Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2514
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Falke K J - - 2008
Weddell seals undergo lung collapse during dives below 50 m depth. In order to explore the physiological mechanisms contributing to restoring lung volume and gas exchange after surfacing, we studied ventilatory parameters in three Weddell seals between dives from an isolated ice hole on McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. METHODS: Lung volumes ...
Sierra-Johnson Justo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Leptin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue. Leptin has proinflammatory properties and is usually elevated in patients with chronic heart failure. We assessed if serum leptin relates to the loss in lung function in noncachectic patients with chronic heart failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty-five consecutively ...
Georg Dietmar - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate potential dosimetric benefits of proton therapy for hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). MATERIALS AND METHOD: Twelve patients undergoing hypofractionated SBRT at the Medical University Vienna were selected. Passively scattered protons (PT) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) were ...
Thammanomai Apiradee - - 2008
Variable ventilation (VV), characterized by breath-to-breath variation of tidal volume (Vt) and breathing rate (f), has been shown to improve lung mechanics and blood oxygenation during acute lung injury in many species compared with conventional ventilation (CV), characterized by constant Vt and f. During CV as well as VV, the ...
Olatunji–Bello, I I; ; ...
Objective: This study was designed to assess the effects of vitamin C supplementation on the lung function tests and peroxidative damage in asthmatic children. Methodology: Fifteen asthmatics aged between 8 - 14 years, all in the stable state were used in this study. Three millilitres of blood were drawn from ...
Otto Cynthia M - - 2008
Volutrauma and atelectrauma have been proposed as mechanisms of ventilator-associated lung injury, but few studies have compared their relative importance in mediating lung injury. The objective of our study was to compare the injury produced by stretch (volutrauma) vs. cyclical recruitment (atelectrauma) after surfactant depletion. In saline-lavaged rabbits, we used ...
Groeben Harald - - 2008
Several strategies have been developed to treat atelectasis, including positive end-expiratory pressure and deep inspirations. However, in some patients these recruitment strategies fail to improve lung function. Therefore, the authors studied whether recruitment maneuvers could resolve atelectasis following either passive airway closure or active bronchconstriction. Aerated lung areas were measured ...
Hassanzadeh Mohammad - - 2008
Eggs from a broiler line were incubated at two different altitudes and hatched. Relative heart and lung weights, volumes of the heart, lung and thoracic cavity, incidence of right ventricular hypertrophy and ascites, and related physiological parameters were followed in the day-old chickens hatched from the above eggs. Lung and ...
Slinger Peter - - 2008
Patients are at risk for several types of lung injury in the perioperative period. These injuries include atelectasis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, bronchopleural fistula, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthetic management can cause, exacerbate or ameliorate most of these injuries. Clinical research trends show that traditional protocols for perioperative ...
Bu Xiaoning - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of conventional ventilation, lateral (non-injured lung-dependent) position, asynchronous and synchronous independent lung ventilation on inflammatory markers in an animal model of unilateral lung acid injury. METHODS: Twenty-eight dogs underwent unilateral endobronchial instillation with hydrochloric acid and randomly ...
Hüter L - - 2008
In a case of arterial hypotension during one-lung ventilation, haemodynamic support may be required to maintain adequate mean arterial pressure. Arginine vasopressin, a potent systemic vasoconstrictor with limited effects on the pulmonary artery pressure, has not been studied in this setting. Twelve female pigs were anaesthetised and ventilated and arterial, ...
Garcia-Covarrubias Lisardo - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ubiquitin treatment modulates the lung cytokine response and attenuates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized and blinded treatment of unilateral lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in a research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twenty anesthetized and mechanically ventilated Brown Norway rats. INTERVENTIONS: Unilateral clamping of the left lung for 90 ...
Distler Jörg H W - - 2008
A 42-year-old woman with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis presented with rapid-onset dyspnea on exertion, which had developed over the previous 8 weeks. She had not experienced any dyspnea before this period. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography performed 6 months before presentation demonstrated an estimated right ventricular systolic pressure of 32 mmHg. Lung ...
Kozian A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: One-lung ventilation (OLV) increases mechanical stress in the lung and affects ventilation and perfusion (V, Q). There are no data on the effects of OLV on postoperative V/Q matching. Thus, this controlled study evaluates the influence of OLV on V/Q distribution in a pig model using a gamma camera ...
Nonaka Paula Naomi - - 2008
In the present work we investigated the effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CdtV) on the pulmonary mechanic events [static and dynamic elastance, resistive (DeltaP1) and viscoelastic pressures (DeltaP2)] and histology after intramuscular injection of saline solution (control) or venom (0.6 microg/g). The static and dynamic elastance values were increased ...
Meade Maureen O MO Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. - - 2008
Low-tidal-volume ventilation reduces mortality in critically ill patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Instituting additional strategies to open collapsed lung tissue may further reduce mortality. To compare an established low-tidal-volume ventilation strategy with an experimental strategy based on the original "open-lung approach," combining low tidal volume, ...
