Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 2536
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Guardiola J - - 2007
Airway sensors play an important role in control of breathing. Recently, it was found that pulmonary slowly adapting stretch receptors (SARs) cease after a brief excitation following sodium pump blockade by ouabain. This deactivation can be explained by overexcitation. If this is true, mechanical stimulation of the SARs should also ...
Maybauer Marc O - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate ceftazidime in acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study in an investigational ICU at a university hospital. INTERVENTIONS: Eighteen female Merino sheep were prepared for chronic study and subjected to smoke inhalation and septic challenge according to an established protocol. ...
Su C-F - - 2007
Poly (ADP-ribose) synthase or polymerase (PARS and PARP, respectively) is a cytotoxic enzyme which causes cellular damage. Nicotinamide, a compound of vitamin B complex, has been reported to exert an inhibitory effect on PARS or PARP. The present study tests the effects of nicotinamide on acute lung injury and associated ...
Glénet Stéphane N - - 2007
Using simultaneous nitric oxide and carbon monoxide lung transfer measurements (T(LNO) and T(LCO)), the membrane transfer capacity (D(m)) and capillary lung volume (V(c)) as well as the dimensionless ratio T(LNO)/T(LCO) can be calculated. The significance of this ratio is yet unclear. Theoretically, the T(LNO)/T(LCO) ratio should be inversely related to ...
Emery Michael J - - 2007
CO(2) regulation of lung compliance is currently explained by pH- and CO(2)-dependent changes in alveolar surface forces and bronchomotor tone. We hypothesized that in addition to, but independently of, those mechanisms, the parenchyma tissue responds to hypercapnia and hypocapnia by relaxing and contracting, respectively, thereby improving local matching of ventilation ...
Constantin Jean-Michel - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Alveolar fluid clearance is impaired in the majority of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Experimental studies have shown that a reduction of tidal volume increases alveolar fluid clearance. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of the response to a recruitment maneuver (RM) on net alveolar ...
Eyal Fabien G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Alveolar macrophages are the sentinel cell for activation of the inflammatory cascade when the lung is exposed to noxious stimuli. We investigated the role of macrophages in mechanical lung injury by comparing the effect of high-volume mechanical ventilation with or without prior depletion of macrophages. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized ...
Fields Michael J - - 2007
Pulmonary ischemia resulting from chronic pulmonary embolism leads to proliferation of the systemic circulation within and surrounding the lung. However, it is not clear how well alveolar tissue is sustained during the time of complete pulmonary ischemia. In the present study, we investigated how pulmonary ischemia after left pulmonary artery ...
Gillis Robert C - - 2007
Lung protective ventilation strategies for patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are well documented, and many medical centers fail to apply these strategies in ALI/ARDS. The objective of this study was to determine if we apply these strategies in trauma patients at risk for ...
Fujita Yasuki - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The study investigated the effect of peak inspiratory flow in a rabbit acute lung injury model. MATERIAL/METHODS: Twenty-five male rabbits were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated with high tidal volume (V(T)) until PaO2 dropped below 300 mmHg. Then the animals were randomly assigned to two groups: group V (n=10) receiving ...
Cagirici U - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of N-butyl cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive for the prevention of air leak together with the morphological changes to lung parenchyma. METHODS: Twelve New Zealand rabbits were used. The rabbits were ventilated with pressure-controlled ventilation during the experiment, beginning with a ...
Tanju S - - 2007
This study was designed to compare the early effects of docetaxel and paclitaxel on pulmonary physiology after isolated lung perfusion. Rats underwent isolated left lung perfusion with docetaxel in group 1 (n = 5), paclitaxel in group 2 (n = 5), and 0.9 %NaCl in the control group (n = ...
Musch Guido G Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. - - 2007
Alveolar overdistension and repetitive derecruitment-recruitment contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The authors investigated (1) whether inflammatory cell activation due to VILI was assessable by positron emission tomography and (2) whether cell activation due to dynamic overdistension alone was detectable when other manifestations of VILI were not yet evident. The ...
Santus Pierachille - - 2007
In a three-way crossover pilot study, the acute effects of tiotropium 18 microg inhalation on the respiratory function and arterial blood gas tensions of 30 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were compared with those of salmeterol 50 microg and formoterol 12 microg. In each study day, lung ...
Van De Wauwer Caroline - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The use of non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) has been propagated as an alternative to overcome the scarcity of pulmonary grafts. Formation of microthrombi after circulatory arrest, however, is a major concern for the development of reperfusion injury. We looked at the effect and the best route of pulmonary flush following ...
Frank James A JA Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA. - - 2007
To study air space fluid clearance (AFC) under conditions that resemble the clinical setting of pulmonary edema in patients, we developed a new perfused human lung preparation. We measured AFC in 20 human lungs rejected for transplantation and determined the contribution of AFC to lung fluid balance. AFC was then ...
Snyder Eric M - - 2007
The beta2-adrenergic receptors (beta2AR) play an important role in lung fluid regulation. Previous research has suggested that subjects homozygous for arginine at amino acid 16 of the beta2AR (Arg16) may have attenuated receptor function relative to subjects homozygous for glycine at the same amino acid (Gly16). We sought to determine ...
