Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2555
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Marini John J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical implications of an often neglected mechanism through which localized acute lung injury may be propagated and intensified. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Experimental and clinical evidence from the medical literature relevant to the airway propagation hypothesis and its consequences. CONCLUSIONS: The diffuse injury that characterizes acute ...
Ni Chonghaile Martina - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Deliberate induction of hypercapnic acidosis protects against lung injury after nonseptic lung injury. In contrast, concerns exist regarding the effects of hypercapnic acidosis in the setting of severe pulmonary sepsis. The potential for the effects of hypercapnic acidosis to be neutrophil-mediated remains to be determined. We investigated whether hypercapnic ...
Pagotto Izabela Menezes IM Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, SP, - - 2008
This study attempted to identify which is the more effective suction system. The objective was to compare open versus closed suction systems according to a systematic review. A search of scientific literature was conducted in MedLine, LILACS and Cochrane between 1997 and August 2007 using the key words: endotracheal suction ...
Ryu H G - - 2008
The mechanism of oxygenation improvement after recruitment manoeuvres or prone positioning in acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome is still unclear. We tried to determine the mechanism responsible for the effects of recruitment manoeuvres or prone positioning on lung aeration using a whole lung computed tomography scan in ...
Massa Christopher B - - 2008
Lung recruitment and derecruitment contribute significantly to variations in the elastance of the respiratory system during mechanical ventilation. However, the decreases in elastance that occur with deep inflation are transient, especially in acute lung injury. Bates and Irvin (8) proposed a model of the lung that recreates time-varying changes in ...
Impens A J - - 2008
The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is a standardized measure of submaximal exercise capacity that has served as the primary measure of outcome in studies of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Never fully validated in scleroderma, a variety of data suggest that many non-pulmonary aspects of scleroderma contribute to its results thereby blunting ...
Gardelli Greta - - 2009
The purpose of managing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is "to open a closed lung" by increasing the airway pressure or changing the patient's position. Assessment of recruitment of atelectatic lung regions is necessary to have a correct management of mechanical ventilation and to be sure of positive end-expiratory pressure ...
Smith Paul N - - 2008
Intramedullary reamed nailing causes elevation in intramedullary pressure and extravazation of intramedullary contents into the venous blood system. This study investigated the effect of an intramedullary suction system, recently developed in our laboratory, on the pressure and fat extravazation in isolated bovine bone and a sheep model. During reaming, the ...
Kuiper Jan Willem - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: The mechanisms by which mechanical ventilation (MV) can injure remote organs, such as the kidney, remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that upregulation of systemic inflammation, as reflected by plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, in response to a lung-injurious ventilatory strategy, ultimately results in kidney dysfunction mediated by local endothelin-1 (ET-1) ...
Diaper John - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing lung resection are vulnerable to fluid overhydration. Recently, goal-directed fluid therapy using transoesophageal Doppler monitoring (TDM) has been shown to improve postoperative clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of TDM during open-chest procedures for guiding fluid and hemodynamic treatment. METHODS: We ...
Okamoto Toshihiro - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A lower temperature, namely below 0 degrees C, has been thought to be desirable for organ preservation because of the lower rate of metabolism; however, its benefits are still poorly understood. Supercooling is a non-freezing state of liquid below the freezing point, and the new development of a refrigerator ...
Oelze Michael L ML Bioacoustics Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, 405 North Mathews, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. - - 2008
In a previous study, it was hypothesized that ultrasound-induced lung damage was related to the transfer of ultrasonic energy into the lungs (W. D. O'Brien et al. 2002, "Ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage: Role of acoustic boundary conditions at the pleural surface," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 1102-1109). From this study a ...
Pedreira Paula R - - 2008
Melatonin is a free radical scavenger and a broad-spectrum antioxidant and has well-documented immunomodulatory effects. We studied the effects of this hormone on lung damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation in a model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), using 8- to 12-wk-old Swiss mice (n = 48). Animals were randomized into ...
Skogstad Marit - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Past studies indicate that lung function in professional divers, compared to non-divers, shows a reduction in maximal expiratory flow rates at low lung volumes and a reduction in the transfer factor for carbon monoxide. The objective in this study was to examine possible effects of long-term diving on pulmonary ...
Theroux Mary C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The specific aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a low dose of methylprednisolone in minimizing inflammatory response in juvenile piglets when given 45-60 min prior to onset of one-lung ventilation. METHODS: Twenty piglets aged 3 weeks were assigned to either the control group (n = ...
Vivek Agarwal, N.C.S. Ramachandran
Spirometers are used to measure lung capacity and response of lungs and chest during physical therapy. They reveal whether the patient's dyspnoea is due to cardiac or pulmonary dysfunction and are used to detect asthma. Unfortunately their application is limited due to high instrument cost and lack of specialist doctors. ...
Xu Jin-zhi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous reports have confirmed that edaravone has protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of many organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of edaravone on preventing IR injury of the lung in a canine lung transplantation model. METHODS: Twelve weight-matched pairs of random-bred dogs were randomized into two ...
