Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 2475
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MacIntyre Neil - - 2006
Acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) describe syndromes of diffuse parenchymal lung injury resulting from a variety of inflammatory triggers. The pathophysiological consequences include stiff, low-compliance lungs with impaired gas exchange. Importantly, there is often marked heterogeneity of disease. Positive pressure ventilation must therefore not ...
Belperio John A - - 2006
Mortality rates from acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) range from 30 to 65%. Although mechanical ventilation (MV) may delay mortality in critically ill patients with ALI/ARDS, it may also cause a lung injury that further promotes and perpetuates ALI/ARDS and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Recent studies have ...
De Troyer André - - 2006
After single-lung transplantation (SLT) for emphysema, a hyperinflated (native) lung operates in parallel with a normal (transplanted) lung. The interpulmonary distribution of the changes in pleural pressure (DeltaP(pl)) during breathing, however, is unknown. To approach the problem, two endotracheal tubes were inserted in the right and left main stem bronchi ...
Jiang Lijun - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass may cause lung injury that does not respond to traditional therapies. Total liquid ventilation has been developed as an alternative ventilatory strategy for severe lung injury. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of total liquid ventilation on lung injury in piglets after cardiopulmonary ...
Schreiber Torsten - - 2006
Mechanical ventilation (MV) with large tidal volumes (V(T)) causes ventilator induced lung injury. Whereas immediate effects of short-term injurious ventilation are well studied, little is known about its long-term effects. We aimed to establish an animal model of selective injurious MV, permitting assessment of the long-term course of ventilation-induced lung ...
Parker James C - - 2006
Endothelial cells isolated from pulmonary arteries (RPAEC) and microcirculation (RPMVEC) of rat lungs were grown to confluence on porous filters and mounted on an Ussing-type chamber. Transmembrane pressure (deltaP) was controlled by the reservoir height, and the filtration rate corrected for surface area (J(v)/A) was measured by timing fluid movement ...
Takashima Seiki - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: If lungs could be retrieved from non-heart-beating donors, the critical shortage of lungs for transplantation could be alleviated. However, lungs subjected to warm ischemia develop edema when reperfused. We hypothesized that ventilation of rat lungs from non-heart-beating donors with nitric oxide during the period of warm ischemia alone, with ...
Erasmus Michiel E - - 2006
Donor shortage urges optimal use of all lungs available. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a method to evaluate lung function before implantation. EVLP was performed in pigs to evaluate lung function, using two different clinical non-heart-beating (NHS) donor protocols: flush perfusion and topical cooling after 1-h warm ischaemia (n ...
Haney Michael F - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Conductance catheter in vivo ventricular volume measurements during lung ventilation may provide important information on left ventricular (LV) function. Breathing potentially may alter parallel conductance (V(c)), complicating interpretation of the conductance-derived volume signals. The effects of controlled positive pressure lung inflation (PPLI) on measured parallel conductance with dual-field conductance ...
Cho Michael H MH Division of Pulmonary , Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2006
Open lung biopsy in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may provide a specific etiology and change clinical management, yet concerns about complications remain. Persistent air leak is the most common postoperative complication. Risk factors in this setting are not known. We performed a retrospective analysis of 53 patients who underwent ...
Maina J N - - 2007
Among the air-breathing vertebrates, the respiratory system of birds, the lung-air sac system, is remarkably complex and singularly efficient. The most perplexing structural property of the avian lung pertains to its exceptional mechanical strength, especially that of the minuscule terminal respiratory units, the air- and the blood capillaries. In different ...
Groeneveld A B Johan - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We studied the relationship, and the effect of fluid loading on this, between the ratio of extravascular lung water (EVLW) to intrathoracic/pulmonary blood volumes (ITBV, PBV) and the radionuclide pulmonary leak index (PLI) to protein during sepsis-induced acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective ...
