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Results 351 - 400 of 2534
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Waerhaug Kristine - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Acute lung injury often complicates severe sepsis. In gram-negative sepsis, bacterial endotoxin activates both coagulation and inflammation. Enhanced lung vascular pressures and permeability, increased extravascular lung water content and deteriorated gas exchange characterize ovine endotoxin-induced lung injury, a frequently used model of acute lung injury. Recombinant human activated protein ...
Dellacà Raffaele L - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary edema induces changes in airway and lung tissues mechanical properties that can be measured by low-frequency forced oscillation technique (FOT). It is preceded by interstitial edema which is characterized by the accumulation of extravascular fluid in the interstitial space of the air-blood barrier. Our aim was to investigate ...
Marini John J - - 2008
Sustained re-opening of collapsed lung tissue (recruitment) requires the application of airway pressures that exceed those of the tidal cycle. The post-maneuver PEEP as well as the duration of high pressure application are also key factors in its success, with their accompanying potential for hemodynamic compromise. Although a wide variety ...
Rodrigues Paula - - 2008
Elastic fibres play a crucial function during the process of lung alveolisation. During the perinatal period, any changes in the elastogenic process during foetal development may result in permanent lifetime defects. In pre-natal life, well-developed pulmonary elastic fibres should favor the pre-natal maturation of the lung and an enhanced alveolisation, ...
Koefoed-Nielsen Jacob J Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Hobrovej 18-22, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark. - - 2008
Simple methods to predict the effect of lung recruitment maneuvers (LRMs) in acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are lacking. It has previously been found that a static pressure-volume (PV) loop could indicate the increase in lung volume induced by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in ARDS. ...
Grasso Francesco - - 2008
RATIONALE: Conventional positive-pressure ventilation delivers pressure to the airways; in contrast, negative pressure is delivered globally to the chest and abdomen. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that ventilation with negative pressure results in better oxygenation and less injury than with positive pressure. METHODS: Anesthetized, surfactant-depleted rabbits were ventilated for 2.5 ...
Samancilar O - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of two devices using ultrasonic energy for dissection of lung parenchyma in an experimental animal model by comparing the two methods with each other. METHODS: Twenty New Zealand rabbits were used. One-lung ventilation was obtained under direct vision and the left lung ...
Molinari Francesco - - 2007
PURPOSE: To evaluate an optimized method for oxygen-enhanced MRI of the lung, using simultaneous electrocardiograph (ECG) and navigator triggering. To correlate oxygen-enhanced MRI with lung function tests assessing alveolar-capillary gas exchange. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 healthy volunteers (aged 20-32 years) and 10 patients (aged 37-87 years) with ...
Licker Marc - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injuries, fluid overload, and cardiac insufficiency may all contribute to alveolar and interstitial lung edema. We hypothesized that aerosolized salbutamol would reduce extravascular lung water and improve oxygenation after lung resection by stimulating epithelial fluid clearance and cardiovascular function. DESIGN: Blinded, randomized, cross-over trial. METHODS: We selected 24 ...
Unbekandt Mathieu M Groupe Matière Condensée et Matériaux, Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes, - - 2008
Tracheal occlusion during lung development accelerates growth in response to increased intraluminal pressure. In order to investigate the role of internal pressure on murine early lung development, we cauterized the tip of the trachea, to occlude it, and thus to increase internal pressure. This method allowed us to evaluate the ...
Jani J C - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To compare prediction of postnatal survival in isolated diaphragmatic hernia by prenatal two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D) sonographic assessment of the contralateral lung. METHODS: The lung area to head circumference ratio (LHR) of the contralateral lung was measured and expressed as a percentage of the normal mean for gestation ...
Lowe Kevin - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary vascular permeability increases, causing intravascular fluid and protein to move into the lung's interstitium. The classic model describing the formation of pulmonary edema suggests that fluid crossing the capillary endothelium is drawn by negative interstitial pressure into the potential space surrounding extra-alveolar vessels ...
Fernandez Lucas G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: In experimental animals, pneumonectomy results in rapid, hyperplastic compensatory growth of the remaining lung. The limits of this induced growth are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that compensatory growth can be reinitiated in the same lung after subsequent lung resection. METHODS: A left thoracotomy (Sham group) or left pneumonectomy ...
Mokra D - - 2007
Administration of methylxanthines may diminish meconium-induced acute lung injury. Meconium-instilled rabbits intravenously received aminophylline (2.0 mg/kg) at two doses 0.5 h and 2.5 h after meconium instillation or were left without treatment, and were oxygen-ventilated for additional 5 h. At the end of experiment, lungs and trachea were excised. Within ...
Luh Shi-Ping - - 2007
Lung ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury plays an important role in many clinical issues. A series of mechanisms after I/R has been uncovered after numerous related studies. Organ preconditioning (PC) is a process whereby a brief antecedent event, such as transient ischemia, oxidative stress, temperature change, or drug administration, bestows on an ...
Nowak K - - 2007
The isolation perfusion model, including transbronchial ventilation of human lung, offers the possibility to study pharmacological interactions under physiological conditions. In view of the increasing importance of targeted therapy of lung diseases, this model of perfusion might attract major interest, particularly, in lung cancer. Our study investigated physiological, histological, and ...
Bouadma Lila - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR) and high lung stress during mechanical ventilation interact to augment lung and systemic inflammatory responses and whether their sequence affects these responses. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. SETTING: Research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Fifty-six male Wistar rats. INTERVENTIONS: Controls were immediately killed ...
Silva Pedro L - - 2008
We developed a model of severe allergic inflammation and investigated the impact of airway and lung parenchyma remodelling on in vivo and in vitro respiratory mechanics. BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin in severe allergic inflammation (SA) group. The control group (C) received saline using the same protocol. ...
Jian Ming-Yuan - - 2008
High vascular pressure targets the lung septal network, causing acute lung injury. While calcium entry in septal endothelium has been implicated, the channel involved is not known. This study tested the hypothesis that the vanilloid transient receptor potential channel, TRPV4, is a critical participant in the permeability response to high ...
John Lindsay C H - - 2008
It has been suggested that maintaining ventilation during bypass might reduce lung injury, which is a common complication of cardiac surgery. In order to assess this, a study is being undertaken to examine the effect upon a number of parameters that may be indicative of lung injury, of continued ventilation ...
Musch Guido G Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. - - 2008
In a pulmonary process characterized by spatially heterogeneous loss of aeration, the impairment of gas exchange is expected to depend on the regional distribution of perfusion relative to that of aeration. To investigate how regional aeration, shunt, and perfusion are interrelated at different levels of end-expiratory pressure and how their ...
Chun Eun Mi - - 2008
To study the effect of the degree of scoliosis, degree of hypokyphosis/lordosis and rotation of apical vertebra on individual lung volume (measured with CT scan) in asymptomatic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Individual (right and left) lung volume, angle of kyphosis and rotation of apical vertebra, were measured in 77 ...
Dembinski Rolf - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ventilation with 3 mL/kg tidal volume combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal by arteriovenous interventional lung assist reduces ventilator-associated organ injury in experimental acute lung injury when compared with ventilation with 6 mL/kg tidal volume without interventional lung assist. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: ...
Henzler Dietrich - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In acute lung injury, ventilation avoiding tidal hyperinflation and tidal recruitment has been proposed to prevent ventilator-associated lung injury. Information about dynamic recruitment may be obtained from the characteristics of pressure-volume (PV) curves or the profile of pressure-time (Paw-t) curves. METHODS: Six anesthetized pigs with lung lavage-induced acute lung ...
Watson Rebecca R - - 2008
Previous physiological studies suggest that avian pulmonary capillaries behave like almost rigid tubes. We made morphometric measurements to determine the diameter of the capillaries in chicken lungs when the transmural pressure was altered over a wide range. The diameter of avian pulmonary capillaries increased by only 13% when the pressure ...
Geiger Ralf - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Meconium aspiration induces acute lung injury (ALI) and subsequent pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) which may lead to right ventricular failure. Increase of endothelin-1, thromboxane-A, and phosphodiesterases are discussed molecular mechanisms. We investigated the intrapulmonary and hemodynamic effects of the intravenous dual endothelin A and B receptor blocker tezosentan and ...
Yang You-Lan - - 2008
We investigated the effects of mechanical ventilation with a moderately high tidal volume (VT) on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by wood smoke inhalation in anesthetized mice. Animals received challenges of air, 30 breaths of smoke (30SM) or 60 breaths of smoke (60SM) and were then ventilated with a VT ...
Allardet-Servent Jérôme - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of high-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) compared with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and low-volume conventional mechanical ventilation (LVCMV), on lung injury course in a gastric juice aspiration model. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled, in-vivo animal study. SETTING: University animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Forty-three New Zealand rabbits. INTERVENTIONS: ...
Constans Joël - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The ERAMS study addressed the value of arterial stiffness in predicting the severity of systemic sclerosis. METHODS: ERAMS was a prospective multicentre cohort study including patients with definite systemic sclerosis. Arterial stiffness was measured by the standardized non-invasive QKd 100-60 method. Clinical evaluation, biological measurements, functional respiratory tests and ...
Ballard Hubert O - - 2007
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a pulmonary disorder that causes significant morbidity and mortality in premature infants. BPD is pathologically characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and mucosal necrosis, which leads to emphysematous coalescence of alveoli. We tested the hypothesis that azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, would decrease the severity of lung injury in ...
Hansen Lars Kjaersgaard - - 2007
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown, in normovolemic pigs, that a selective lung recruitment maneuver (S-LRM), i.e., insufflation of air-oxygen via a balloon catheter with its tip located in the bronchus of a collapsed lung lobe, effectively improves oxygenation and lung volume without affecting hemodynamics negatively. In this study, we examined ...
Farha Samar - - 2007
Gas transfer in the female lung varies over the menstrual cycle in parallel with the cyclic angiogenesis that occurs in the uterine endometrium. Given that vessels form and regress in the uterus under the control of hormones, angiogenic factors, and proangiogenic circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, we tested the possibility ...
Heller Hartmut - - 2007
In artificially ventilated animals we investigated the dependence of the pulmonary diffusing capacities of nitric oxide (NO) and doubly 18O-labeled carbon dioxide (DLNO, DLC18O2) on lung expansion with respect to ventilator-driven increases in intrapulmonary pressure. For this purpose we applied computerized single-breath experiments to 11 anesthetized paralyzed rabbits (weight 2.8-3.8 ...
Richard Jean-Christophe - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: In acute lung injury (ALI) activated protein C (APC) may reopen occluded lung vessels and minimize lung inflammation. We aimed at assessing the effect of APC on regional lung perfusion, aerated lung volume, cytokine production and oxygenation in experimental ALI. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, controlled study in an imaging ...
Tekinbas Celal - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Lung injury induced by one-lung ventilation is rare, but it is a condition that may result in high mortality. This study evaluates the effects of one-lung ventilation and occlusion time on collapsed and contralateral lungs. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated randomly into 7 groups consisting of 6 animals each: ...
de Azevedo Luciano Cesar Pontes - - 2007
PURPOSE: Pathophysiological studies in humans regarding sepsis are difficult to perform due to ethical and methodological concerns. In this context, animal models of sepsis can be useful to better understand this condition and to test therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this study was to characterize a feasible and clinically relevant ...
Schreiber Torsten - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Increasing pulmonary blood flow aggravated ventilation-associated lung injury in ex vivo animal experiments, but data were less consistent in an in vivo animal model and do not reflect redistributed lung perfusion seen in clinical acute lung injury. We sought to determine the effects of increased cardiac output on markers ...