Bellardine Black Carissa L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury are characterized by heterogeneous flooding/collapse of lung tissue. An emerging concept for managing these diseases is to set mechanical ventilation so as to minimize the impact of disease heterogeneity on lung mechanical stress and ventilation distribution. The goal of this study ...
Burburan Shirley Moreira - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There are no studies examining the effects of sevoflurane on a chronically inflamed and remodeled airway, such as that found in asthma. In the present study, we sought to define the respiratory effects of sevoflurane in a model of chronic allergic asthma. For this purpose, pulmonary mechanics were studied ...
Morris Kevin - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of a sustained inflation (SI) maneuver on the regional distribution of gas and perfluorocarbon (PFC) during partial liquid ventilation (PLV) in normal pigs using computerized densitometry. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Three healthy anaesthetized pigs. INTERVENTIONS: Partial liquid ventilation, lung recruitment, ...
Verbrugge Serge J C - - 2007
This review addresses the physiological background and the current status of evidence regarding ventilator-induced lung injury and lung protective strategies. Lung protective ventilatory strategies have been shown to reduce mortality from adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We review the latest knowledge on the progression of lung injury by mechanical ventilation ...
Iglesias Manuela - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the safety and feasibility of implanting the pumpless interventional lung assist device (Novalung; Novalung GmbH, Hechingen, Germany) to the axillary vessels either by means of direct cannulation or end-to-side graft interposition and the capability of either type of vascular access to provide respiratory support during ...
Dubus Jean-Christophe - - 2007
The best delivery of a drug in ventilated neonates is obtained when using a small particle diameter solution administered via a spacer. Lung deposition of hydrofluoroalkane beclomethasone dipropionate (QVAR, 1.3 microm particles), delivered via an Aerochamber-MV15, was measured in piglets under conditions mimicking ventilated severely ill neonates (uncuffed 2.5 mm ...
Krieg Sally - - 2007
QUESTION: What is the effect of sitting and side-lying on the distribution of ventilation during tidal breathing in healthy older people? DESIGN: Randomised, within-participant, experimental study. PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy people more than 65 years old. INTERVENTION: Tidal breathing during sitting and right side-lying. OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution of ventilation as a ...
Cunha-Goncalves Doris - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage is an alternative to diagnostic bronchoscopy in pediatric patients, as fiberoptic bronchoscopes with aspiration channels are too large for small infants. There are many variations of the method in clinical practice, and saline instillation followed by open endotracheal suctioning is still commonly used. Lung function can ...
Reinhardt Joseph M - - 2007
The main function of the respiratory system is gas exchange. Since many disease or injury conditions can cause biomechanical or material property changes that can alter lung function, there is a great interest in measuring regional lung ventilation. We describe a registration-based technique for estimating local lung expansion from multiple ...
Aboab J - - 2007
Previous studies have indicated that, during mechanical ventilation, an inspiratory pause enhances gas exchange. This has been attributed to prolonged time during which fresh gas of the tidal volume is present in the respiratory zone and is available for distribution in the lung periphery. The mean distribution time of inspired ...
Dries David J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The time course of the physiological derangements that result from ventilator-induced lung injury has not been adequately described. Similarly, the regional topographies of pleural pressure and tissue edema have not been carefully mapped for this injury process. METHODS: Lung injury was induced in 9 normal pigs by ventilating for ...
Uchiyama Akinori - - 2007
The aim of the study was to assess a new expiratory support (ES) system in resolving air trapping in the lungs during mechanical ventilation. The ES system consisted of a cylinder and two valves that were connected to the ventilatory circuit. The movements of them were synchronized with the ventilator. ...
Pelosi P - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: There has been an exponentially increasing interest in intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). The intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) markedly affects the function of the respiratory system. METHODS: This review will focus on the available literature from the past few years. A Medline and Pubmed search was performed in order to find an ...
Miserocchi Giuseppe - - 2007
The air blood barrier is a gas exchanger and is well designed to fulfill this task as its main feature is its minimum thickness that in turn reflects a minimum amount of extravascular water. The maintenance of a minimum water volume is due to mechanisms able to control interstitial fluid ...
West J B - - 2007
Some 300 million yrs ago, the ancestors of modern reptiles emerged from water and were committed to air breathing. They were exothermic and incapable of sustained levels of high physical activity. But from them evolved the two great classes of vertebrates with high levels of maximal oxygen consumption: the mammals ...
Tyvold Stig S - - 2007
Contents of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the bronchi are of central interest in lung diseases, acute lung injury and pharmacology. The most commonly used technique broncheoalveolar lavage is invasive and may cause lung injury. Microdialysis (MD) is a method for continuous sampling of extracellular molecules in the immediate ...
Luria Oded O Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, - - 2007
Ventilation using high-frequency oscillation (HFO) has become a standard care for the ventilatory management of critically ill newborns. In recent years, there has been growing recognition that maintenance of an optimal lung volume during high-frequency oscillation plays an important role in minimizing ventilator-induced lung injury. The primary variable affecting lung ...
Fraisse Alain - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To characterize hemodynamic changes during experimental aspiration pneumonitis, paying special attention to echocardiographic assessment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Animal study in a university-based research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Fourteen mechanically ventilated New Zealand white rabbits INTERVENTIONS: We instilled 1 ml/kg human gastric juice (mean pH: 4.1+0.2) intratracheally. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were ...
Lessa Andrea - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Volume-induced lung injury is associated with lung inflammation. Pentoxifylline inhibits cytokine release and modulates neutrophil function. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of pentoxifylline in the attenuation of lung inflammation induced by high tidal volume ventilation. DESIGN: Adult rats were randomly assigned to receive saline as placebo or pentoxifylline (100mg/kg ...
Lovering Andrew T - - 2007
Postmortem microsphere studies in adult human lungs have demonstrated the existence of intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways using nonphysiological conditions. The aim of the current study was to determine whether large diameter (>25 and 50 microm) intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are functional in human and baboon lungs under physiological perfusion and ventilation pressures. ...
Ramnath Venktesh R - - 2006
Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome are inflammatory conditions involving a broad spectrum of lung injury from mild respiratory abnormality to severe respiratory derangement. Regardless of cause (direct or indirect lung injury), pulmonary physiology and mechanics are altered, leading to hypoxemic respiratory failure. the use of positive pressure ...
Roosens Carl D - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The benefits of lung-protective ventilation strategies used for acute respiratory distress syndrome in subjects with normal lungs are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic effects of conventional lung-protective ventilation (CLPV) and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in a normal lung animal model. DESIGN: Prospective laboratory ...
Dueck Ron - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To address lung recruitment according to pressure/volume curves, along with regional recruitment versus hyperinflation evidence from computed tomography and electrical impedance tomography. RECENT FINDINGS: Cyclical tidal volume recruitment of atelectatic lung regions causes acute lung injury, as do large breaths during pneumonectomy. Using the lower inflection point ...
Uhlig Ulrike - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple organ failure (MOF) require mechanical ventilation for several days. The enormous significance of the ventilation strategy for the outcome of these patients is well appreciated. However, most studies have focused on the onset and the early phase of MOF. It was the aim of the current ...
Frank James A JA Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California-San Francisco, 4150 Clement Street, Mail Stop 111D, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA. - - 2006
For patients with acute lung injury, positive pressure mechanical ventilation is life saving. However, considerable experimental and clinical data have demonstrated that how clinicians set the tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure, and plateau airway pressure influences lung injury severity and patient outcomes including mortality. In order to better identify ventilator-associated ...
Kjaergaard Benedict - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Acute respiratory failure can make long distance transport by air extremely difficult. Despite pressurised cabins, the pressure will fall to about three quarters of one atmosphere, and the oxygen partial pressure will fall proportionally. Interventional lung assist (iLA) is a well documented treatment in the critical care unit, but ...
Yin Kingsley - - 2007
BACKGROUND: One lung ventilation is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Although there have been several reports showing that one-lung ventilation can cause pathophysiological alterations such as pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and intrapulmonary shunting, there have been virtually no reports on the effects of one-lung ventilation on lung histology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ...
Loring Stephen H - - 2007
Throughout life, most mammals breathe between maximal and minimal lung volumes determined by respiratory mechanics and muscle strength. In contrast, competitive breath-hold divers exceed these limits when they employ glossopharyngeal insufflation (GI) before a dive to increase lung gas volume (providing additional oxygen and intrapulmonary gas to prevent dangerous chest ...
Hinz J - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine regional pulmonary filling characteristics in 20 mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury. METHODS: Regional filling characteristics were calculated from tracings of regional tidal volumes vs. global tidal volumes measured by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). These plots were fitted to a ...
Downey Douglas M - - 2006
PURPOSE: Staple line reinforcement with bovine pericardium and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene during lung resections has shown reduction in air leak incidence and duration. Small intestinal submucosa and polyglycolic acid-trimethylene carbonate, have been introduced as new reinforcements for nonpulmonary staple lines. We hypothesize that reinforcement of staple lines in lungs with commercially ...
Lindgren Sophie - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess lung volume and compliance changes during open- and closed-system suctioning using electric impedance tomography (EIT) during volume- or pressure-controlled ventilation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study in a university research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Nine bronchoalveolar saline-lavaged pigs. INTERVENTIONS: Open and closed suctioning using a 14-F catheter in volume- or ...
Gika Masatoshi - - 2007
Tissue sealants can prevent the occurrence of pulmonary air leakage, although few studies have evaluated the seal-breaking pressure properties of the various methods. We developed a new method for repairing visceral pleural defects which combines fibrin glue with a sheet material. We used an animal model to compare its efficacy ...
Karmrodt J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Cyclic recruitment during mechanical ventilation contributes to ventilator associated lung injury. Two different pathomechanisms in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are currently discussed: alveolar collapse vs persistent flooding of small airways and alveoli. We compare two different ARDS animal models by computed tomography (CT) to describe different recruitment and ...
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