Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2451
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >
Heller Hartmut - - 2007
In artificially ventilated animals we investigated the dependence of the pulmonary diffusing capacities of nitric oxide (NO) and doubly 18O-labeled carbon dioxide (DLNO, DLC18O2) on lung expansion with respect to ventilator-driven increases in intrapulmonary pressure. For this purpose we applied computerized single-breath experiments to 11 anesthetized paralyzed rabbits (weight 2.8-3.8 ...
Richard Jean-Christophe - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: In acute lung injury (ALI) activated protein C (APC) may reopen occluded lung vessels and minimize lung inflammation. We aimed at assessing the effect of APC on regional lung perfusion, aerated lung volume, cytokine production and oxygenation in experimental ALI. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, controlled study in an imaging ...
Tekinbas Celal - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Lung injury induced by one-lung ventilation is rare, but it is a condition that may result in high mortality. This study evaluates the effects of one-lung ventilation and occlusion time on collapsed and contralateral lungs. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated randomly into 7 groups consisting of 6 animals each: ...
de Azevedo Luciano Cesar Pontes - - 2007
PURPOSE: Pathophysiological studies in humans regarding sepsis are difficult to perform due to ethical and methodological concerns. In this context, animal models of sepsis can be useful to better understand this condition and to test therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this study was to characterize a feasible and clinically relevant ...
Schreiber Torsten - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Increasing pulmonary blood flow aggravated ventilation-associated lung injury in ex vivo animal experiments, but data were less consistent in an in vivo animal model and do not reflect redistributed lung perfusion seen in clinical acute lung injury. We sought to determine the effects of increased cardiac output on markers ...
Parameswaran Krishnan - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Both ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) of the lungs are altered in asthma, but their relationships with allergen-induced airway responses and gas exchange are not well described. METHODS: The effects of aerosolized allergen provocation of V/Q abnormalities in nonsmoking, male atopic asthmatics (six dual responders and two isolated early ...
Huang Huimin - - 2007
We substituted autologous lung for the artificial oxygenator to assess reduction of lung injury after conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Twelve piglets were randomly divided into two groups. Experimental animals (n = 6) underwent bilateral CPB with autologous lungs perfusion, whereas control animals (n = 6) underwent conventional CPB with artificial ...
Lachmann Robert A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: A previous study in piglets with experimental pneumonia showed that reducing atelectasis by means of open lung ventilation attenuated bacterial translocation compared to conventional ventilation settings. This study examined the effect of open lung ventilation with higher than necessary positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) on bacterial translocation. DESIGN AND SETTING: ...
Eckle Tobias - - 2007
Acute lung injury (ALI), such as that which occurs with mechanical ventilation, contributes to morbidity and mortality of critical illness. Nonetheless, in many instances, ALI resolves spontaneously through unknown mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized the presence of innate adaptive pathways to protect the lungs during mechanical ventilation. In this study, we ...
Chang Hung - - 2008
The present study was designed to determine the effect of various core temperatures on acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in our isolated rabbit lung model. Typical acute lung injury was successfully induced by 30 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion observation. The I/R elicited a ...
Prisk G Kim - - 2007
Prone posture increases cardiac output and improves pulmonary gas exchange. We hypothesized that, in the supine posture, greater compression of dependent lung limits regional blood flow. To test this, MRI-based measures of regional lung density, MRI arterial spin labeling quantification of pulmonary perfusion, and density-normalized perfusion were made in six ...
Moriondo Andrea - - 2007
This research investigated whether stretching of lung tissue due to increased positive alveolar pressure swings during mechanical ventilation (MV) at various tidal volumes (V(T)) might affect the composition and/or structure of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) components of pulmonary extracellular proteoglycans. Experiments were performed in 30 healthy rats: 1) anesthetized and immediately ...
Muellenbach Ralf M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) may reduce ventilator-induced lung injury in experimental neonatal respiratory distress. However, these data permit no conclusions for large animals or adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), because in neonates higher frequencies and lower amplitudes can be used, resulting in lower tidal volumes (VT) ...
Kuzkov Vsevolod V - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare the single thermodilution and the thermal-dye dilution techniques with postmortem gravimetry for assessment of changes in extravascular lung water after pneumonectomy and to explore the evolution of edema after injurious ventilation of the left lung. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: University laboratory. SUBJECTS: A total of 30 sheep ...
Oda Jun - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication after resuscitation from burn shock, even after abdominal decompression (AD) is performed. This study investigated increased susceptibility to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in extensively burned patients with ACS. METHODS: Patients admitted to our burn unit between 2002 and 2005 ...
Chen Hsing I - - 2007
AIMS: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious clinical problem. We investigated the pathogenetic mechanisms of ALI caused by leptospirosis. METHODS: The study included five cases of leptospirosis. We monitored the arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) and analysed the AP and HR variabilities for assessment of autonomic functions. ...
