Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 2451
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Crimi Ettore - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Hemorrhagic shock followed by resuscitation (HSR) commonly triggers an inflammatory response that leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Hypothesis: HSR exacerbates mechanical stress-induced lung injury by rendering the lung more susceptible to ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS: Rats were subjected to HSR, and were randomized into an HSR + high ...
Parvulescu Viorel Nicu - - 2006
The negative pressure realized into the hemi thorax with lung pneumonectomy has consequences upon the mediastinum organ statics. This aspect results in expansion of the other lung. These changes are usual but limited in the adult lung pneumonectomy. In the right lung pneumonectomy, the mediastinum moves to the operated part ...
Sasser Scott M - - 2006
Current trends in global terrorism mandate that emergency medical services, emergency medicine and other acute care clinicians have a basic understanding of the physics of explosions, the types of injuries that can result from an explosion, and current management for patients injured by explosions. High-order explosive detonations result in near ...
Goldbogen Jeremy A - - 2006
Fin whales are among the largest predators on earth, yet little is known about their foraging behavior at depth. These whales obtain their prey by lunge-feeding, an extraordinary biomechanical event where large amounts of water and prey are engulfed and filtered. This process entails a high energetic cost that effectively ...
Peták F - - 2006
It was hypothesised that the recruitment of atelectatic lung areas is signified by changes in the airway and tissue mechanics, and by the appearance of crackle activity attributed to the sudden reopening of collapsed airways. The authors also assumed that the acoustic activity is an earlier indicator of lung recruitment ...
Chhabra S K - - 2006
Short-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, ipratropium bromide has been recommended as first-line drug in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). More recently, long acting beta2-agonist (LABA) bronchodilators such as formoterol have been shown to be useful in COPD. Limited information is available on the relative efficacy of these two drugs in COPD. A ...
Schreiber Torsten - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: In clinical lung injury areas of inflammation and structural alveolar alteration are unevenly distributed and interspaced between healthy or less injured lung areas. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) applied with mechanical ventilation (MV) may affect injured and healthy lung areas differently. We compared the effects of PEEP on the inflammatory ...
Nielsen Jonas - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The impact of lung-recruitment maneuvers on heart function at different volemic levels has not been studied in detail. We therefore investigated the effect on central hemodynamics of lung recruitment maneuvers at hypovolemia, normovolemia and hypervolemia in experimental lung injury. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, cross-over experimental study. SETTING: Animal laboratory at ...
Hooper Stuart B - - 2006
Mechanical forces, exerted on lung tissue via alterations in lung expansion are a major determinant of fetal lung development, having a potent effect on the rate of cellular proliferation, the differentiated state of alveolar epithelial cells and the three-dimensional tissue structure. As a result, much research is currently focused on ...
Morita Naoki - - 2006
Victims of fire accidents who sustain both thermal injury to the skin and smoke inhalation have gross evidence of oxidant injury. Therefore, we hypothesized that delivery of vitamin E, an oxygen superoxide scavenger, directly into the airway would attenuate acute lung injury postburn and smoke inhalation. Sheep (N = 17 ...
Ben-Dor Itsik - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Right-heart-catheterization and transthoracic echocardiography are routine tests to measure pulmonary artery systolic pressure among lung transplantation candidates. Echocardiography may be as accurate as right-heart-catheterization, without the inherent risks of an invasive test. METHODS: We examined the correlation between pulmonary pressures estimated by echocardiography versus right-heart-catheterization among lung transplantation candidates ...
Sentürk Mert - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypoxemia is considered to be the most important challenge during one-lung ventilation. Recent studies, however, have shown that one-lung ventilation can involve some lung damage and can therefore be per se a cause of hypoxemia. RECENT FINDINGS: It has been shown that some parameters of one-lung ventilation ...
Peralta C F A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To establish reference intervals for the fetal right, left and total lung volumes and heart volume between 12 and 32 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Fetal lung and heart volumes were measured using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound in 650 normal singleton pregnancies at 12-32 weeks. The VOCAL (Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis) ...
de Abreu Marcelo Gama - - 2006
BACKGROUND: It is currently not known whether vaporized perfluorohexane is superior to partial liquid ventilation (PLV) for therapy of acute lung injury. In this study, the authors compared the effects of both therapies in oleic acid-induced lung injury. METHODS: Lung injury was induced in 30 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs ...
Bellardine Carissa L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: There has recently been considerable interest in alternative lung-protective ventilation strategies such as variable ventilation (VV). We aimed at testing VV in a large animal lung injury model and exploring the mechanism of improvement in gas exchange seen with VV. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled comparative ventilation study. SETTING: Research laboratory ...
Wierup Per - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Only a minority of the potential candidates for lung donation are considered suitable, using current evaluation methods. A new method for ex vivo evaluation, with the potential for reconditioning of marginal and nonacceptable lungs, has been developed. This is a report of the ex vivo evaluation of six donor ...
Mascia Luciana - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the current standard ventilatory and cardiovascular management in potential organ donors. DESIGN: Prospective, multiple-center, observational survey. SETTING: A total of 15 intensive care units in 13 hospitals in Piedmont, Italy. PATIENTS: A total of 34 brain-dead patients enrolled in 6 months. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Demographics and ...
Mathur Anupam - - 2006
(99m)Tc-tertiary butyl isonitrile (TBI), a complex structurally similar to (99m)Tc-sestamibi, has been reported to be taken up in the myocardium, albeit with significant retention in liver and lungs, thereby leading to obscure heart images when used for in vivo imaging. In the present study, tert-butyl xanthate, which is similar to ...
García-Delgado Manuel - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The objective is to study whether alveolar overdistension can induce acute lung injury in pigs as assessed by analysis of respiratory and histological parameters and inflammatory markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental study, using mixed-breed pigs. Animals were assigned to one of the following groups: Control Group (CG) (n = ...
Santini Mario - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the validity of an electrothermal bipolar tissue sealing system (LigaSure, Valleylab Inc., USA) in lung surgery. METHODS: Our study was divided into two phases. Experimental: We performed sutures of pulmonary vessels and bronchi and lung wedge resections by LigaSure in 28 lungs of adult pigs; subsequently, we ...
Cepkova Magda - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Several biological markers of lung injury are predictors of morbidity and mortality in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). The low tidal volume lung-protective ventilation strategy is associated with a significant decrease in plasma biomarker levels compared to the high tidal volume ventilation strategy. The primary objective of this ...
Lynch James E - - 2006
Since its first description, acute respiratory distress syndrome has been characterized by abnormal physiologic and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Many adjunctive therapies have been developed to reduce the stresses of mechanical ventilation on already damaged lungs. We examined the mechanism of action and the latest clinical trial information ...
Mokry Juraj - - 2006
The effects of dexamethasone on in vitro airway reactivity associated with lung inflammation were investigated in rabbits with meconium aspiration. Oxygen-ventilated adult rabbits received an intratracheal bolus of 4 ml/kg body weight of saline (Sal, n = 4) or human meconium (25 mg/ml). Thirty minutes later, meconium-instilled animals intravenously received ...
Denny E - - 2006
A finite element model of mammalian lung parenchyma is used to study the effect of large non-uniform distortions on lung elastic behaviour. The non-uniform distortion is a uni-axial stretch from an initial state of uniform pressure expansion. For small distortions, the parenchymal properties are linearly isotropic and described by two ...
Ikeyama Kazuyuki - - 2006
The degree of lung inflation pressure during cold storage has a deep connection with lung functions after reperfusion. However, the change of the lung mechanical properties during cold storage at the different lung inflation pressure is unknown. We investigated the change of the mechanical properties both at the organ and ...
Santhanam Anand P - - 2006
In this paper we propose a method to simulate morphological changes caused by both closed and tension pneumothorax. We consider a clinical parameter, the pneumothorax-index (i.e., the degree of lung collapse), as the input to the simulation. Specifically, such an index constitutes a key parameter to the computation of the ...
Fujita Yasuki - - 2006
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate, using a rabbit model, the little-known effect of different levels of peak inspiratory flow on acutely injured lungs. METHODS: Fourteen male rabbits (body weight, 2,711 +/- 146 g) were anesthetized and their lungs were injured by alveolar overstretch with mechanical ventilation ...
Lasocki Sigismond - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Closed-circuit endotracheal suctioning (CES) is advocated for preventing hypoxemia caused by the loss of lung volume resulting from open endotracheal suctioning (OES). However, the efficiency of CES and OES on tracheal secretion removal has never been compared in patients with acute lung injury. The authors designed a two-part study ...
Ehlert Carey A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Hyperoxia and tidal volume mechanical ventilation are independent factors in the genesis of lung injury, but it remains unclear the extent to which each is responsible or contributes to this process in newborns. OBJECTIVES: To study the independent and combined effects of hyperoxia and tidal volume mechanical ventilation on ...
Garber Samuel J - - 2006
Dexamethasone (Dex) limits and all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) promotes alveolarization. While structural changes resulting from such hormonal exposures are known, their functional consequences are unclear. Neonatal rats were treated with Dex and/or RA during the first two weeks of life or were given RA after previous exposure to Dex. Morphology was ...
Zick Günther - - 2006
The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that a pumpless arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (interventional lung assist (ILA)) does not significantly improve oxygenation in a lavage model of acute lung injury. The study was designed as a prospective experimental study. The experiments were performed on seven pigs ...
Künzli Nino - - 2005
Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence correlates current levels of ambient air pollution with both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Oxidative stress, inflammation, induction of a pro-coagulatory state and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system appear to play a major role. Acute effects include changes in lung function, heart rate, blood pressure ...
Cotton Robert B - - 2006
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition with cimetidine reduces hyperoxic lung injury in young lambs. Nitric oxide (NO), also a CYP inhibitor, has been shown to either aggravate or protect against oxidant stress depending on experimental context. The objective of this study was to determine whether NO, like cimetidine, would protect young ...
Tingay David G - - 2006
RATIONALE: The importance of applying high-frequency oscillatory ventilation with a high lung volume strategy in infants is well established. Currently, a lack of reliable methods for assessing lung volume limits clinicians' ability to achieve the optimum volume range. OBJECTIVES: To map the pressure-volume relationship of the lung during high-frequency oscillatory ...
Pfitzner J - - 2005
The present report describes two similar thoracoscopic procedures performed on the same 81-year-old male patient. Because acute hypoxia had developed during one-lung ventilation on the first occasion, serial blood gases were taken during the second. Also, whereas on the first occasion the non-ventilated lung had been left open to air ...
Nawab Ursula S - - 2005
Low-density gas mixtures, such as heliox, were shown to reduce the work of breathing and facilitate the distribution of inspired gas. Since supplemental ventilatory and oxygen requirements may lead to pulmonary inflammation and structural alterations, we hypothesized that by reducing these requirements, heliox breathing may attenuate the acute inflammatory and ...
Pfitzner J - - 2005
At the time one-lung ventilation is initiated, nitrogen from the atmosphere may enter the non-ventilated lung via a double-lumen tube connector that has been left open to air, even momentarily. Ongoing oxygen uptake from the non-ventilated lung raises the partial pressure of nitrogen. This should lead to activation of hypoxic ...
Pekkan Kerem - - 2005
BACKGROUND: In our multicenter study of the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC), a cohort of patients with long-segment left pulmonary artery (LPA) stenosis was observed (35%). The clinically recognized detrimental effects of LPA stenosis motivated a computational fluid dynamic simulation study within 3-dimensional patient-specific and idealized TCPC pathways. The goal of ...
Karzai Waheedullah - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Based on the association between the neutrophil and ventilator-induced lung injury, the authors hypothesized that neutrophil inhibition with fucoidin would be beneficial and stimulation with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) would be harmful in a rat model of lethal ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS: Animals (n = 111) were randomly assigned ...
Ellman Peter I - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: It is well known that hyperoxia can be potentially harmful to the ventilated patient, although little is known about the potential effects in the setting of lung reperfusion. We hypothesized that hyperoxic ventilation at the time of reperfusion could worsen the effects of lung reperfusion injury. METHODS: Using an ...
Brady Ken M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To describe lung isolation and the selective application of continuous positive airway pressure using an endobronchial blocker in a patient with sickle cell disease and unilateral necrotizing Clostridium perfringens pneumonia. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit. PATIENT: A 12-yr-old male with sickle cell disease developed persistent necrotizing ...
David Matthias - - 2005
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study the dynamics of lung compartments by dynamic CT (dCT) imaging during uninterrupted pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) settings in healthy and damaged lungs. DESIGN: Experimental animal investigation. SETTING: Experimental animal facility of a university department. INTERVENTIONS: In seven anesthetized pigs, static inspiratory ...
Ng Ju-Mei - - 2005
A 64-yr-old man underwent right thoracotomy and upper lobectomy for lung carcinoma. Hypoxemia on one-lung ventilation was being managed with continuous positive airway pressure to the nondependent lung when a sleeve resection had to be performed. As this positive airway pressure would no longer be maintained with the bronchus open, ...
Haney Michael F - - 2005
Lung inflation with positive airway pressure may have rapid and dynamic effects on myocardial contractile function. We designed this study to assess the magnitude and time to onset of myocardial function changes during the initiation of single positive pressure lung inflation at clinically relevant inflation pressures. In 8 anesthetized 40-kg ...
Bull Joseph L - - 2005
The effects of end-inspiratory lung volume (EILV) and expiratory flow rate (Q) on the location of flow limitation in liquid-filled lungs were investigated by measuring pressure along the airways and by radiographic imaging. The lungs of New Zealand white rabbits were filled with perfluorocarbon to the randomly selected EILV of ...
Ji Qing - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that pentoxifylline (PTX) exerts multiple beneficial effects on the inflammatory cascade, particularly on the function of neutrophils. We investigated whether continuous infusion of PTX could reduce indirect lung injury (ILI) caused by fresh water drowning and if so, what is the possible molecular mechanism. METHODS: ...
Henzler Dietrich - - 2006
Although recruitment of atelectatic lung is a common aim in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the effects of a recruitment maneuver have not been assessed quantitatively. By multislice spiral CT (MSCT), we analyzed the changes in lung volumes calculated from the changes in the CT values of hyperinflated (V(HYP)), normally ...
Negrini Daniela - - 2006
The specific role of solid extracellular matrix components in opposing development of pulmonary interstitial edema was studied in adult anesthetized rabbits by challenging the lung parenchyma with an intravenous injection of a bolus of collagenase or heparanase. In 10 rabbits, pulmonary interstitial pressure (Pip) was measured by micropuncture in control ...
Izumi Yotaro - - 2005
Previously, we, and others found that cryoablation on normal lung produced localized pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, causing obliteration of air space. Therefore, we hypothesized that lung air leakage may be diminished by this procedure. In the present study, we examined if cryoablation can attenuate experimentally created lung air leakage. Male ...
Jegger D - - 2005
When lung function is compromised,alternative devices need to be deployed in order to maintain blood oxygenation. A new device, NovaLung, has been designed for acute lung failure. We went about evaluating its gas exchange capability. Three calves (79.5 +/- 7.8 kg) were connected to the NovaLung System with a priming ...
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