Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 2467
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Morris Kevin - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of a sustained inflation (SI) maneuver on the regional distribution of gas and perfluorocarbon (PFC) during partial liquid ventilation (PLV) in normal pigs using computerized densitometry. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Three healthy anaesthetized pigs. INTERVENTIONS: Partial liquid ventilation, lung recruitment, ...
Verbrugge Serge J C - - 2007
This review addresses the physiological background and the current status of evidence regarding ventilator-induced lung injury and lung protective strategies. Lung protective ventilatory strategies have been shown to reduce mortality from adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We review the latest knowledge on the progression of lung injury by mechanical ventilation ...
Iglesias Manuela - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the safety and feasibility of implanting the pumpless interventional lung assist device (Novalung; Novalung GmbH, Hechingen, Germany) to the axillary vessels either by means of direct cannulation or end-to-side graft interposition and the capability of either type of vascular access to provide respiratory support during ...
Dubus Jean-Christophe - - 2007
The best delivery of a drug in ventilated neonates is obtained when using a small particle diameter solution administered via a spacer. Lung deposition of hydrofluoroalkane beclomethasone dipropionate (QVAR, 1.3 microm particles), delivered via an Aerochamber-MV15, was measured in piglets under conditions mimicking ventilated severely ill neonates (uncuffed 2.5 mm ...
Krieg Sally - - 2007
QUESTION: What is the effect of sitting and side-lying on the distribution of ventilation during tidal breathing in healthy older people? DESIGN: Randomised, within-participant, experimental study. PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy people more than 65 years old. INTERVENTION: Tidal breathing during sitting and right side-lying. OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution of ventilation as a ...
Cunha-Goncalves Doris - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage is an alternative to diagnostic bronchoscopy in pediatric patients, as fiberoptic bronchoscopes with aspiration channels are too large for small infants. There are many variations of the method in clinical practice, and saline instillation followed by open endotracheal suctioning is still commonly used. Lung function can ...
Reinhardt Joseph M - - 2007
The main function of the respiratory system is gas exchange. Since many disease or injury conditions can cause biomechanical or material property changes that can alter lung function, there is a great interest in measuring regional lung ventilation. We describe a registration-based technique for estimating local lung expansion from multiple ...
Aboab J - - 2007
Previous studies have indicated that, during mechanical ventilation, an inspiratory pause enhances gas exchange. This has been attributed to prolonged time during which fresh gas of the tidal volume is present in the respiratory zone and is available for distribution in the lung periphery. The mean distribution time of inspired ...
Dries David J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The time course of the physiological derangements that result from ventilator-induced lung injury has not been adequately described. Similarly, the regional topographies of pleural pressure and tissue edema have not been carefully mapped for this injury process. METHODS: Lung injury was induced in 9 normal pigs by ventilating for ...
Uchiyama Akinori - - 2007
The aim of the study was to assess a new expiratory support (ES) system in resolving air trapping in the lungs during mechanical ventilation. The ES system consisted of a cylinder and two valves that were connected to the ventilatory circuit. The movements of them were synchronized with the ventilator. ...
Luria Oded - - 2007
Ventilation using high-frequency oscillation (HFO) has become a standard care for the ventilatory management of critically ill newborns. In recent years, there has been growing recognition that maintenance of an optimal lung volume during high-frequency oscillation plays an important role in minimizing ventilator-induced lung injury. The primary variable affecting lung ...
Pelosi P - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: There has been an exponentially increasing interest in intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). The intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) markedly affects the function of the respiratory system. METHODS: This review will focus on the available literature from the past few years. A Medline and Pubmed search was performed in order to find an ...
Miserocchi Giuseppe - - 2007
The air blood barrier is a gas exchanger and is well designed to fulfill this task as its main feature is its minimum thickness that in turn reflects a minimum amount of extravascular water. The maintenance of a minimum water volume is due to mechanisms able to control interstitial fluid ...
West J B - - 2007
Some 300 million yrs ago, the ancestors of modern reptiles emerged from water and were committed to air breathing. They were exothermic and incapable of sustained levels of high physical activity. But from them evolved the two great classes of vertebrates with high levels of maximal oxygen consumption: the mammals ...
Tyvold Stig S - - 2007
Contents of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the bronchi are of central interest in lung diseases, acute lung injury and pharmacology. The most commonly used technique broncheoalveolar lavage is invasive and may cause lung injury. Microdialysis (MD) is a method for continuous sampling of extracellular molecules in the immediate ...
Fraisse Alain - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To characterize hemodynamic changes during experimental aspiration pneumonitis, paying special attention to echocardiographic assessment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Animal study in a university-based research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Fourteen mechanically ventilated New Zealand white rabbits INTERVENTIONS: We instilled 1 ml/kg human gastric juice (mean pH: 4.1+0.2) intratracheally. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were ...
Lessa Andrea - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Volume-induced lung injury is associated with lung inflammation. Pentoxifylline inhibits cytokine release and modulates neutrophil function. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of pentoxifylline in the attenuation of lung inflammation induced by high tidal volume ventilation. DESIGN: Adult rats were randomly assigned to receive saline as placebo or pentoxifylline (100mg/kg ...