Zhou Wei - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) represents the balance between CO2 production and consumption. Abnormal increase or decrease in PaCO2 can affect the body's internal environment and function. Permissive hypercapnia has aroused more attention as a novel ventilatory therapy. The aim of this study was to elucidate ...
Meissner Konrad - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Lung ventilation through a thin transtracheal cannula may be attempted in patients with laryngeal stenosis or "cannot intubate, cannot ventilate" situations. It may be impossible to achieve sufficient ventilation if the lungs are spontaneously emptying only through the thin transtracheal cannula, which imposes high resistance to airflow, resulting in ...
Muellenbach R M - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pumpless arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist is increasingly used as a rescue therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist is highly efficient in eliminating carbon dioxide and allows the application of ventilator techniques that prioritize lung protection and aim to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury and ...
Helm Emma - - 2009
Negative pressure ventilation via an external device ('iron lung') has the potential to provide better oxygenation with reduced barotrauma in patients with ARDS. This study was designed to see if oxygenation differences between positive and negative ventilation could be explained by CT. Six anaesthetized rabbits had ARDS induced by repeated ...
Inci Ilhan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Functional assessment of the potentially damaged graft from a non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) is mandatory for successful outcome after transplantation. We investigated the impact of the topical cooling solution on graft preservation and whether inflammatory markers in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can predict pulmonary graft viability in a pig ex vivo ...
Guazzi Marco - - 2008
In heart failure (HF), development of pressure or volume overload of the lung microcirculation elicits a series of structural adaptations, whose functional correlate is an increased resistance to gas transfer across the alveolar-capillary membrane. Acutely, hydrostatic mechanical injury causes endothelial and alveolar cell breaks, impairment of the cellular pathways involved ...
De Troyer André - - 2008
To assess the coupling between a particular hemidiaphragm and the individual lungs, the left and right phrenic nerves were separately stimulated in anesthetized dogs, and the mean changes in pleural pressure over the two lungs were evaluated by measuring the changes in airway opening pressure (DeltaPao) in the two bronchial ...
Hodyc Daniel - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) may alleviate the shortage of suitable organs for transplantation. The critical point is the preservation of lungs during warm ischemia, when severe damage is caused by free radicals. We investigated the effect of ventilation, pre-arrest administration of heparin, and the cell-permeable free radical ...
Nielsen Niels D - - 2008
We hypothesized that apneic oxygenation, using an open lung approach, combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal, would provide adequate gas exchange in acute lung injury. We tested this hypothesis in nine anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs (85-95 kg), in which surfactant was depleted from the lungs by repeated lung lavage. After ...
Hucklenbruch Christoph - - 2008
Although inhaled NO (iNO) has been shown to lower pulmonary pressures and edema accumulation in experimental acute lung injury, its clinical use has been questioned because of a lack of improvement in outcome, rebound phenomena, and potential toxicity. We investigated the effects of aerosolized iloprost, a stable prostacyclin analogue, compared ...
Cinnella G - - 2008
BACKGROUND: One-lung ventilation (OLV) affects respiratory mechanics and ventilation/perfusion matching, reducing functional residual capacity of the ventilated lung. While the application of a lung-recruiting manoeuvre (RM) on the ventilated lung has been shown to improve oxygenation, data regarding the impact of RM on respiratory mechanics are not available. METHODS: Thirteen ...
Twigg S - - 2008
We report the use of the Novalung interventional Lung Assist extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal device, (Novalung GmbH, Lotzenacker 3, D-72379 Hechingen, Germany) to treat a 46-year-old female with life-threatening bronchospasm secondary to influenza infection. Despite maximal treatment she developed severe hypercapnia and acidosis. The necessity for high inflation pressures led ...
Nakagawa Rikimaru - - 2008
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is a possible mechanical method for open lung strategies. The aim of this study was to examine whether HFOV has a beneficial effect on oleic acid-induced lung injury, with emphasis on changes in extravascular lung water. Thirteen anesthetized sheep prepared with a lung lymph fistula and ...
Landgraf Richardt G - - 2008
Endothelin peptides have been shown to increase cholinergic neurotransmission in the airway. Genetic differences in airway responsiveness to methacholine where reported in mice. The present study compared the airway reactivity to methacholine in C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice, the involvement of endothelin on this reactivity and endothelin levels in lung homogenates. ...
Wei Hong-ling - - 2008
AIM: To investigate the modulatory effect of sodium hydrosulfide on lung tissue-oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity in the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). METHODS: After 21 d of hypoxia, the mean pulmonary artery pressure was measured by cardiac catheterization. The plasma H2S level and production of H2S in ...
MacIntyre Neil R - - 2008
Airspace collapse is a hallmark of parenchymal lung injury. Strategies to reopen and maintain patency of these regions offer three advantages: improved gas exchange, less lung injury, and improved lung compliance. Elevations in intrathoracic pressure to achieve these goals, however, may overdistend healthier lung regions and compromise cardiac function. Positive ...