Kuzkov Vsevolod V - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To find out if the extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and the derived permeability indexes determined by the single transpulmonary thermodilution technique are associated with markers of acute lung injury in human septic shock. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Mixed intensive care unit of a 900-bed university hospital. PATIENTS: ...
Wang Jianpu - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the endothelin system is involved in chlorine gas-induced lung injury. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Academic research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four domestic juvenile pigs. INTERVENTIONS: Anesthetized, ventilated pigs were exposed to chlorine gas (400 parts per million in air) for 20 mins and then randomly allocated ...
Schibler Andreas - - 2006
The most commonly observed severe lung injuries in early life are the respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants and the acute respiratory distress syndrome in children. Both diseases are characterised by alveolar instability, fluid filled airspace and some degree of airway obstruction. In the acute phase, collapsed alveoli can be ...
Ogawa Eileen N - - 2006
RATIONALE: Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a macrophage-derived proinflammatory cytokine that can cause lung injury. OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that HMGB1 is released in intact lungs ventilated with large Vt. A second objective was to identify the ...
- - 2006
BACKGROUND: Optimal fluid management in patients with acute lung injury is unknown. Diuresis or fluid restriction may improve lung function but could jeopardize extrapulmonary-organ perfusion. METHODS: In a randomized study, we compared a conservative and a liberal strategy of fluid management using explicit protocols applied for seven days in 1000 ...
Borges João B - - 2006
RATIONALE: The hypothesis that lung collapse is detrimental during the acute respiratory distress syndrome is still debatable. One of the difficulties is the lack of an efficient maneuver to minimize it. OBJECTIVES: To test if a bedside recruitment strategy, capable of reversing hypoxemia and collapse in > 95% of lung ...
Houmes R-J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of a small dose of perfluorocarbon on the recruitment pressure needed to open atelectatic lung areas. METHODS: In 12 Yorkshire pigs (body weight, 9 kg), lung injury was induced by whole lung lavage. After 1 h of conventional ventilation, an open ...
Konrad Christoph J - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Local anesthetics (LAs) possess a variety of effects that cannot be explained by the typical block of neuronal sodium channels. Antithrombotic effects of LAs are well known, but LAs also act as bactericides. Therefore, an investigation of the influence of LAs on the inflammatory response of the ...
Rossi Patrik - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To compare the single thermal indicator dilution (STID) technique for measurement of extravascular lung water (EVLW(STID)) with gravimetrically determined EVLW (EVLW(GRAV)) in anesthetized pigs under sham and endotoxemic conditions. DESIGN: Open experimental comparative animal study. SETTING: University animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Fifteen anesthetized landrace pigs. INTERVENTIONS: Endotoxin infusion during ...
Hansen Lars Kjaersgaard - - 2006
We investigated whether selective lung recruitment of a lobar collapse would improve oxygenation and lung volume as well as a general (global) lung recruitment maneuver, with fewer circulatory side effects. In 10 ventilated, anesthetized pigs, a bronchial blocker was inserted in the right lower lobe, which was selectively lavaged to ...
Gattinoni Luciano - - 2006
BACKGROUND: In the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may decrease ventilator-induced lung injury by keeping lung regions open that otherwise would be collapsed. Since the effects of PEEP probably depend on the recruitability of lung tissue, we conducted a study to examine the relationship between the ...
Crimi Ettore E Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2006
Hemorrhagic shock followed by resuscitation (HSR) commonly triggers an inflammatory response that leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome. HSR exacerbates mechanical stress-induced lung injury by rendering the lung more susceptible to ventilator-induced lung injury. Rats were subjected to HSR, and were randomized into an HSR + high tidal volume and ...
Parvulescu Viorel Nicu - - 2006
The negative pressure realized into the hemi thorax with lung pneumonectomy has consequences upon the mediastinum organ statics. This aspect results in expansion of the other lung. These changes are usual but limited in the adult lung pneumonectomy. In the right lung pneumonectomy, the mediastinum moves to the operated part ...