Parameswaran Krishnan - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Both ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) of the lungs are altered in asthma, but their relationships with allergen-induced airway responses and gas exchange are not well described. METHODS: The effects of aerosolized allergen provocation of V/Q abnormalities in nonsmoking, male atopic asthmatics (six dual responders and two isolated early ...
Huang Huimin - - 2007
We substituted autologous lung for the artificial oxygenator to assess reduction of lung injury after conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Twelve piglets were randomly divided into two groups. Experimental animals (n = 6) underwent bilateral CPB with autologous lungs perfusion, whereas control animals (n = 6) underwent conventional CPB with artificial ...
Lachmann Robert A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: A previous study in piglets with experimental pneumonia showed that reducing atelectasis by means of open lung ventilation attenuated bacterial translocation compared to conventional ventilation settings. This study examined the effect of open lung ventilation with higher than necessary positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) on bacterial translocation. DESIGN AND SETTING: ...
Eckle Tobias - - 2007
Acute lung injury (ALI), such as that which occurs with mechanical ventilation, contributes to morbidity and mortality of critical illness. Nonetheless, in many instances, ALI resolves spontaneously through unknown mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized the presence of innate adaptive pathways to protect the lungs during mechanical ventilation. In this study, we ...
Chang Hung - - 2008
The present study was designed to determine the effect of various core temperatures on acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in our isolated rabbit lung model. Typical acute lung injury was successfully induced by 30 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion observation. The I/R elicited a ...
Moriondo Andrea - - 2007
This research investigated whether stretching of lung tissue due to increased positive alveolar pressure swings during mechanical ventilation (MV) at various tidal volumes (V(T)) might affect the composition and/or structure of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) components of pulmonary extracellular proteoglycans. Experiments were performed in 30 healthy rats: 1) anesthetized and immediately ...
Prisk G Kim GK Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0931, USA. - - 2007
Prone posture increases cardiac output and improves pulmonary gas exchange. We hypothesized that, in the supine posture, greater compression of dependent lung limits regional blood flow. To test this, MRI-based measures of regional lung density, MRI arterial spin labeling quantification of pulmonary perfusion, and density-normalized perfusion were made in six ...
Muellenbach Ralf M RM Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Wuerzburg, Oberduerrbacher Strasse 6, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany. - - 2007
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) may reduce ventilator-induced lung injury in experimental neonatal respiratory distress. However, these data permit no conclusions for large animals or adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), because in neonates higher frequencies and lower amplitudes can be used, resulting in lower tidal volumes (VT) and ...
Kuzkov Vsevolod V - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare the single thermodilution and the thermal-dye dilution techniques with postmortem gravimetry for assessment of changes in extravascular lung water after pneumonectomy and to explore the evolution of edema after injurious ventilation of the left lung. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: University laboratory. SUBJECTS: A total of 30 sheep ...
Oda Jun - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication after resuscitation from burn shock, even after abdominal decompression (AD) is performed. This study investigated increased susceptibility to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in extensively burned patients with ACS. METHODS: Patients admitted to our burn unit between 2002 and 2005 ...
Chen Hsing I - - 2007
AIMS: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious clinical problem. We investigated the pathogenetic mechanisms of ALI caused by leptospirosis. METHODS: The study included five cases of leptospirosis. We monitored the arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) and analysed the AP and HR variabilities for assessment of autonomic functions. ...
Guardiola J - - 2007
Airway sensors play an important role in control of breathing. Recently, it was found that pulmonary slowly adapting stretch receptors (SARs) cease after a brief excitation following sodium pump blockade by ouabain. This deactivation can be explained by overexcitation. If this is true, mechanical stimulation of the SARs should also ...
Maybauer Marc O - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate ceftazidime in acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study in an investigational ICU at a university hospital. INTERVENTIONS: Eighteen female Merino sheep were prepared for chronic study and subjected to smoke inhalation and septic challenge according to an established protocol. ...
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