Hoag Jeffrey B - - 2008
Acute lung injury (ALI) in combination with acute kidney injury carries a mortality approaching 80% in the intensive care unit. Recently, attention has focused on the interaction of the lung and kidney in the setting of ALI and mechanical ventilation (MV). Small animal models of ALI and MV have demonstrated ...
Guerin Claude - - 2008
The current main objective of mechanical ventilation during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is to improve oxygenation while preventing ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in order to save a patient's life. The major determinants of VILI are both hyperinflation of normally aerated lung and repetitive opening and closing of lung units. ...
Stenqvist Ola - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Classic static measurements of lung mechanics have been used mainly for research purposes, but have not gained widespread clinical acceptance. Instead, dynamic measurements have been used, but interpretation of results has been hampered by lack of clear definitions. The review provides an overview of possible definitions and ...
Hess Dean R - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has recently been renewed interest in the chest wall during mechanical ventilation, related to lung-protective ventilation strategies, as well as in the role of abdominal pressure in many facets of critical illness. The purpose of this review is to address relevant issues related to the chest ...
Krebs Jörg - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative cardiovascular deterioration as a result of pulmonary embolization of bone marrow fat is a potentially serious complication during vertebroplasty. The release of fatty material and thromboplastin from the bone marrow cavity during vertebroplasty may activate the coagulation cascade resulting in thrombogenesis, and pharmacological prophylaxis may therefore prevent cardiovascular ...
Vaschetto Rosanna - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation can induce organ injury associated with overwhelming inflammatory responses. Excessive activation of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase enzyme after massive DNA damage may aggravate inflammatory responses. Therefore, the authors hypothesized that the pharmacologic inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase by PJ-34 would attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS: Anesthetized rats were ...
Caironi Pietro - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although many years have passed since its first application in acute respiratory distress syndrome, computed tomography remains widely employed for research and clinical purposes. Here, we review recent findings derived from computed tomography scanning during acute respiratory distress syndrome, particularly concerning setting positive end-expiratory pressure and mechanisms ...
Pelosi Paolo - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The extracellular matrix plays an important role in the biomechanical behaviour of the lung parenchyma. The matrix is composed of a three-dimensional fibre mesh filled with different macromolecules, including proteoglycans which have important functions in many lung pathophysiological processes, as they regulate tissue hydration, macromolecular structure and ...
Moreno-Alvarez O - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between the intrapulmonary circulation and the degree of lung growth in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS: Thirty-six fetuses with isolated left CDH at 22-29 weeks of gestation were studied. Four groups were defined according to lung-to-head ratio (LHR), expressed as the ratio of ...
Kobr J - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: The "open lung concept" theory of mechanical ventilation is correct, but an unsuitable setting of the machine is not appropriate in children. TYPE OF STUDY: This experimental study is a comparative, closed, randomized, double-blind study. The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that even a short-term ...
Muellenbach Ralf M - - 2008
ABSTRACT: Although the minimization of the applied tidal volume (VT) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) reduces the risk of alveolar shear stress, it can also result in insufficient CO2-elimination with severe respiratory acidosis. We hypothesized that in a model of acute respiratory distress (ARDS) the application of high oscillatory frequencies ...
Di Nardo Matteo - - 2008
Independent lung ventilation is a form of protective ventilation strategy used in adult asymmetric acute lung injury, where the application of conventional mechanical ventilation can produce ventilator-induced lung injury and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Only a few experiences have been published on the use of independent lung ventilation in newborn patients. We ...
Garcia Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Uncertainties about the numerous degrees of freedom in ventilator settings leave many unanswered questions about the biophysical determinants of lung injury. We investigated whether mechanical ventilation with high air flow could yield lung mechanical stress even in normal animals. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. SETTING: University research laboratory. ...
Andersson-Sjöland Annika - - 2008
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the accumulation of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and aberrant remodeling of the lung parenchyma. However, the sources of fibroblasts in IPF lungs are unclear. Fibrocytes are circulating progenitors of fibroblasts implicated in wound healing and fibrosis. In this study we evaluated evidence for the presence of fibrocytes ...
Waerhaug Kristine - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Acute lung injury often complicates severe sepsis. In gram-negative sepsis, bacterial endotoxin activates both coagulation and inflammation. Enhanced lung vascular pressures and permeability, increased extravascular lung water content and deteriorated gas exchange characterize ovine endotoxin-induced lung injury, a frequently used model of acute lung injury. Recombinant human activated protein ...
Dellacà Raffaele L - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary edema induces changes in airway and lung tissues mechanical properties that can be measured by low-frequency forced oscillation technique (FOT). It is preceded by interstitial edema which is characterized by the accumulation of extravascular fluid in the interstitial space of the air-blood barrier. Our aim was to investigate ...
Marini John J - - 2008
Sustained re-opening of collapsed lung tissue (recruitment) requires the application of airway pressures that exceed those of the tidal cycle. The post-maneuver PEEP as well as the duration of high pressure application are also key factors in its success, with their accompanying potential for hemodynamic compromise. Although a wide variety ...
Rodrigues Paula - - 2008
Elastic fibres play a crucial function during the process of lung alveolisation. During the perinatal period, any changes in the elastogenic process during foetal development may result in permanent lifetime defects. In pre-natal life, well-developed pulmonary elastic fibres should favor the pre-natal maturation of the lung and an enhanced alveolisation, ...
Koefoed-Nielsen Jacob J Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Hobrovej 18-22, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark. - - 2008
Simple methods to predict the effect of lung recruitment maneuvers (LRMs) in acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are lacking. It has previously been found that a static pressure-volume (PV) loop could indicate the increase in lung volume induced by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in ARDS. ...
Grasso Francesco - - 2008
RATIONALE: Conventional positive-pressure ventilation delivers pressure to the airways; in contrast, negative pressure is delivered globally to the chest and abdomen. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that ventilation with negative pressure results in better oxygenation and less injury than with positive pressure. METHODS: Anesthetized, surfactant-depleted rabbits were ventilated for 2.5 ...
Samancilar O - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of two devices using ultrasonic energy for dissection of lung parenchyma in an experimental animal model by comparing the two methods with each other. METHODS: Twenty New Zealand rabbits were used. One-lung ventilation was obtained under direct vision and the left lung ...
Molinari Francesco - - 2007
PURPOSE: To evaluate an optimized method for oxygen-enhanced MRI of the lung, using simultaneous electrocardiograph (ECG) and navigator triggering. To correlate oxygen-enhanced MRI with lung function tests assessing alveolar-capillary gas exchange. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 healthy volunteers (aged 20-32 years) and 10 patients (aged 37-87 years) with ...
Licker Marc - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injuries, fluid overload, and cardiac insufficiency may all contribute to alveolar and interstitial lung edema. We hypothesized that aerosolized salbutamol would reduce extravascular lung water and improve oxygenation after lung resection by stimulating epithelial fluid clearance and cardiovascular function. DESIGN: Blinded, randomized, cross-over trial. METHODS: We selected 24 ...
Unbekandt Mathieu M Groupe Matière Condensée et Matériaux, Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes, - - 2008
Tracheal occlusion during lung development accelerates growth in response to increased intraluminal pressure. In order to investigate the role of internal pressure on murine early lung development, we cauterized the tip of the trachea, to occlude it, and thus to increase internal pressure. This method allowed us to evaluate the ...
Jani J C - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To compare prediction of postnatal survival in isolated diaphragmatic hernia by prenatal two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D) sonographic assessment of the contralateral lung. METHODS: The lung area to head circumference ratio (LHR) of the contralateral lung was measured and expressed as a percentage of the normal mean for gestation ...
Lowe Kevin - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary vascular permeability increases, causing intravascular fluid and protein to move into the lung's interstitium. The classic model describing the formation of pulmonary edema suggests that fluid crossing the capillary endothelium is drawn by negative interstitial pressure into the potential space surrounding extra-alveolar vessels ...
Fernandez Lucas G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: In experimental animals, pneumonectomy results in rapid, hyperplastic compensatory growth of the remaining lung. The limits of this induced growth are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that compensatory growth can be reinitiated in the same lung after subsequent lung resection. METHODS: A left thoracotomy (Sham group) or left pneumonectomy ...
Mokra D - - 2007
Administration of methylxanthines may diminish meconium-induced acute lung injury. Meconium-instilled rabbits intravenously received aminophylline (2.0 mg/kg) at two doses 0.5 h and 2.5 h after meconium instillation or were left without treatment, and were oxygen-ventilated for additional 5 h. At the end of experiment, lungs and trachea were excised. Within ...
Luh Shi-Ping - - 2007
Lung ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury plays an important role in many clinical issues. A series of mechanisms after I/R has been uncovered after numerous related studies. Organ preconditioning (PC) is a process whereby a brief antecedent event, such as transient ischemia, oxidative stress, temperature change, or drug administration, bestows on an ...
Nowak K - - 2007
The isolation perfusion model, including transbronchial ventilation of human lung, offers the possibility to study pharmacological interactions under physiological conditions. In view of the increasing importance of targeted therapy of lung diseases, this model of perfusion might attract major interest, particularly, in lung cancer. Our study investigated physiological, histological, and ...
Bouadma Lila - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR) and high lung stress during mechanical ventilation interact to augment lung and systemic inflammatory responses and whether their sequence affects these responses. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. SETTING: Research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Fifty-six male Wistar rats. INTERVENTIONS: Controls were immediately killed ...
Silva Pedro L - - 2008
We developed a model of severe allergic inflammation and investigated the impact of airway and lung parenchyma remodelling on in vivo and in vitro respiratory mechanics. BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin in severe allergic inflammation (SA) group. The control group (C) received saline using the same protocol. ...
Jian Ming-Yuan - - 2008
High vascular pressure targets the lung septal network, causing acute lung injury. While calcium entry in septal endothelium has been implicated, the channel involved is not known. This study tested the hypothesis that the vanilloid transient receptor potential channel, TRPV4, is a critical participant in the permeability response to high ...
John Lindsay C H - - 2008
It has been suggested that maintaining ventilation during bypass might reduce lung injury, which is a common complication of cardiac surgery. In order to assess this, a study is being undertaken to examine the effect upon a number of parameters that may be indicative of lung injury, of continued ventilation ...
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