Sasser Scott M - - 2006
Current trends in global terrorism mandate that emergency medical services, emergency medicine and other acute care clinicians have a basic understanding of the physics of explosions, the types of injuries that can result from an explosion, and current management for patients injured by explosions. High-order explosive detonations result in near ...
Goldbogen Jeremy A - - 2006
Fin whales are among the largest predators on earth, yet little is known about their foraging behavior at depth. These whales obtain their prey by lunge-feeding, an extraordinary biomechanical event where large amounts of water and prey are engulfed and filtered. This process entails a high energetic cost that effectively ...
Peták F - - 2006
It was hypothesised that the recruitment of atelectatic lung areas is signified by changes in the airway and tissue mechanics, and by the appearance of crackle activity attributed to the sudden reopening of collapsed airways. The authors also assumed that the acoustic activity is an earlier indicator of lung recruitment ...
Chhabra S K - - 2006
Short-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, ipratropium bromide has been recommended as first-line drug in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). More recently, long acting beta2-agonist (LABA) bronchodilators such as formoterol have been shown to be useful in COPD. Limited information is available on the relative efficacy of these two drugs in COPD. A ...
Schreiber Torsten - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: In clinical lung injury areas of inflammation and structural alveolar alteration are unevenly distributed and interspaced between healthy or less injured lung areas. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) applied with mechanical ventilation (MV) may affect injured and healthy lung areas differently. We compared the effects of PEEP on the inflammatory ...
Nielsen Jonas J Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Niels Andersensvej 65, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark. - - 2006
The impact of lung-recruitment maneuvers on heart function at different volemic levels has not been studied in detail. We therefore investigated the effect on central hemodynamics of lung recruitment maneuvers at hypovolemia, normovolemia and hypervolemia in experimental lung injury. Randomized, controlled, cross-over experimental study. Animal laboratory at a university hospital. ...
Hooper Stuart B - - 2006
Mechanical forces, exerted on lung tissue via alterations in lung expansion are a major determinant of fetal lung development, having a potent effect on the rate of cellular proliferation, the differentiated state of alveolar epithelial cells and the three-dimensional tissue structure. As a result, much research is currently focused on ...
Morita Naoki - - 2006
Victims of fire accidents who sustain both thermal injury to the skin and smoke inhalation have gross evidence of oxidant injury. Therefore, we hypothesized that delivery of vitamin E, an oxygen superoxide scavenger, directly into the airway would attenuate acute lung injury postburn and smoke inhalation. Sheep (N = 17 ...
Ben-Dor Itsik - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Right-heart-catheterization and transthoracic echocardiography are routine tests to measure pulmonary artery systolic pressure among lung transplantation candidates. Echocardiography may be as accurate as right-heart-catheterization, without the inherent risks of an invasive test. METHODS: We examined the correlation between pulmonary pressures estimated by echocardiography versus right-heart-catheterization among lung transplantation candidates ...
Sentürk Mert - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypoxemia is considered to be the most important challenge during one-lung ventilation. Recent studies, however, have shown that one-lung ventilation can involve some lung damage and can therefore be per se a cause of hypoxemia. RECENT FINDINGS: It has been shown that some parameters of one-lung ventilation ...
Peralta C F A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To establish reference intervals for the fetal right, left and total lung volumes and heart volume between 12 and 32 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Fetal lung and heart volumes were measured using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound in 650 normal singleton pregnancies at 12-32 weeks. The VOCAL (Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis) ...
de Abreu Marcelo Gama - - 2006
BACKGROUND: It is currently not known whether vaporized perfluorohexane is superior to partial liquid ventilation (PLV) for therapy of acute lung injury. In this study, the authors compared the effects of both therapies in oleic acid-induced lung injury. METHODS: Lung injury was induced in 30 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs ...
Bellardine Carissa L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: There has recently been considerable interest in alternative lung-protective ventilation strategies such as variable ventilation (VV). We aimed at testing VV in a large animal lung injury model and exploring the mechanism of improvement in gas exchange seen with VV. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled comparative ventilation study. SETTING: Research laboratory ...