Guardiola J - - 2007
Airway sensors play an important role in control of breathing. Recently, it was found that pulmonary slowly adapting stretch receptors (SARs) cease after a brief excitation following sodium pump blockade by ouabain. This deactivation can be explained by overexcitation. If this is true, mechanical stimulation of the SARs should also ...
Maybauer Marc O - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate ceftazidime in acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study in an investigational ICU at a university hospital. INTERVENTIONS: Eighteen female Merino sheep were prepared for chronic study and subjected to smoke inhalation and septic challenge according to an established protocol. ...
Su C-F - - 2007
Poly (ADP-ribose) synthase or polymerase (PARS and PARP, respectively) is a cytotoxic enzyme which causes cellular damage. Nicotinamide, a compound of vitamin B complex, has been reported to exert an inhibitory effect on PARS or PARP. The present study tests the effects of nicotinamide on acute lung injury and associated ...
Glénet Stéphane N - - 2007
Using simultaneous nitric oxide and carbon monoxide lung transfer measurements (T(LNO) and T(LCO)), the membrane transfer capacity (D(m)) and capillary lung volume (V(c)) as well as the dimensionless ratio T(LNO)/T(LCO) can be calculated. The significance of this ratio is yet unclear. Theoretically, the T(LNO)/T(LCO) ratio should be inversely related to ...
Emery Michael J - - 2007
CO(2) regulation of lung compliance is currently explained by pH- and CO(2)-dependent changes in alveolar surface forces and bronchomotor tone. We hypothesized that in addition to, but independently of, those mechanisms, the parenchyma tissue responds to hypercapnia and hypocapnia by relaxing and contracting, respectively, thereby improving local matching of ventilation ...
Constantin Jean-Michel - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Alveolar fluid clearance is impaired in the majority of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Experimental studies have shown that a reduction of tidal volume increases alveolar fluid clearance. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of the response to a recruitment maneuver (RM) on net alveolar ...
Eyal Fabien G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Alveolar macrophages are the sentinel cell for activation of the inflammatory cascade when the lung is exposed to noxious stimuli. We investigated the role of macrophages in mechanical lung injury by comparing the effect of high-volume mechanical ventilation with or without prior depletion of macrophages. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized ...
Fields Michael J - - 2007
Pulmonary ischemia resulting from chronic pulmonary embolism leads to proliferation of the systemic circulation within and surrounding the lung. However, it is not clear how well alveolar tissue is sustained during the time of complete pulmonary ischemia. In the present study, we investigated how pulmonary ischemia after left pulmonary artery ...
Gillis Robert C - - 2007
Lung protective ventilation strategies for patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are well documented, and many medical centers fail to apply these strategies in ALI/ARDS. The objective of this study was to determine if we apply these strategies in trauma patients at risk for ...
Fujita Yasuki - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The study investigated the effect of peak inspiratory flow in a rabbit acute lung injury model. MATERIAL/METHODS: Twenty-five male rabbits were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated with high tidal volume (V(T)) until PaO2 dropped below 300 mmHg. Then the animals were randomly assigned to two groups: group V (n=10) receiving ...
Musch Guido - - 2007
Alveolar overdistension and repetitive derecruitment-recruitment contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The authors investigated (1) whether inflammatory cell activation due to VILI was assessable by positron emission tomography and (2) whether cell activation due to dynamic overdistension alone was detectable when other manifestations of VILI were not yet evident. The ...
Cagirici U - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of N-butyl cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive for the prevention of air leak together with the morphological changes to lung parenchyma. METHODS: Twelve New Zealand rabbits were used. The rabbits were ventilated with pressure-controlled ventilation during the experiment, beginning with a ...
Tanju S - - 2007
This study was designed to compare the early effects of docetaxel and paclitaxel on pulmonary physiology after isolated lung perfusion. Rats underwent isolated left lung perfusion with docetaxel in group 1 (n = 5), paclitaxel in group 2 (n = 5), and 0.9 %NaCl in the control group (n = ...
Santus Pierachille - - 2007
In a three-way crossover pilot study, the acute effects of tiotropium 18 microg inhalation on the respiratory function and arterial blood gas tensions of 30 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were compared with those of salmeterol 50 microg and formoterol 12 microg. In each study day, lung ...
Van De Wauwer Caroline - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The use of non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) has been propagated as an alternative to overcome the scarcity of pulmonary grafts. Formation of microthrombi after circulatory arrest, however, is a major concern for the development of reperfusion injury. We looked at the effect and the best route of pulmonary flush following ...
Frank James A - - 2007
To study air space fluid clearance (AFC) under conditions that resemble the clinical setting of pulmonary edema in patients, we developed a new perfused human lung preparation. We measured AFC in 20 human lungs rejected for transplantation and determined the contribution of AFC to lung fluid balance. AFC was then ...
Snyder Eric M - - 2007
The beta2-adrenergic receptors (beta2AR) play an important role in lung fluid regulation. Previous research has suggested that subjects homozygous for arginine at amino acid 16 of the beta2AR (Arg16) may have attenuated receptor function relative to subjects homozygous for glycine at the same amino acid (Gly16). We sought to determine ...