Lovering Andrew T - - 2007
Postmortem microsphere studies in adult human lungs have demonstrated the existence of intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways using nonphysiological conditions. The aim of the current study was to determine whether large diameter (>25 and 50 microm) intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are functional in human and baboon lungs under physiological perfusion and ventilation pressures. ...
Ramnath Venktesh R - - 2006
Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome are inflammatory conditions involving a broad spectrum of lung injury from mild respiratory abnormality to severe respiratory derangement. Regardless of cause (direct or indirect lung injury), pulmonary physiology and mechanics are altered, leading to hypoxemic respiratory failure. the use of positive pressure ...
Roosens Carl D - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The benefits of lung-protective ventilation strategies used for acute respiratory distress syndrome in subjects with normal lungs are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic effects of conventional lung-protective ventilation (CLPV) and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in a normal lung animal model. DESIGN: Prospective laboratory ...
Dueck Ron - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To address lung recruitment according to pressure/volume curves, along with regional recruitment versus hyperinflation evidence from computed tomography and electrical impedance tomography. RECENT FINDINGS: Cyclical tidal volume recruitment of atelectatic lung regions causes acute lung injury, as do large breaths during pneumonectomy. Using the lower inflection point ...
Uhlig Ulrike - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple organ failure (MOF) require mechanical ventilation for several days. The enormous significance of the ventilation strategy for the outcome of these patients is well appreciated. However, most studies have focused on the onset and the early phase of MOF. It was the aim of the current ...
Frank James A - - 2006
For patients with acute lung injury, positive pressure mechanical ventilation is life saving. However, considerable experimental and clinical data have demonstrated that how clinicians set the tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure, and plateau airway pressure influences lung injury severity and patient outcomes including mortality. In order to better identify ventilator-associated ...
Kjaergaard Benedict - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Acute respiratory failure can make long distance transport by air extremely difficult. Despite pressurised cabins, the pressure will fall to about three quarters of one atmosphere, and the oxygen partial pressure will fall proportionally. Interventional lung assist (iLA) is a well documented treatment in the critical care unit, but ...
Yin Kingsley - - 2007
BACKGROUND: One lung ventilation is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Although there have been several reports showing that one-lung ventilation can cause pathophysiological alterations such as pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and intrapulmonary shunting, there have been virtually no reports on the effects of one-lung ventilation on lung histology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ...
Loring Stephen H - - 2007
Throughout life, most mammals breathe between maximal and minimal lung volumes determined by respiratory mechanics and muscle strength. In contrast, competitive breath-hold divers exceed these limits when they employ glossopharyngeal insufflation (GI) before a dive to increase lung gas volume (providing additional oxygen and intrapulmonary gas to prevent dangerous chest ...
Hinz J - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine regional pulmonary filling characteristics in 20 mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury. METHODS: Regional filling characteristics were calculated from tracings of regional tidal volumes vs. global tidal volumes measured by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). These plots were fitted to a ...
Downey Douglas M - - 2006
PURPOSE: Staple line reinforcement with bovine pericardium and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene during lung resections has shown reduction in air leak incidence and duration. Small intestinal submucosa and polyglycolic acid-trimethylene carbonate, have been introduced as new reinforcements for nonpulmonary staple lines. We hypothesize that reinforcement of staple lines in lungs with commercially ...
Lindgren Sophie - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess lung volume and compliance changes during open- and closed-system suctioning using electric impedance tomography (EIT) during volume- or pressure-controlled ventilation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study in a university research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Nine bronchoalveolar saline-lavaged pigs. INTERVENTIONS: Open and closed suctioning using a 14-F catheter in volume- or ...
Gika Masatoshi - - 2007
Tissue sealants can prevent the occurrence of pulmonary air leakage, although few studies have evaluated the seal-breaking pressure properties of the various methods. We developed a new method for repairing visceral pleural defects which combines fibrin glue with a sheet material. We used an animal model to compare its efficacy ...
Karmrodt J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Cyclic recruitment during mechanical ventilation contributes to ventilator associated lung injury. Two different pathomechanisms in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are currently discussed: alveolar collapse vs persistent flooding of small airways and alveoli. We compare two different ARDS animal models by computed tomography (CT) to describe different recruitment and ...
Wang Shao-Gen - - 2006
This study compared patho-physical indexes, respiratory mechanics, circulatory parameters and lung injury scores of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by steam inhalation injury in a New Zealand rabbit model with different ventilatory strategies: a control group which consisted of lower tidal volume (VT 6 ml/kg) and high positive end-expiratory pressure ...
Aslan A - - 2006
AIM: Experiential studies suggest that re-expansion of a collapsed lung may result in pulmonary ischaemia-reperfusion injury. We aimed to evaluate the effect of lung re-expansion on urinary lipid peroxidation products in neonates with pneumothorax. METHODS: This study included 20 mechanically ventilated neonates with pneumothorax, and 18 healthy neonates (controls). A ...
de Prost Nicolas - - 2007
Pulmonary microvascular and alveolar epithelial permeability were evaluated in vivo by scintigraphic imaging during lung distension. A zone of alveolar flooding was made by instilling a solution containing 99mTc-albumin in a bronchus. Alveolar epithelial permeability was estimated from the rate at which this tracer left the lungs. Microvascular permeability was ...