Kornecki Alik - - 2008
The role of the pulmonary vasculature in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury is not well established. In this study, the authors investigated the effect of vascular remodeling due to chronic pulmonary hypertension on susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury. The authors hypothesized that the enhanced vascular tensile strength associated with ...
Riva Douglas R - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that recruitment maneuvers (RMs) might act differently in models of pulmonary (p) and extrapulmonary (exp) acute lung injury (ALI) with similar transpulmonary pressure changes. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Wistar rats were randomly ...
Sokolovsky R E - - 2008
Bioimpedance techniques may be appropriate for cardiac stroke volume (SV) monitoring since thoracic anatomical changes during the heart contraction reflect on the conductivity distribution. In some bioimpedance techniques, the electrical potential is calculated from the impedance distribution using Poisson's equation. That is called the forward problem and in many applications ...
Owens Robert L - - 2008
The current understanding of lung mechanics and ventilator-induced lung injury suggests that patients who have acute respiratory distress syndrome should be ventilated in such a way as to minimize alveolar over-distension and repeated alveolar collapse. Clinical trials have used such lung protective strategies and shown a reduction in mortality; however, ...
Parker James C - - 2008
Current emphasis on translational application of genetic models of lung disease has renewed interest in the measurement of the gravimetric filtration coefficient (K(f)) as a means to assess vascular permeability changes in isolated perfused lungs. The K(f) is the product of the hydraulic conductivity and the filtration surface area, and ...
Cobelens Pieter M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) is a clinical problem observed during thoracic surgery, and adversely affects patient recovery. A better understanding of the mechanisms of LIRI could be helpful to develop new therapeutic strategies. The objective was to assess the inflammatory and apoptotic consequences of LIRI using an in vivo ...
Kawachi Riken - - 2008
Detection of bullae is usually performed during lung inflation with an inspiratory hold in collaboration with anesthetists (conventional method). One cause leading to recurrent pneumothorax is failure to detect the position and extent of bullae under the conventional method. We herein present a novel method for detecting bullae under negative ...
Wolfson Marla R - - 2008
We performed a multicenter study to test the hypothesis that tidal liquid ventilation (TLV) would improve cardiopulmonary, lung histomorphological, and inflammatory profiles compared with conventional mechanical gas ventilation (CMV). Sheep were studied using the same volume-controlled, pressure-limited ventilator systems, protocols, and treatment strategies in three independent laboratories. Following baseline measurements, ...
Falke K J - - 2008
Weddell seals undergo lung collapse during dives below 50 m depth. In order to explore the physiological mechanisms contributing to restoring lung volume and gas exchange after surfacing, we studied ventilatory parameters in three Weddell seals between dives from an isolated ice hole on McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. METHODS: Lung volumes ...
Sierra-Johnson Justo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Leptin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue. Leptin has proinflammatory properties and is usually elevated in patients with chronic heart failure. We assessed if serum leptin relates to the loss in lung function in noncachectic patients with chronic heart failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty-five consecutively ...
Georg Dietmar - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate potential dosimetric benefits of proton therapy for hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). MATERIALS AND METHOD: Twelve patients undergoing hypofractionated SBRT at the Medical University Vienna were selected. Passively scattered protons (PT) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) were ...
Thammanomai Apiradee - - 2008
Variable ventilation (VV), characterized by breath-to-breath variation of tidal volume (Vt) and breathing rate (f), has been shown to improve lung mechanics and blood oxygenation during acute lung injury in many species compared with conventional ventilation (CV), characterized by constant Vt and f. During CV as well as VV, the ...
Olatunji–Bello, I I; ; ...
Objective: This study was designed to assess the effects of vitamin C supplementation on the lung function tests and peroxidative damage in asthmatic children. Methodology: Fifteen asthmatics aged between 8 - 14 years, all in the stable state were used in this study. Three millilitres of blood were drawn from ...
Otto Cynthia M - - 2008
Volutrauma and atelectrauma have been proposed as mechanisms of ventilator-associated lung injury, but few studies have compared their relative importance in mediating lung injury. The objective of our study was to compare the injury produced by stretch (volutrauma) vs. cyclical recruitment (atelectrauma) after surfactant depletion. In saline-lavaged rabbits, we used ...
Groeben Harald - - 2008
Several strategies have been developed to treat atelectasis, including positive end-expiratory pressure and deep inspirations. However, in some patients these recruitment strategies fail to improve lung function. Therefore, the authors studied whether recruitment maneuvers could resolve atelectasis following either passive airway closure or active bronchconstriction. Aerated lung areas were measured ...
Hassanzadeh Mohammad - - 2008
Eggs from a broiler line were incubated at two different altitudes and hatched. Relative heart and lung weights, volumes of the heart, lung and thoracic cavity, incidence of right ventricular hypertrophy and ascites, and related physiological parameters were followed in the day-old chickens hatched from the above eggs. Lung and ...
Slinger Peter - - 2008
Patients are at risk for several types of lung injury in the perioperative period. These injuries include atelectasis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, bronchopleural fistula, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthetic management can cause, exacerbate or ameliorate most of these injuries. Clinical research trends show that traditional protocols for perioperative ...
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