Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 2476
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Kubiak Brian D - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are often ventilated with high airway pressure. Brief loss of airway pressure may lead to an extended loss of oxygenation. While using high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in a porcine acute lung injury model, two animals became disconnected from the ventilator with ...
O'Neill James - - 2011
Self-inflating resuscitators (SIRs) are often used in pediatric resuscitation. Improper setup of the SIR can lead to inadequate ventilation and oxygenation. To present clinical scenarios in which SIRs delivered inadequate tidal volumes due to improper use. Second, to evaluate tidal volumes delivered using SIRs at varying lung compliances with the ...
Guo Zhong-liang - - 2009
To investigate the effect of partial liquid ventilation (PLV) at low inflation pressures on acute lung injury (ALI), endotoxin was administered to healthy anesthetized juvenile piglets. The animals were randomly assigned to two groups, n=6 each: (1) conventional mechanical ventilation (MV) and (2) PLV with perfluorodecalin (10 mL kg(-1)). Compared ...
Dixon Dani-Louise - - 2009
RATIONALE: Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure in chronic heart failure results in compensatory changes in the lung that reduce alveolar fluid filtration and protect against pulmonary microvascular rupture. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether these compensatory responses may have maladaptive effects on lung function. METHODS: Six weeks after myocardial infarction (chronic ...
Ko Raynauld - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Collapse of the ipsilateral lung facilitates surgical exposure during thoracic procedures. The use of different gas mixtures during two-lung ventilation (2LV) may improve or impede surgical conditions during subsequent one-lung ventilation (OLV) by increasing or delaying lung collapse. We investigated the effects of three different gas mixtures during 2LV ...
Alvarez Francisco J - - 2009
Our aim was to develop a computerized system for real-time monitoring of lung mechanics measurements during both gas and liquid ventilation. System accuracy was demonstrated by calculating regression and percent error of the following parameters compared to standard device: airway pressure difference (Delta P(aw)), respiratory frequency (f(R) ), tidal volume ...
Garutti Ignacio - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to investigate respiratory and hemodynamic changes by measuring continuous cardiac output, cardiac filling, and stroke volume variation after lung recruitment in thoracic surgery. DESIGN: A prospective, observational study. SETTING: A tertiary care university hospital single institution. PARTICIPANTS: Forty patients undergoing thoracotomy for ...
Webster Natalie - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to assess radiographic heart size in anesthetized dogs, comparing radiographs made with the patient breathing spontaneously to radiographs obtained using positive pressure manual lung inflation. The hypothesis was that manual inflation would cause reduction in the cardiac size. With dogs in right recumbency a ...
Varpula Tero - - 2009
Maintenance of spontaneous breathing superimposed on mechanical ventilation is suggested to improve gas exchange in patients with acute lung injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of airway pressure release ventilation with maintained unsupported spontaneous breathing (APRV) and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation with pressure support ...
De Troyer André - - 2009
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the expansion of a particular lung during breathing is partly related to the action of the hemidiaphragm on the opposite side. Two endotracheal tubes were inserted in the right and left main stem bronchi of anesthetized dogs, and the changes ...
Steimback Paula W - - 2009
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of frequency and inspiratory plateau pressure (Pplat) during recruitment manoeuvres (RMs) on lung and distal organs in acute lung injury (ALI). METHODS: We studied paraquat-induced ALI rats. At 24 h, rats were anesthetized and RMs were applied using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, 40 cmH(2)O/40 ...
Kopterides Petros - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation and administration of a high oxygen concentration are simultaneously used in the management of respiratory failure. We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of a high inspired oxygen concentration on ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS: Forty sets of isolated/perfused rabbit lungs were randomized for 60 min of ...
Spieth Peter M - - 2009
RATIONALE: Noisy ventilation with variable Vt may improve respiratory function in acute lung injury. OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of noisy ventilation on respiratory function and its biological effects on lung parenchyma compared with conventional protective mechanical ventilation strategies. METHODS: In a porcine surfactant depletion model of lung injury, we ...
Yamamoto Yosuke - - 2009
PURPOSE: Hypoxemia is one of the major problems during one-lung ventilation (OLV). During two-lung ventilation (TLV) using a double-lumen bronchial tube, bronchial endtidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (ETbr(CO2)) can be determined on both sides, independently. The ETbr(CO2) is mainly dependent on the pulmonary perfusion to each lung. If the degree ...
Briot Raphael - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: We assessed the in vivo effects of terbutaline, a beta2-agonist assumed to reduce microvascular permeability in acute lung injury. METHODS: We used a recently developed broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) technique to repeatedly measure (every 15 min. for 4 hours) the time-course of capillary-alveolar leakage of a macromolecule (fluorescein-labeled dextran) in ...
Ganzert Steven - - 2009
Limiting the energy transfer between ventilator and lung is crucial for ventilatory strategy in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Part of the energy is transmitted to the viscoelastic tissue components where it is stored or dissipates. In mechanically ventilated patients, viscoelasticity can be investigated by analyzing pulmonary stress relaxation. While ...
Berger Marc Moritz - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is thought to play a pivotal role in pulmonary edema formation. The underlying mechanisms remain uncertain but may include alterations in capillary pressure and vascular permeability. There are no studies investigating whether ET-1 also affects alveolar fluid clearance which is the primary mechanism for the resolution of ...
Richard J C - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT), which can assess regional lung ventilation at the bedside, has never been compared with positron-emission tomography (PET), a gold-standard to quantify regional ventilation. This experiment systematically compared both techniques in injured and non-injured lungs. METHODS: The study was performed in six mechanically ventilated female piglets. ...
Kamusella Peter C - - 2009
Models of isolated and perfused lungs study pathophysiological phenomena of the airways, but are limited by restricted resemblance to the human situation, non-physiological perfusates or the need for the use of high numbers of laboratory animals. The present model was established to address these difficulties. Aim of the current study ...
Kasim Ihsan - - 2009
Atelectasis occurs after a well performed endotracheal suction. Clinical studies have shown that recruitment manoeuvres added after endotracheal suction during mechanical ventilation restore lung function. Repetitive lung over-distension is, however, harmful for the lung, and the effects of adding a larger breath, recruitment breath, directly after repeated endotracheal suction were ...
Frerichs Inéz I Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany. - - 2009
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is able to detect variations in regional lung electrical impedance associated with changes in both air and blood content and potentially capable of assessing regional ventilation-perfusion relationships. However, regional lung perfusion is difficult to determine because the impedance changes synchronous with the heart rate are of ...
Albert Scott P - - 2009
Inappropriate mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and increase the morbidity and mortality. Reopening collapsed lung units may significantly reduce VILI, but the mechanisms governing lung recruitment are unclear. We thus investigated the dynamics of lung recruitment at the alveolar ...
Marini John J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical implications of an often neglected mechanism through which localized acute lung injury may be propagated and intensified. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Experimental and clinical evidence from the medical literature relevant to the airway propagation hypothesis and its consequences. CONCLUSIONS: The diffuse injury that characterizes acute ...
Ni Chonghaile Martina - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Deliberate induction of hypercapnic acidosis protects against lung injury after nonseptic lung injury. In contrast, concerns exist regarding the effects of hypercapnic acidosis in the setting of severe pulmonary sepsis. The potential for the effects of hypercapnic acidosis to be neutrophil-mediated remains to be determined. We investigated whether hypercapnic ...
Ryu H G - - 2008
The mechanism of oxygenation improvement after recruitment manoeuvres or prone positioning in acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome is still unclear. We tried to determine the mechanism responsible for the effects of recruitment manoeuvres or prone positioning on lung aeration using a whole lung computed tomography scan in ...
Massa Christopher B - - 2008
Lung recruitment and derecruitment contribute significantly to variations in the elastance of the respiratory system during mechanical ventilation. However, the decreases in elastance that occur with deep inflation are transient, especially in acute lung injury. Bates and Irvin (8) proposed a model of the lung that recreates time-varying changes in ...
Impens A J - - 2008
The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is a standardized measure of submaximal exercise capacity that has served as the primary measure of outcome in studies of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Never fully validated in scleroderma, a variety of data suggest that many non-pulmonary aspects of scleroderma contribute to its results thereby blunting ...
Gardelli Greta - - 2009
The purpose of managing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is "to open a closed lung" by increasing the airway pressure or changing the patient's position. Assessment of recruitment of atelectatic lung regions is necessary to have a correct management of mechanical ventilation and to be sure of positive end-expiratory pressure ...
Smith Paul N - - 2008
Intramedullary reamed nailing causes elevation in intramedullary pressure and extravazation of intramedullary contents into the venous blood system. This study investigated the effect of an intramedullary suction system, recently developed in our laboratory, on the pressure and fat extravazation in isolated bovine bone and a sheep model. During reaming, the ...
Kuiper Jan Willem - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: The mechanisms by which mechanical ventilation (MV) can injure remote organs, such as the kidney, remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that upregulation of systemic inflammation, as reflected by plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, in response to a lung-injurious ventilatory strategy, ultimately results in kidney dysfunction mediated by local endothelin-1 (ET-1) ...
Diaper John - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing lung resection are vulnerable to fluid overhydration. Recently, goal-directed fluid therapy using transoesophageal Doppler monitoring (TDM) has been shown to improve postoperative clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of TDM during open-chest procedures for guiding fluid and hemodynamic treatment. METHODS: We ...
Okamoto Toshihiro - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A lower temperature, namely below 0 degrees C, has been thought to be desirable for organ preservation because of the lower rate of metabolism; however, its benefits are still poorly understood. Supercooling is a non-freezing state of liquid below the freezing point, and the new development of a refrigerator ...
Oelze Michael L - - 2008
In a previous study, it was hypothesized that ultrasound-induced lung damage was related to the transfer of ultrasonic energy into the lungs (W. D. O'Brien et al. 2002, "Ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage: Role of acoustic boundary conditions at the pleural surface," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 1102-1109). From this study a ...
Pedreira Paula R - - 2008
Melatonin is a free radical scavenger and a broad-spectrum antioxidant and has well-documented immunomodulatory effects. We studied the effects of this hormone on lung damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation in a model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), using 8- to 12-wk-old Swiss mice (n = 48). Animals were randomized into ...
Skogstad Marit - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Past studies indicate that lung function in professional divers, compared to non-divers, shows a reduction in maximal expiratory flow rates at low lung volumes and a reduction in the transfer factor for carbon monoxide. The objective in this study was to examine possible effects of long-term diving on pulmonary ...
Theroux Mary C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The specific aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a low dose of methylprednisolone in minimizing inflammatory response in juvenile piglets when given 45-60 min prior to onset of one-lung ventilation. METHODS: Twenty piglets aged 3 weeks were assigned to either the control group (n = ...
Vivek Agarwal, N.C.S. Ramachandran
Spirometers are used to measure lung capacity and response of lungs and chest during physical therapy. They reveal whether the patient's dyspnoea is due to cardiac or pulmonary dysfunction and are used to detect asthma. Unfortunately their application is limited due to high instrument cost and lack of specialist doctors. ...
Xu Jin-zhi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous reports have confirmed that edaravone has protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of many organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of edaravone on preventing IR injury of the lung in a canine lung transplantation model. METHODS: Twelve weight-matched pairs of random-bred dogs were randomized into two ...
Zhou Wei - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) represents the balance between CO2 production and consumption. Abnormal increase or decrease in PaCO2 can affect the body's internal environment and function. Permissive hypercapnia has aroused more attention as a novel ventilatory therapy. The aim of this study was to elucidate ...
Meissner Konrad - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Lung ventilation through a thin transtracheal cannula may be attempted in patients with laryngeal stenosis or "cannot intubate, cannot ventilate" situations. It may be impossible to achieve sufficient ventilation if the lungs are spontaneously emptying only through the thin transtracheal cannula, which imposes high resistance to airflow, resulting in ...
Muellenbach R M - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pumpless arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist is increasingly used as a rescue therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist is highly efficient in eliminating carbon dioxide and allows the application of ventilator techniques that prioritize lung protection and aim to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury and ...
Helm Emma - - 2009
Negative pressure ventilation via an external device ('iron lung') has the potential to provide better oxygenation with reduced barotrauma in patients with ARDS. This study was designed to see if oxygenation differences between positive and negative ventilation could be explained by CT. Six anaesthetized rabbits had ARDS induced by repeated ...
Inci Ilhan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Functional assessment of the potentially damaged graft from a non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) is mandatory for successful outcome after transplantation. We investigated the impact of the topical cooling solution on graft preservation and whether inflammatory markers in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can predict pulmonary graft viability in a pig ex vivo ...
Guazzi Marco - - 2008
In heart failure (HF), development of pressure or volume overload of the lung microcirculation elicits a series of structural adaptations, whose functional correlate is an increased resistance to gas transfer across the alveolar-capillary membrane. Acutely, hydrostatic mechanical injury causes endothelial and alveolar cell breaks, impairment of the cellular pathways involved ...
De Troyer André - - 2008
To assess the coupling between a particular hemidiaphragm and the individual lungs, the left and right phrenic nerves were separately stimulated in anesthetized dogs, and the mean changes in pleural pressure over the two lungs were evaluated by measuring the changes in airway opening pressure (DeltaPao) in the two bronchial ...
Hodyc Daniel - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) may alleviate the shortage of suitable organs for transplantation. The critical point is the preservation of lungs during warm ischemia, when severe damage is caused by free radicals. We investigated the effect of ventilation, pre-arrest administration of heparin, and the cell-permeable free radical ...
Nielsen Niels D - - 2008
We hypothesized that apneic oxygenation, using an open lung approach, combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal, would provide adequate gas exchange in acute lung injury. We tested this hypothesis in nine anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs (85-95 kg), in which surfactant was depleted from the lungs by repeated lung lavage. After ...
Hucklenbruch Christoph - - 2008
Although inhaled NO (iNO) has been shown to lower pulmonary pressures and edema accumulation in experimental acute lung injury, its clinical use has been questioned because of a lack of improvement in outcome, rebound phenomena, and potential toxicity. We investigated the effects of aerosolized iloprost, a stable prostacyclin analogue, compared ...
Cinnella G - - 2008
BACKGROUND: One-lung ventilation (OLV) affects respiratory mechanics and ventilation/perfusion matching, reducing functional residual capacity of the ventilated lung. While the application of a lung-recruiting manoeuvre (RM) on the ventilated lung has been shown to improve oxygenation, data regarding the impact of RM on respiratory mechanics are not available. METHODS: Thirteen ...
Twigg S - - 2008
We report the use of the Novalung interventional Lung Assist extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal device, (Novalung GmbH, Lotzenacker 3, D-72379 Hechingen, Germany) to treat a 46-year-old female with life-threatening bronchospasm secondary to influenza infection. Despite maximal treatment she developed severe hypercapnia and acidosis. The necessity for high inflation pressures led ...
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