Wierup Per - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Only a minority of the potential candidates for lung donation are considered suitable, using current evaluation methods. A new method for ex vivo evaluation, with the potential for reconditioning of marginal and nonacceptable lungs, has been developed. This is a report of the ex vivo evaluation of six donor ...
Mascia Luciana - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the current standard ventilatory and cardiovascular management in potential organ donors. DESIGN: Prospective, multiple-center, observational survey. SETTING: A total of 15 intensive care units in 13 hospitals in Piedmont, Italy. PATIENTS: A total of 34 brain-dead patients enrolled in 6 months. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Demographics and ...
Mathur Anupam - - 2006
(99m)Tc-tertiary butyl isonitrile (TBI), a complex structurally similar to (99m)Tc-sestamibi, has been reported to be taken up in the myocardium, albeit with significant retention in liver and lungs, thereby leading to obscure heart images when used for in vivo imaging. In the present study, tert-butyl xanthate, which is similar to ...
García-Delgado Manuel - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The objective is to study whether alveolar overdistension can induce acute lung injury in pigs as assessed by analysis of respiratory and histological parameters and inflammatory markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental study, using mixed-breed pigs. Animals were assigned to one of the following groups: Control Group (CG) (n = ...
Santini Mario M Department of Thoracic Surgery, Second University of Naples, Piazza Miraglia 2, 80138 Naples, Italy. - - 2006
We evaluated the validity of an electrothermal bipolar tissue sealing system (LigaSure, Valleylab Inc., USA) in lung surgery. Our study was divided into two phases. We performed sutures of pulmonary vessels and bronchi and lung wedge resections by LigaSure in 28 lungs of adult pigs; subsequently, we quantitated the sealing ...
Cepkova Magda - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Several biological markers of lung injury are predictors of morbidity and mortality in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). The low tidal volume lung-protective ventilation strategy is associated with a significant decrease in plasma biomarker levels compared to the high tidal volume ventilation strategy. The primary objective of this ...
Lynch James E - - 2006
Since its first description, acute respiratory distress syndrome has been characterized by abnormal physiologic and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Many adjunctive therapies have been developed to reduce the stresses of mechanical ventilation on already damaged lungs. We examined the mechanism of action and the latest clinical trial information ...
Mokry Juraj - - 2006
The effects of dexamethasone on in vitro airway reactivity associated with lung inflammation were investigated in rabbits with meconium aspiration. Oxygen-ventilated adult rabbits received an intratracheal bolus of 4 ml/kg body weight of saline (Sal, n = 4) or human meconium (25 mg/ml). Thirty minutes later, meconium-instilled animals intravenously received ...
Denny E - - 2006
A finite element model of mammalian lung parenchyma is used to study the effect of large non-uniform distortions on lung elastic behaviour. The non-uniform distortion is a uni-axial stretch from an initial state of uniform pressure expansion. For small distortions, the parenchymal properties are linearly isotropic and described by two ...
Ikeyama Kazuyuki - - 2006
The degree of lung inflation pressure during cold storage has a deep connection with lung functions after reperfusion. However, the change of the lung mechanical properties during cold storage at the different lung inflation pressure is unknown. We investigated the change of the mechanical properties both at the organ and ...
Santhanam Anand P - - 2006
In this paper we propose a method to simulate morphological changes caused by both closed and tension pneumothorax. We consider a clinical parameter, the pneumothorax-index (i.e., the degree of lung collapse), as the input to the simulation. Specifically, such an index constitutes a key parameter to the computation of the ...
Fujita Yasuki - - 2006
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate, using a rabbit model, the little-known effect of different levels of peak inspiratory flow on acutely injured lungs. METHODS: Fourteen male rabbits (body weight, 2,711 +/- 146 g) were anesthetized and their lungs were injured by alveolar overstretch with mechanical ventilation ...
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