Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 2450
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Kozian A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: One-lung ventilation (OLV) increases mechanical stress in the lung and affects ventilation and perfusion (V, Q). There are no data on the effects of OLV on postoperative V/Q matching. Thus, this controlled study evaluates the influence of OLV on V/Q distribution in a pig model using a gamma camera ...
Nonaka Paula Naomi - - 2008
In the present work we investigated the effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CdtV) on the pulmonary mechanic events [static and dynamic elastance, resistive (DeltaP1) and viscoelastic pressures (DeltaP2)] and histology after intramuscular injection of saline solution (control) or venom (0.6 microg/g). The static and dynamic elastance values were increased ...
Meade Maureen O - - 2008
CONTEXT: Low-tidal-volume ventilation reduces mortality in critically ill patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Instituting additional strategies to open collapsed lung tissue may further reduce mortality. OBJECTIVE: To compare an established low-tidal-volume ventilation strategy with an experimental strategy based on the original "open-lung approach," combining low ...
Hoag Jeffrey B - - 2008
Acute lung injury (ALI) in combination with acute kidney injury carries a mortality approaching 80% in the intensive care unit. Recently, attention has focused on the interaction of the lung and kidney in the setting of ALI and mechanical ventilation (MV). Small animal models of ALI and MV have demonstrated ...
Guerin Claude - - 2008
The current main objective of mechanical ventilation during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is to improve oxygenation while preventing ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in order to save a patient's life. The major determinants of VILI are both hyperinflation of normally aerated lung and repetitive opening and closing of lung units. ...
Stenqvist Ola - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Classic static measurements of lung mechanics have been used mainly for research purposes, but have not gained widespread clinical acceptance. Instead, dynamic measurements have been used, but interpretation of results has been hampered by lack of clear definitions. The review provides an overview of possible definitions and ...
Hess Dean R - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has recently been renewed interest in the chest wall during mechanical ventilation, related to lung-protective ventilation strategies, as well as in the role of abdominal pressure in many facets of critical illness. The purpose of this review is to address relevant issues related to the chest ...
Krebs Jörg - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative cardiovascular deterioration as a result of pulmonary embolization of bone marrow fat is a potentially serious complication during vertebroplasty. The release of fatty material and thromboplastin from the bone marrow cavity during vertebroplasty may activate the coagulation cascade resulting in thrombogenesis, and pharmacological prophylaxis may therefore prevent cardiovascular ...
Vaschetto Rosanna - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation can induce organ injury associated with overwhelming inflammatory responses. Excessive activation of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase enzyme after massive DNA damage may aggravate inflammatory responses. Therefore, the authors hypothesized that the pharmacologic inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase by PJ-34 would attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS: Anesthetized rats were ...
Caironi Pietro - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although many years have passed since its first application in acute respiratory distress syndrome, computed tomography remains widely employed for research and clinical purposes. Here, we review recent findings derived from computed tomography scanning during acute respiratory distress syndrome, particularly concerning setting positive end-expiratory pressure and mechanisms ...
Pelosi Paolo - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The extracellular matrix plays an important role in the biomechanical behaviour of the lung parenchyma. The matrix is composed of a three-dimensional fibre mesh filled with different macromolecules, including proteoglycans which have important functions in many lung pathophysiological processes, as they regulate tissue hydration, macromolecular structure and ...
Moreno-Alvarez O - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between the intrapulmonary circulation and the degree of lung growth in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS: Thirty-six fetuses with isolated left CDH at 22-29 weeks of gestation were studied. Four groups were defined according to lung-to-head ratio (LHR), expressed as the ratio of ...
Kobr J - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: The "open lung concept" theory of mechanical ventilation is correct, but an unsuitable setting of the machine is not appropriate in children. TYPE OF STUDY: This experimental study is a comparative, closed, randomized, double-blind study. The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that even a short-term ...
Muellenbach Ralf M - - 2008
ABSTRACT: Although the minimization of the applied tidal volume (VT) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) reduces the risk of alveolar shear stress, it can also result in insufficient CO2-elimination with severe respiratory acidosis. We hypothesized that in a model of acute respiratory distress (ARDS) the application of high oscillatory frequencies ...
Di Nardo Matteo - - 2008
Independent lung ventilation is a form of protective ventilation strategy used in adult asymmetric acute lung injury, where the application of conventional mechanical ventilation can produce ventilator-induced lung injury and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Only a few experiences have been published on the use of independent lung ventilation in newborn patients. We ...
Garcia Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Uncertainties about the numerous degrees of freedom in ventilator settings leave many unanswered questions about the biophysical determinants of lung injury. We investigated whether mechanical ventilation with high air flow could yield lung mechanical stress even in normal animals. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. SETTING: University research laboratory. ...
Andersson-Sjöland Annika - - 2008
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the accumulation of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and aberrant remodeling of the lung parenchyma. However, the sources of fibroblasts in IPF lungs are unclear. Fibrocytes are circulating progenitors of fibroblasts implicated in wound healing and fibrosis. In this study we evaluated evidence for the presence of fibrocytes ...
Waerhaug Kristine - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Acute lung injury often complicates severe sepsis. In gram-negative sepsis, bacterial endotoxin activates both coagulation and inflammation. Enhanced lung vascular pressures and permeability, increased extravascular lung water content and deteriorated gas exchange characterize ovine endotoxin-induced lung injury, a frequently used model of acute lung injury. Recombinant human activated protein ...
Dellacà Raffaele L - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary edema induces changes in airway and lung tissues mechanical properties that can be measured by low-frequency forced oscillation technique (FOT). It is preceded by interstitial edema which is characterized by the accumulation of extravascular fluid in the interstitial space of the air-blood barrier. Our aim was to investigate ...
Koefoed-Nielsen Jacob - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Simple methods to predict the effect of lung recruitment maneuvers (LRMs) in acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are lacking. It has previously been found that a static pressure-volume (PV) loop could indicate the increase in lung volume induced by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in ...
Marini John J - - 2008
Sustained re-opening of collapsed lung tissue (recruitment) requires the application of airway pressures that exceed those of the tidal cycle. The post-maneuver PEEP as well as the duration of high pressure application are also key factors in its success, with their accompanying potential for hemodynamic compromise. Although a wide variety ...
Rodrigues Paula - - 2008
Elastic fibres play a crucial function during the process of lung alveolisation. During the perinatal period, any changes in the elastogenic process during foetal development may result in permanent lifetime defects. In pre-natal life, well-developed pulmonary elastic fibres should favor the pre-natal maturation of the lung and an enhanced alveolisation, ...
Grasso Francesco - - 2008
RATIONALE: Conventional positive-pressure ventilation delivers pressure to the airways; in contrast, negative pressure is delivered globally to the chest and abdomen. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that ventilation with negative pressure results in better oxygenation and less injury than with positive pressure. METHODS: Anesthetized, surfactant-depleted rabbits were ventilated for 2.5 ...
Samancilar O - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of two devices using ultrasonic energy for dissection of lung parenchyma in an experimental animal model by comparing the two methods with each other. METHODS: Twenty New Zealand rabbits were used. One-lung ventilation was obtained under direct vision and the left lung ...
Molinari Francesco - - 2007
PURPOSE: To evaluate an optimized method for oxygen-enhanced MRI of the lung, using simultaneous electrocardiograph (ECG) and navigator triggering. To correlate oxygen-enhanced MRI with lung function tests assessing alveolar-capillary gas exchange. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 healthy volunteers (aged 20-32 years) and 10 patients (aged 37-87 years) with ...
Licker Marc - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injuries, fluid overload, and cardiac insufficiency may all contribute to alveolar and interstitial lung edema. We hypothesized that aerosolized salbutamol would reduce extravascular lung water and improve oxygenation after lung resection by stimulating epithelial fluid clearance and cardiovascular function. DESIGN: Blinded, randomized, cross-over trial. METHODS: We selected 24 ...
Unbekandt Mathieu - - 2008
Tracheal occlusion during lung development accelerates growth in response to increased intraluminal pressure. In order to investigate the role of internal pressure on murine early lung development, we cauterized the tip of the trachea, to occlude it, and thus to increase internal pressure. This method allowed us to evaluate the ...
Jani J C - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To compare prediction of postnatal survival in isolated diaphragmatic hernia by prenatal two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D) sonographic assessment of the contralateral lung. METHODS: The lung area to head circumference ratio (LHR) of the contralateral lung was measured and expressed as a percentage of the normal mean for gestation ...
Lowe Kevin - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary vascular permeability increases, causing intravascular fluid and protein to move into the lung's interstitium. The classic model describing the formation of pulmonary edema suggests that fluid crossing the capillary endothelium is drawn by negative interstitial pressure into the potential space surrounding extra-alveolar vessels ...
Fernandez Lucas G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: In experimental animals, pneumonectomy results in rapid, hyperplastic compensatory growth of the remaining lung. The limits of this induced growth are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that compensatory growth can be reinitiated in the same lung after subsequent lung resection. METHODS: A left thoracotomy (Sham group) or left pneumonectomy ...
Mokra D - - 2007
Administration of methylxanthines may diminish meconium-induced acute lung injury. Meconium-instilled rabbits intravenously received aminophylline (2.0 mg/kg) at two doses 0.5 h and 2.5 h after meconium instillation or were left without treatment, and were oxygen-ventilated for additional 5 h. At the end of experiment, lungs and trachea were excised. Within ...
Luh Shi-Ping - - 2007
Lung ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury plays an important role in many clinical issues. A series of mechanisms after I/R has been uncovered after numerous related studies. Organ preconditioning (PC) is a process whereby a brief antecedent event, such as transient ischemia, oxidative stress, temperature change, or drug administration, bestows on an ...
Nowak K - - 2007
The isolation perfusion model, including transbronchial ventilation of human lung, offers the possibility to study pharmacological interactions under physiological conditions. In view of the increasing importance of targeted therapy of lung diseases, this model of perfusion might attract major interest, particularly, in lung cancer. Our study investigated physiological, histological, and ...
Bouadma Lila - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR) and high lung stress during mechanical ventilation interact to augment lung and systemic inflammatory responses and whether their sequence affects these responses. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. SETTING: Research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Fifty-six male Wistar rats. INTERVENTIONS: Controls were immediately killed ...
Silva Pedro L - - 2008
We developed a model of severe allergic inflammation and investigated the impact of airway and lung parenchyma remodelling on in vivo and in vitro respiratory mechanics. BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin in severe allergic inflammation (SA) group. The control group (C) received saline using the same protocol. ...
Jian Ming-Yuan - - 2008
High vascular pressure targets the lung septal network, causing acute lung injury. While calcium entry in septal endothelium has been implicated, the channel involved is not known. This study tested the hypothesis that the vanilloid transient receptor potential channel, TRPV4, is a critical participant in the permeability response to high ...
John Lindsay C H - - 2008
It has been suggested that maintaining ventilation during bypass might reduce lung injury, which is a common complication of cardiac surgery. In order to assess this, a study is being undertaken to examine the effect upon a number of parameters that may be indicative of lung injury, of continued ventilation ...
Musch Guido - - 2008
In a pulmonary process characterized by spatially heterogeneous loss of aeration, the impairment of gas exchange is expected to depend on the regional distribution of perfusion relative to that of aeration. To investigate how regional aeration, shunt, and perfusion are interrelated at different levels of end-expiratory pressure and how their ...
Chun Eun Mi - - 2008
To study the effect of the degree of scoliosis, degree of hypokyphosis/lordosis and rotation of apical vertebra on individual lung volume (measured with CT scan) in asymptomatic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Individual (right and left) lung volume, angle of kyphosis and rotation of apical vertebra, were measured in 77 ...
Dembinski Rolf - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ventilation with 3 mL/kg tidal volume combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal by arteriovenous interventional lung assist reduces ventilator-associated organ injury in experimental acute lung injury when compared with ventilation with 6 mL/kg tidal volume without interventional lung assist. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: ...
Henzler Dietrich - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In acute lung injury, ventilation avoiding tidal hyperinflation and tidal recruitment has been proposed to prevent ventilator-associated lung injury. Information about dynamic recruitment may be obtained from the characteristics of pressure-volume (PV) curves or the profile of pressure-time (Paw-t) curves. METHODS: Six anesthetized pigs with lung lavage-induced acute lung ...
Watson Rebecca R - - 2008
Previous physiological studies suggest that avian pulmonary capillaries behave like almost rigid tubes. We made morphometric measurements to determine the diameter of the capillaries in chicken lungs when the transmural pressure was altered over a wide range. The diameter of avian pulmonary capillaries increased by only 13% when the pressure ...
Geiger Ralf - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Meconium aspiration induces acute lung injury (ALI) and subsequent pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) which may lead to right ventricular failure. Increase of endothelin-1, thromboxane-A, and phosphodiesterases are discussed molecular mechanisms. We investigated the intrapulmonary and hemodynamic effects of the intravenous dual endothelin A and B receptor blocker tezosentan and ...
Yang You-Lan - - 2008
We investigated the effects of mechanical ventilation with a moderately high tidal volume (VT) on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by wood smoke inhalation in anesthetized mice. Animals received challenges of air, 30 breaths of smoke (30SM) or 60 breaths of smoke (60SM) and were then ventilated with a VT ...
Allardet-Servent Jérôme - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of high-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) compared with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and low-volume conventional mechanical ventilation (LVCMV), on lung injury course in a gastric juice aspiration model. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled, in-vivo animal study. SETTING: University animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Forty-three New Zealand rabbits. INTERVENTIONS: ...
Constans Joël - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The ERAMS study addressed the value of arterial stiffness in predicting the severity of systemic sclerosis. METHODS: ERAMS was a prospective multicentre cohort study including patients with definite systemic sclerosis. Arterial stiffness was measured by the standardized non-invasive QKd 100-60 method. Clinical evaluation, biological measurements, functional respiratory tests and ...
Ballard Hubert O - - 2007
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a pulmonary disorder that causes significant morbidity and mortality in premature infants. BPD is pathologically characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and mucosal necrosis, which leads to emphysematous coalescence of alveoli. We tested the hypothesis that azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, would decrease the severity of lung injury in ...
Hansen Lars Kjaersgaard - - 2007
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown, in normovolemic pigs, that a selective lung recruitment maneuver (S-LRM), i.e., insufflation of air-oxygen via a balloon catheter with its tip located in the bronchus of a collapsed lung lobe, effectively improves oxygenation and lung volume without affecting hemodynamics negatively. In this study, we examined ...
Farha Samar - - 2007
Gas transfer in the female lung varies over the menstrual cycle in parallel with the cyclic angiogenesis that occurs in the uterine endometrium. Given that vessels form and regress in the uterus under the control of hormones, angiogenic factors, and proangiogenic circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, we tested the possibility ...
Heller Hartmut - - 2007
In artificially ventilated animals we investigated the dependence of the pulmonary diffusing capacities of nitric oxide (NO) and doubly 18O-labeled carbon dioxide (DLNO, DLC18O2) on lung expansion with respect to ventilator-driven increases in intrapulmonary pressure. For this purpose we applied computerized single-breath experiments to 11 anesthetized paralyzed rabbits (weight 2.8-3.8 ...
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