Wittwer Thorsten - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Lung retrieval from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) has been introduced into clinical practice successfully. However, because of potentially deleterious effects of warm ischemia on microvascular integrity, use of NHBD lungs is limited by short tolerable time periods before preservation. Recently, improvement of NHBD graft function was demonstrated by donor pre-treatment ...
Asgharian B - - 2006
Realistic descriptions of lung geometry and physiology are the primary determinants of accurate predictions of inhaled particle deposition and distribution in the human lung. While there have been considerable efforts devoted to geometry reconstruction, little attention has been given to lung ventilation as applied to particle deposition applications. Models of ...
Jacobson F L - - 2006
Lung packing (glossopharyngeal insufflation) consists of forcing air into the lungs, using glossopharyngeal muscle contractions similar to swallowing. Breath-hold divers perform this technique after a maximal inhalation prior to diving, thus increasing initial lung volume. However, as suggested by previous authors, this breathing maneuver could theoretically lead to lung rupture. ...
Okutani Daisuke - - 2007
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute-phase protein, which can be produced by a variety of tissue cells at the site of infection or inflammation. It plays an important role in innate immunity in the lung and in mediating acute lung injury. The aim of this study was to determine the ...
Elliott Beth A - - 2006
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an emerging therapy that is increasingly being used for the treatment of many different types of tumors. RFA uses percutaneously placed image-guided probes to destroy tissues through localized heating. Injury to adjacent tissues with significant morbidity during RFA has been reported in the literature. We discuss ...
Desai Ajay R - - 2006
Acute respiratory distress syndrome, a diagnosis based on physiologic and radiological criteria, occurs commonly in critical care setting. A major challenge in evaluating therapies that may improve survival in ARDS is that it is not a single disease entity but, rather, numerous different diseases that result in endothelial injury, where ...
Oto Takahiro - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Lungs from non-heart-beating donors for transplantation require protection against warm ischemic damage. Minimally invasive techniques are required to reduce organ damage during the warm ischemic period because invasive surgical procedures are often not feasible at this time. This study investigated the preservative effect of high-flow endobronchial cooled humidified air ...
Deaton C M - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Pulmonary capillary stress failure, largely as a result of high pulmonary vascular pressures, has been implicated in the aetiology of EIPH. However, the role of the respiratory system in determining the magnitude of EIPH has received little attention. HYPOTHESIS: Horses breathing a gas of greater density ...
MacIntyre Neil - - 2006
Acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) describe syndromes of diffuse parenchymal lung injury resulting from a variety of inflammatory triggers. The pathophysiological consequences include stiff, low-compliance lungs with impaired gas exchange. Importantly, there is often marked heterogeneity of disease. Positive pressure ventilation must therefore not ...
Belperio John A - - 2006
Mortality rates from acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) range from 30 to 65%. Although mechanical ventilation (MV) may delay mortality in critically ill patients with ALI/ARDS, it may also cause a lung injury that further promotes and perpetuates ALI/ARDS and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Recent studies have ...
De Troyer André - - 2006
After single-lung transplantation (SLT) for emphysema, a hyperinflated (native) lung operates in parallel with a normal (transplanted) lung. The interpulmonary distribution of the changes in pleural pressure (DeltaP(pl)) during breathing, however, is unknown. To approach the problem, two endotracheal tubes were inserted in the right and left main stem bronchi ...
Jiang Lijun - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass may cause lung injury that does not respond to traditional therapies. Total liquid ventilation has been developed as an alternative ventilatory strategy for severe lung injury. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of total liquid ventilation on lung injury in piglets after cardiopulmonary ...
Schreiber Torsten - - 2006
Mechanical ventilation (MV) with large tidal volumes (V(T)) causes ventilator induced lung injury. Whereas immediate effects of short-term injurious ventilation are well studied, little is known about its long-term effects. We aimed to establish an animal model of selective injurious MV, permitting assessment of the long-term course of ventilation-induced lung ...
Parker James C - - 2006
Endothelial cells isolated from pulmonary arteries (RPAEC) and microcirculation (RPMVEC) of rat lungs were grown to confluence on porous filters and mounted on an Ussing-type chamber. Transmembrane pressure (deltaP) was controlled by the reservoir height, and the filtration rate corrected for surface area (J(v)/A) was measured by timing fluid movement ...
Takashima Seiki - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: If lungs could be retrieved from non-heart-beating donors, the critical shortage of lungs for transplantation could be alleviated. However, lungs subjected to warm ischemia develop edema when reperfused. We hypothesized that ventilation of rat lungs from non-heart-beating donors with nitric oxide during the period of warm ischemia alone, with ...
Erasmus Michiel E - - 2006
Donor shortage urges optimal use of all lungs available. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a method to evaluate lung function before implantation. EVLP was performed in pigs to evaluate lung function, using two different clinical non-heart-beating (NHS) donor protocols: flush perfusion and topical cooling after 1-h warm ischaemia (n ...
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