Bellardine Black Carissa L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury are characterized by heterogeneous flooding/collapse of lung tissue. An emerging concept for managing these diseases is to set mechanical ventilation so as to minimize the impact of disease heterogeneity on lung mechanical stress and ventilation distribution. The goal of this study ...
Burburan Shirley Moreira - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There are no studies examining the effects of sevoflurane on a chronically inflamed and remodeled airway, such as that found in asthma. In the present study, we sought to define the respiratory effects of sevoflurane in a model of chronic allergic asthma. For this purpose, pulmonary mechanics were studied ...
Morris Kevin - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of a sustained inflation (SI) maneuver on the regional distribution of gas and perfluorocarbon (PFC) during partial liquid ventilation (PLV) in normal pigs using computerized densitometry. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Three healthy anaesthetized pigs. INTERVENTIONS: Partial liquid ventilation, lung recruitment, ...
Verbrugge Serge J C - - 2007
This review addresses the physiological background and the current status of evidence regarding ventilator-induced lung injury and lung protective strategies. Lung protective ventilatory strategies have been shown to reduce mortality from adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We review the latest knowledge on the progression of lung injury by mechanical ventilation ...
Iglesias Manuela - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the safety and feasibility of implanting the pumpless interventional lung assist device (Novalung; Novalung GmbH, Hechingen, Germany) to the axillary vessels either by means of direct cannulation or end-to-side graft interposition and the capability of either type of vascular access to provide respiratory support during ...
Dubus Jean-Christophe - - 2007
The best delivery of a drug in ventilated neonates is obtained when using a small particle diameter solution administered via a spacer. Lung deposition of hydrofluoroalkane beclomethasone dipropionate (QVAR, 1.3 microm particles), delivered via an Aerochamber-MV15, was measured in piglets under conditions mimicking ventilated severely ill neonates (uncuffed 2.5 mm ...
Krieg Sally - - 2007
QUESTION: What is the effect of sitting and side-lying on the distribution of ventilation during tidal breathing in healthy older people? DESIGN: Randomised, within-participant, experimental study. PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy people more than 65 years old. INTERVENTION: Tidal breathing during sitting and right side-lying. OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution of ventilation as a ...
Cunha-Goncalves Doris - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage is an alternative to diagnostic bronchoscopy in pediatric patients, as fiberoptic bronchoscopes with aspiration channels are too large for small infants. There are many variations of the method in clinical practice, and saline instillation followed by open endotracheal suctioning is still commonly used. Lung function can ...
Reinhardt Joseph M - - 2007
The main function of the respiratory system is gas exchange. Since many disease or injury conditions can cause biomechanical or material property changes that can alter lung function, there is a great interest in measuring regional lung ventilation. We describe a registration-based technique for estimating local lung expansion from multiple ...
Aboab J - - 2007
Previous studies have indicated that, during mechanical ventilation, an inspiratory pause enhances gas exchange. This has been attributed to prolonged time during which fresh gas of the tidal volume is present in the respiratory zone and is available for distribution in the lung periphery. The mean distribution time of inspired ...
Dries David J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The time course of the physiological derangements that result from ventilator-induced lung injury has not been adequately described. Similarly, the regional topographies of pleural pressure and tissue edema have not been carefully mapped for this injury process. METHODS: Lung injury was induced in 9 normal pigs by ventilating for ...
Uchiyama Akinori - - 2007
The aim of the study was to assess a new expiratory support (ES) system in resolving air trapping in the lungs during mechanical ventilation. The ES system consisted of a cylinder and two valves that were connected to the ventilatory circuit. The movements of them were synchronized with the ventilator. ...
Luria Oded - - 2007
Ventilation using high-frequency oscillation (HFO) has become a standard care for the ventilatory management of critically ill newborns. In recent years, there has been growing recognition that maintenance of an optimal lung volume during high-frequency oscillation plays an important role in minimizing ventilator-induced lung injury. The primary variable affecting lung ...
Pelosi P - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: There has been an exponentially increasing interest in intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). The intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) markedly affects the function of the respiratory system. METHODS: This review will focus on the available literature from the past few years. A Medline and Pubmed search was performed in order to find an ...
Miserocchi Giuseppe - - 2007
The air blood barrier is a gas exchanger and is well designed to fulfill this task as its main feature is its minimum thickness that in turn reflects a minimum amount of extravascular water. The maintenance of a minimum water volume is due to mechanisms able to control interstitial fluid ...
West J B - - 2007
Some 300 million yrs ago, the ancestors of modern reptiles emerged from water and were committed to air breathing. They were exothermic and incapable of sustained levels of high physical activity. But from them evolved the two great classes of vertebrates with high levels of maximal oxygen consumption: the mammals ...
Tyvold Stig S - - 2007
Contents of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the bronchi are of central interest in lung diseases, acute lung injury and pharmacology. The most commonly used technique broncheoalveolar lavage is invasive and may cause lung injury. Microdialysis (MD) is a method for continuous sampling of extracellular molecules in the immediate ...
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >