Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 2464
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Markstaller K - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Fast dynamic computed tomography (dCT) has been used to assess regional dynamics of lung inflation and deflation processes. The aim of this study was to relate ventilation-induced changes in lung density distribution, as measured over several respiratory cycles by dCT, to oxygenation and shunt fraction in a lavage acute ...
Laffey John G - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Deliberate elevation of PaCO2 (therapeutic hypercapnia) protects against lung injury induced by lung reperfusion and severe lung stretch. Conversely, hypocapnic alkalosis causes lung injury and worsens lung reperfusion injury. Alterations in lung surfactant may contribute to ventilator-associated lung injury. The potential for CO2 to contribute to the pathogenesis of ...
Sedeek Khaled A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Pressure control ventilation (PCV), high-frequency oscillation (HFO), and intratracheal pulmonary ventilation (ITPV) may all be used to provide lung protective ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome, but the specific approach that is optimal remains controversial. METHODS: Saline lavage was used to produce acute respiratory distress syndrome in 21 sheep ...
Rega Filip R - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The ideal preservation method during the warm ischemic period in the non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) remains unclear. In this study we compare the protective effect of ventilation vs cooling of the non-perfused pulmonary graft. METHODS: Domestic pigs (30.8 +/- 0.35 kg) were divided into 3 groups. In Group I, lungs ...
Lichtwarck-Aschoff Michael - - 2004
Part of the energy produced by the heartbeat is transferred to the lung and promotes intrapulmonary gas mixing. It is likely that this transmission in the form of local mechanical disturbances affects and reflects respiratory mechanics. The effects of the cardiogenic oscillations were studied in seven piglets during 7 h ...
Richard Jean-Christophe - - 2004
Recruitment is a dynamic physiological process that refers to the reopening of previously gasless lung units. Cumulating evidence has led to a better understanding of the rules that govern both recruitment and derecruitment during mechanical ventilation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore not only the positive end-expiratory pressure, ...
Marini John J - - 2003
Experimental and clinical evidence point strongly toward the potential for microvascular stresses to influence the severity and expression of ventilator associated lung injury. Intense microvascular stresses not only influence edema but predispose to structural failure of the gas-blood barrier, possibly with adverse consequences for the lung and for extrapulmonary organs. ...
Rai Sharadindu - - 2004
Permissive hypercapnia because of reduced tidal volume is associated with improved survival in lung injury, whereas therapeutic hypercapnia-deliberate elevation of arterial Pco2-protects against in vivo reperfusion injury and injury produced by severe lung stretch. No published studies to date have examined the effects of CO2 on in vivo models of ...
Su Xiao - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether continuous hemofiltration favorably affects cardiopulmonary variables, lung inflammation, and lung fluid balance in a canine model of oleic acid induced acute lung injury. METHODS: Eleven pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs were randomly divided into a control (mechanical ventilation, MV) group (n=6) and a MV plus hemofiltration (HF) group ...
Dutly A E - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) negatively regulate the concentrations of cAMP and/or cGMP, which act as downstream second messengers to the prostaglandins. PDE type-4 (PDE4) is selective for cAMP and is found in high concentrations in endothelial, epithelial, and different blood cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate if PDI747, ...
Heussel Claus Peter - - 2003
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Partial liquid ventilation using Perfluorcarbon (PFC) is an innovative treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the underlying mechanisms are not totally clear. The aim was to investigate the distribution of oxygen partial pressure within the PFC-filled lung (ppO2). METHODS: Nine pigs underwent partial liquid ventilation, receiving ...
Correia-Pinto Jorge - - 2003
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: In congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), it was recently shown that early and late gestational lung underdevelopment is caused by nonmechanical and mechanical factors, respectively. Heart underdevelopment, which might predict lung hypoplasia, is commonly attributed to mechanical factors. The authors analyzed whether nonmechanical and mechanical factors affect cardiac growth and ...
Dani C - - 2003
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tidal liquid ventilation (TLV) compared to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) on oxidative lung damage in the setting of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). After repeated lung lavages, 10 minipigs were treated with CMV or TLV for 4 hr before ...
Dane D Merrill - - 2004
To determine whether all-trans retinoic acid (RA) treatment enhances lung function during compensatory lung growth in fully mature animals, adult male dogs (n = 4) received 2 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) po RA 4 days/wk beginning the day after right pneumonectomy (R-PNX, 55-58% resection). Litter-matched male R-PNX controls (n ...
Cox Peter N - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: "Open the lung and keep it open" is increasingly accepted as a fundamental principle for mechanical ventilation. However, it is sometimes very difficult, or impossible, to recruit the diseased lung. We questioned whether one could facilitate recruitment by using a low dose of fluorocarbon in a model previously shown ...
Piacentini Enrique - - 2004
Mechanical ventilation can cause and perpetuate lung injury if alveolar overdistension, cyclic collapse, and reopening of alveolar units occur. The use of low tidal volume and limited airway pressure has improved survival in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The use of recruitment maneuvers has been ...
Conhaim Robert L - - 2004
Effects of vasoconstriction on the distribution of perfusion among alveoli are not well understood. To address this, we used a new method we developed to determine how microvascular perfusion distribution was affected by a potent vasoconstrictor, the thromboxane receptor analog U-46619. Our method was to infuse 4-microm-diameter fluorescent latex microspheres ...
Slavin James D JD - - 2003
After a cesarean section, a woman had sharp left chest pain that radiated to the arm and was worse with inspiration. A chest radiograph revealed minimal left lung base atelectasis. A total of 5 mCi (185 mBq) Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin (MAA) was injected with the patient supine. A posterior oblique ...
Kondo Motoki - - 2003
The pressure-flow relationships and the longitudinal distributions of pulmonary vascular resistance in normal and heartworm-infected (HWI) dogs were compared in an isolated, blood perfused preparation. The pulmonary circulation was partitioned into pulmonary arterial, middle, and venous segment based on the concept of a five element lumped model. The pulmonary arterial ...
Lindgren Annamarja - - 2003
Few studies have suggested that elevated blood pressure might be associated with increased risk of lung cancer and that this association might vary according to smoking status. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of blood pressure and its possible interaction with smoking on lung cancer incidence ...
Schweiger John W - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the evolution of lung injury in an animal model with multiple rib fractures, both with and without acute lung injury, and the influence of spontaneous breathing with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on the relative distributions of alveolar ventilation ([OV0312]a) and perfusion ([OV0422]). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized ...
Kallet Richard H - - 2003
Respiratory mechanics research is important to the advancement of ARDS management. Twenty-eight years ago, research on the effects of PEEP and VT indicated that the lungs of ARDS patients did not behave in a manner consistent with homogenously distributed lung injury. Both Suter and colleagues] and Katz and colleagues reported ...
Allen Gilman - - 2004
In a previous study (Allen G, Lundblad LK, Parsons P, and Bates JH. J Appl Physiol 93: 1709-1715, 2002), our laboratory used deep inflations (DI) in mice to show that recruitment of closed lung units can be a very transient phenomenon in lung injury. The purpose of this study was ...
Yoder Bradley A - - 2003
Current nonhuman models for bronchopulmonary dysplasia have not included perinatal infection. We studied the effects of antenatal Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) infection in the 125-d immature baboon. Ten 125-d gestation (term = 185 d) baboon dams were delivered after intra-amniotic inoculation with Uu. Serial blood and tracheal aspirate samples were analyzed ...
Ricard J D - - 2003
During mechanical ventilation, high end-inspiratory lung volume (whether it be because of large tidal volume (VT) and/or high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure) results in a permeability type pulmonary oedema, called ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Previous injury sensitises lung to mechanical ventilation. This experimental concept has recently received a resounding ...
Wrigge Hermann - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical studies have shown reduction in intrapulmonary shunt with improved oxygenation by spontaneous breathing with airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) in acute lung injury. The mechanisms of these findings are not clear. The authors hypothesized that spontaneous breathing results in better aeration of lung tissue and that ...
Rouby J J - - 2003
Pressure/volume (P/V) curves can be measured by static methods, constant or sinusoidal flow methods and the dynostatic method that allows a breath-to-breath determination of P/V curves. Recent ventilators are equipped with specific flow generators and software aimed at obtaining P/V curves without disconnecting the patient from the ventilator. The most ...
Heller Axel R - - 2003
Clusterin (CLU) is a multifunctional 75- to 80-kDa glycoprotein that is upregulated during cellular stress and might represent a defense mechanism during local cellular damage. Mechanisms discussed are antiapoptotic, antioxidative, and anticomplement properties as well as chaperone-like features protecting stressed proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate potential ...
Baumgartner William A WA - - 2003
Pulmonary capillaries recruit when microvascular pressure is raised. The details of the relationship between recruitment and pressure, however, are controversial. There are data supporting 1). gradual homogeneous recruitment, 2). sudden and complete recruitment, and 3). heterogeneous recruitment. The present study was designed to determine whether alveolar capillary networks recruit in ...
Claesson J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of lung recruitment maneuvers on gastric mucosal perfusion, systemic circulation, and lung mechanics in patients with acute lung injury. DESIGN: Prospective observational clinical study. SETTING. General intensive care unit of university hospital. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen patients with acute lung injury (ten in the main study ...
Quinn D A - - 2003
The combination of burn injury with smoke inhalation from fires significantly increases mortality. The mechanism of increased mortality is poorly understood but has been associated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, including cardiac dysfunction. Impaired cardiac function correlates with decreased survival in burn patients. We investigated smoke inhalation from burning cotton ...
Kawashima Masahiro - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of the lung involves increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Prostaglandins are thought to have a beneficial effect in lung transplantation, but their mechanism in I/R injury is unknown. We investigated whether iloprost, a stable prostacyclin analogue, prevents I/R-associated pulmonary vascular dysfunction and whether it affects endothelin-1 (ET-1) ...
Nishida Naoki - - 2003
A 51-year-old man suddenly collapsed while being arrested. He was an abuser of methamphetamine (MP) with a history of previous convictions. The blood MP concentration at autopsy was below the lethal level. The heart revealed hypertrophy and endocardial thickening of the bilateral ventricles. On microscopic examination, the typical findings of ...
Lim Chae-Man - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In the face of widespread use of lung-protective, low-volume ventilation in patients with acute lung injury, interest in the recruitment maneuver (RM) is growing. Little is known about lung-morphometric effects of the RM as compared with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration (PT) without the RM. METHODS: RM was defined ...
Aitchison J Douglas JD Department of Surgery, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK. - - 2003
We attempted to determine in a pig model whether 20 ppm of nitric oxide (NO) during perfusion ameliorates warm ischemic lung injury in the non-heart-beating donor (NHBD), thereby improving function with longer warm ischemia. Lungs were retrieved from three groups (n=6): 1 hr (NHBD(1)) and 2 hr with and without ...
Das KC, Misra HP
BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused ...
Gaca Jeffrey G - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Swine contain large numbers of pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) that mediate the physiological response observed in acute lung injury (ALI). As the hyperacute dysfunction observed in pulmonary xenotransplantation is similar to endotoxin-induced ALI, PIMs may play a critical role in pulmonary xenograft dysfunction. We used liposomal clodronate to eliminate ...
Long Stewart M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The inflammatory cascade has emerged as the primary mediator of reperfusion injury. Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a rapid response transcription factor that activates genes responsible for the mediators of inflammation. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been shown to protect against lung injury. We hypothesized that the antioxidant ...
Knöferl Markus W - - 2003
Severe blunt chest trauma remains an important injury with high morbidity and mortality. However, the associated immunological alterations are poorly understood. Existing big animal models require large-scale settings, are often too expensive, and research products for immunological studies are limited. In this study we aimed to establish a new model ...
Wittwer Thorsten - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Optimal preservation of postischemic graft function is essential in lung transplantation. Antegrade flush perfusion with modified Euro-Collins solution represents the standard technique worldwide. However, growing evidence suggests the superiority of extracellular-type Perfadex solution (Vitrolife AB, Gothenburg, Germany) over Euro-Collins solution. During ischemia and reperfusion, endogenous pulmonary nitric oxide synthesis ...
van den Hoven R - - 2003
The effects of an oral preparation containing an extract of thyme and primula (Bronchipret; Bionorica) on the lung function of five horses suffering heaves were determined in a longitudinal study. The horses accepted the product well. The plasma concentrations of the marker substance, thymol, indicated that at least one of ...
Lick Scott D - - 2003
An artificial lung may offer a bridge to recovery or transplant. Utilizing our recently developed paracorporeal artificial lung (PAL) in survival studies in sheep, we critically review our perioperative/anesthetic protocol. Adult Suffolk ewes (n = 15) underwent general anesthesia induced by ketamine (7-15 mg/kg, im) and isoflurane by mask, then ...
Watson Peter J - - 2003
This study examined the relationship of speech breathing to other elements of speech production. It was hypothesized that initiating speech from different lung volumes would have an effect on different elements of the acoustic output. It was postulated that effects may be brought about by mechanical interaction as well as ...
Winslow R M - - 2003
For many reasons, haemoglobin, modified to prolong its circulation time, seems to be the optimal choice for a cell-free O2 carrier (blood substitute) because of its capacity to reversibly bind O2 in the lung and release it in tissue. After refining methods to prepare highly purified haemoglobin solutions and to ...
Cremonesi Giovanni G Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA, Parma, - - 2003
Background: Several studies have shown that antihypertensive monotherapy is commonly insufficient to control blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients and that concomitant use of ≥2 drugs is necessary in ∼50% of these patients. The combination of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and a diuretic, delapril plus indapamide (D + I), has been ...
Sondergaard S - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated an algorithm for continuous on-line monitoring of alveolar pressure over time in a lung model with lower and upper inflection points and variable resistance ratios and in patients with acute lung injury. The algorithm is based on "static" pressure/volume curves obtained from tracheal pressure measurements under dynamic ...
Rouby Jean-Jacques - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This review aims to show how computed tomography of the whole lung has modified our view of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and why it impacts on the optimization of the ventilatory strategy. DATA SOURCES: Computed tomography allows an accurate assessment of the volumes of gas and lung tissue, respectively, ...
Kudnig Simon T - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of one-lung ventilation on oxygen delivery in anesthetized dogs with an open thoracic cavity. ANIMALS: 8 clinically normal adult Walker Hound dogs. PROCEDURE: Each dog was anesthetized and subjected to one-lung ventilation during a period when it had an open thoracic cavity. A Swan-Ganz catheter was ...
Gattinoni Luciano - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To review the physiologic approach to setting mechanical ventilation in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE search from 1979 to the present. DATA SELECTION: Personal selection of some articles we believe relevant for understanding acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome physiopathology and its physiologic management. DATA ...
Starcher Barry - - 2003
Bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice was used to illustrate the plausibility of quantitating changes in elastin or protein concentration in histologically defined regions of mouse lungs. Mice were instilled by either the intranasal or intratracheal route with varying levels of bleomycin and the lungs were removed and fixed under pressure ...
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