saupe K W - - 1999
Decreasing coronary perfusion causes an immediate decrease in contractile function via unknown mechanisms. It has long been suspected that this contractile dysfunction is caused by ischemia-induced changes in cardiac energetics. Our goal was to determine whether changes in cardiac energetics necessarily precede the contractile dysfunction as one would expect if ...
Hermann H P - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Pyruvate, as an intermediate in the Krebs cycle, is an important source of energy for myocardium and improves contractility of normal, hypoxic, and postischaemic animal myocardium. We investigated the effect of intracoronary pyruvate in patients with congestive heart failure. METHODS: Haemodynamic measurements were done in eight patients with dilated ...
Wicks T C - - 1999
Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation in the human body and serves as an obligate cofactor in approximately 300 essential enzymatic cellular reactions. Magnesium is crucial for the generation and use of adenosine triphosphate and is required for oxidative phosphorylation. A wide variety of internal and external stresses ...
Abdel-Zaher A O - - 1999
The effect of lithium chloride on the mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and heart contractility was evaluated in rabbits. The intravenous administration of 50 mg kg-1 lithium chloride as a bolus injection into rabbits produced a progressive decrease in the mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and heart contractility ...
Dumont F - - 1999
We report the in vivo evaluation (biodistribution, displacement and metabolization in blood, brain and heart) in mice and the metabolism in blood of human volunteers of iodine-123 labelled 1-(2-iodophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methyl-propyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide ([123I]iodo-PK11195), a potential radioligand for visualization of inflammation in humans by single-photon emission tomography. In three series of 18 white ...
Lurie K G - - 1999
Previous studies have demonstrated that the extracellular space (ECS) component of the atrioventricular (AV) node and His bundle region is larger than the ECS in adjacent contractile myocardium. The potential physiological significance of this observation was examined in a canine blood-perfused AV nodal preparation. Mannitol, an ECS osmotic expander, was ...
Harrison G J - - 1999
The effect of graded creatine kinase (CK) inhibition on the response time of mitochondrial O2 consumption to dynamic workload jumps (tmito) was studied in isolated rabbit hearts. Tyrode-perfused hearts (n = 7/group) were exposed to 15 min of 0, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mM iodoacetamide (IA) (CK activity = 100, ...
Kerttula T - - 1999
Amrinone-a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor-is used in the treatment of acute heart failure. In addition to its hemodynamic effects, amrinone has been shown to inhibit thromboxane synthesis in vitro. We investigated the effects of amrinone on thromboxane, prostaglandin, and leukotriene synthesis in humans. Eight healthy male volunteers took part in this ...
Snowdy S - - 1999
1. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacological properties (i.e. the AV nodal depressant, vasodilator, and inotropic effects) of two AV nodal blocking agents belonging to different drug classes; a novel A1 adenosine receptor (A1 receptor) agonist, N-(3(R)-tetrahydrofuranyl)-6-aminopurine riboside (CVT-510), and the prototypical calcium channel blocker diltiazem. ...
Halejcio-Delophont P - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Brain death-related cardiovascular dysfunction has been documented; however, its mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigated changes in myocardial function and metabolism in brain-dead and control pigs. METHODS: Heart rate, systolic (SAP) and mean (MAP) arterial pressure, left ventricular (LV) dP/dtmax, rate-pressure product, cardiac output (CO), left anterior descending coronary ...
Patole S - - 1998
Six consecutive cases of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) were treated with adenosine following failure of conventional therapy, excluding inhaled nitric oxide. A rise in arterial PO2 >20 mm Hg occurred in 5 of 6 cases within 30 min of commencing adenosine infusion. Individual maximal increases in PaO2 ...
Stella L - - 1998
1. Pharmacological studies have suggested that A3 receptors are present on central neurons. Recently this adenosine receptor subtype has been identified in the rat and its presence in the central nervous system has been confirmed. 2. In this study we investigated the effects of acute intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of N6-2-(4-aminophenyl)-ethyladenosine ...
Jayawant A M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Our laboratory has shown that the potassium-channel opener pinacidil is an effective cardioplegic agent. A theoretical benefit of cardioplegia with potassium-channel openers is that it arrests the heart at hyperpolarized membrane potentials, a state of minimal metabolic requirement. This study was designed to examine another nondepolarizing agent, adenosine, and ...
Harrison G J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Microdialysis and 31P-NMR spectroscopy were used to test opposing hypotheses that ischemic preconditioning inhibits adenine nucleotide degradation and purine efflux, or that preconditioning activates cardiovascular adenosine formation to provide enhanced cardioprotection. METHODS: 31P-NMR spectra and matching interstitial fluid (ISF) or venous effluent samples were obtained from Langendorff perfused rat ...
Brandon Bravo Bruinsma G J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic deterioration resulting from brain death-induced myocardial left ventricular dysfunction may preclude heart donation. A reduced myocardial high-energy phosphate content, assessed by biopsy specimens, has been suggested to be responsible for this phenomenon. By applying phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in vivo myocardial high-energy phosphate metabolism can be studied ...
Van Dorsten F A - - 1998
Hearts of wild-type and cytosolic muscle creatine kinase (M-CK)-knockout mice were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 10 mM glucose and 5 mM pyruvate and studied during pacing at 400 and 600 beats/min and during K+ arrest. Phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP concentrations in M-CK-deficient hearts were not significantly different from those ...
Kuzmin A I - - 1998
With the aim of estimating interstitial levels and the breakdown process of ATP, cardiac microdialysis was performed in the left ventricular wall of in situ control and postinfarcted as well as of isolated, Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. With the use of a bioluminescence technique for dialysate ATP measurement, the baseline interstitial ...
Martin C - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Short-term myocardial hibernation is characterized by an adaptation of contractile function to the reduced blood flow, the recovery of creatine phosphate content and lactate balance back towards normal, whereas ATP content remains reduced at a constant level. We examined the hypothesis that, despite the absence of ATP recovery, the ...
Sakai K - - 1998
The vasodilator effects of adenosine injected into the femoral artery (i.a.) of rabbits were analyzed. Single bolus i.a. doses of adenosine (0.3-10 microg) and 5'-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (CPCA) (0.03-1 microg), an adenosine A2-receptor agonist, produced dose-dependent increases in femoral blood flow and decreases in resistance, almost without affecting blood pressure, heart rate, ...
Mehta A B - - 1998
This study was designed to study the role of adenosine in ischaemic preconditioning. The clinical, electrocardiographic and metabolic parameters of ischaemia were compared before and after intracoronary adenosine during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in 15 patients with significant stenosis of the left anterior descending artery. Baseline ischaemia was demonstrated by ...
Nomura F - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Leukocytes have been shown to have an important role in ischemia/reperfusion injury. Adenosine also reduced this ischemia/reperfusion injury. There is an interaction between adenosine and leukocyte via receptor mediated function. To determine whether beneficial effects of adenosine on reperfusion injury is mediated by changes in leukocyte function, we studied ...
Leone R J RJ - - 1998
This study was designed to test whether increased inotropy caused by raising intracellular cAMP would add to the positive inotropy caused by reducing cGMP and whether this relationship was affected by experimental hypertrophy. We used open chest anesthetized dogs with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) induced by valvular aortic stenosis and ...
Takahashi K - - 1998
The effects of ketamine and isoflurane on the phosphoenergetic state of the liver during haemorrhage were investigated using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized with ketamine (1.0 mg kg-1 min-1 i.v., Ket 1.0 group, or 1.5 mg kg-1 min-1 i.v., Ket 1.5 group), or isoflurane ...
Rongen G A - - 1998
Blood pressure and heart rate responses to adenosine infusion (35, 70, and 140 microg/kg/min, intravenously) were studied in 7 healthy men after 6, 30, 78, 150, and 318 hours of abstinence from regular caffeine use. The finding that caffeine abstinence augmented the systolic pressor response (from -1 +/- 2 mm ...
Spindler M - - 1998
An arginine to glutamine missense mutation at position 403 of the beta-cardiac myosin heavy chain causes familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Here we study mice which have this same missense mutation (alphaMHC403/+) using an isolated, isovolumic heart preparation where cardiac performance is measured simultaneously with cardiac energetics using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance ...
Tofovic S P - - 1998
Adenosine is an ubiquitously occurring endogenous nucleoside that via cell surface receptors exerts multiple antihypertensive actions, and mediates a number of biological responses that may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore modulation of endogenous levels of adenosine may offer beneficial effects in hypertension. The objective of this study was to determine ...
Deem S - - 1998
Red blood cells (RBCs) are known to augment hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). To determine whether this phenomenon is hematocrit (Hct) dependent and related to alterations of either nitric oxide (NO) or adenosine metabolism, we studied mechanically ventilated, pump-perfused lungs from euthanized New Zealand White rabbits. Lungs were perfused in situ ...
Rongen G A - - 1998
We tested the hypothesis that endogenous angiotensin II participates in the direct and reflex effects of adenosine on the sympathetic nervous system. Nine healthy men were studied after 1 wk of the angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist losartan (100 mg daily) or placebo, according to a double-blind randomized crossover ...
Holtzman D - - 1998
The creatine kinase (CK) reaction is thought to be important in coupling ATP metabolism and regulating ADP concentration in tissues with high and variable ATP turnover, including cerebral gray matter (GM). There is low phosphocreatine (PCr), low CK reaction rates, and high mitochondrial CK (MiCK) isoenzyme activity in GM compared ...
Horn M - - 1998
Little is known about the regulation of total creatine concentration in heart, skeletal muscle, brain, liver and kidney in response to increased dietary creatine intake. The phosphorylated fraction of intracellular creatine (phosphocreatine) remain relatively constant, and therefore, higher intracellular creatine levels may increase the energy reserve of the heart [phosphocreatine ...
Thiel M - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a prophylactic intravenous infusion of adenosine on cardiopulmonary functions and oxygen-derived variables in a porcine model of endotoxemia. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, unblinded study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Thirty country bred pigs, aged 6 to 7 wks, weighing 24.9 +/- 0.65 (SEM) kg ...
Katagiri N - - 1998
The deamination of cyclaradine corresponding to a carbocyclic analogue of ara-A having anti-HSV activity by adenosine deaminase was examined under various pressure. The deamination of (+)- and (+/-)-cyclaradine was remarkably facilitated by high pressure, and the rate was increased with increasing of pressure. However, (-)-cyclaradine was not deaminated even under ...
Manthei S A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was: 1) to evaluate a dual microdialysis technique coupled with local drug administration in the regionally ischemic rabbit heart, and; 2) to assess the ischemia-induced changes in interstitial fluid (ISF) adenosine during inhibition of adenosine deaminase or adenosine kinase. METHODS: Two microdialysis probes were ...
Neubauer S - - 1998
This review describes the effects of changes in left ventricular pressures and heart rate on myocardial high-energy phosphate metabolism. When cardiac workload is substantially increased, creatine kinase flux will increase markedly, phosphocreatine will show a small but detectable decrease, and ATP will not change. In this context, heart rate is ...
Wasser J S - - 1997
Although freshwater turtles as a group are highly anoxia tolerant, dramatic interspecific differences in the degree of anoxia tolerance have been demonstrated in vivo. Painted turtles (Chrysemys picta bellii) appear to be the most hypoxia-tolerant species thus far studied, while softshelled turtles (Trionyx spinifer) are the most hypoxia-sensitive. We have ...
Friehs I - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The cardioprotective properties of exogenous and endogenously produced adenosine during ischemia have been shown previously. The models used to demonstrate the efficacy and mechanism of effect have been primarily of normothermic ischemia where adenosine was given pre-ischemia in an effort to mimic the preconditioning phenomena. The proposed mechanisms responsible ...
Balschi J A - - 1997
This study has two objectives; first, to develop perfusion conditions that decrease the free energy of ATP hydrolysis, Delta GATP, in isolated hearts; and, second, to modulate the Delta GATP in these perfused hear models. To accomplish the first goal, a series of inhibitors was employed to restrict acetyl-CoA oxidation. ...
Van Schaick E A - - 1997
Partial adenosine A1 receptor agonists with reduced intrinsic activity at the cardiovascular system would be promising for therapeutic application (e.g., as antilipolytic agents). In the present study a series of 8-alkylamino [methyl (M)-, ethyl (E)-, propyl (P)-, butyl (B)- and cyclopentyl (CP)-] derivatives of N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) were investigated in conscious ...
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