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Results 551 - 600 of 2492
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Meinhardt Juergen P - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different inhaled perfluorocarbons (PFC) upon pulmonary mechanics and gas exchange in a saline lavage model of acute lung injury. A randomized, controlled animal trial was conducted at the university hospital laboratory. Pulmonary gas exchange (pGE), static compliance (Cst), and ...
Szegedi Laszlo L - - 2005
Data on the effects of isovolemic hemodilution (IH) on oxygenation during one-lung ventilation (OLV) are lacking. We studied 47 patients with hemoglobin >14 g/dL who were scheduled for lung surgery (17 with normal lung function [group NL], 17 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] [group COPD], and 13 with COPD ...
Yumoto Masato - - 2005
PURPOSE: Reactive oxygen species have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Some animal studies suggest that free radical scavengers inhibit the onset of oxidant-induced ALI. Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is chemically similar to phenol-based free radical scavengers such as the endogenous antioxidant vitamin E. Both in vivo ...
Izumi Yotaro - - 2005
PURPOSE: Percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation of lung parenchymal tumors offers a potentially less invasive alternative to thoracoscopic tumor resection. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of transthoracic cryoprobe insertion into the lung parenchyma. DESCRIPTION: Cryoablation was performed in porcine lung through a thoracotomy. A 2-mm diameter cryoprobe was inserted ...
Oliver Rees E - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Conventional mechanical ventilation in acute lung failure potentiates lung injury, which can be assessed by physiologic, histologic, and biochemical markers. Thus, new ventilation strategies are directed at reducing lung injury. Tracheal gas insufflation has been shown to reduce endotracheal tube prosthetic deadspace and peak inspiratory pressure during conventional mechanical ...
Wrigge Hermann - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Experimental and clinical studies have shown a reduction in intrapulmonary shunt with spontaneous breathing during airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) in acute lung injury. This reduction was related to reduced atelectasis and increased aeration. We hypothesized that spontaneous breathing will result in better ventilation and aeration of dependent lung ...
Deshpande Deepa S - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to characterize performance of a miniaturized AERx((R)) Pulmonary Delivery System designed for aerosol administration to large animal models. The miniaturized AERx System was developed through a systematic scaling down of the AERx System used for humans to allow for operation in certain animal models ...
Frank James A JA Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, - - 2005
The role of recruitment maneuvers in mechanical ventilation for patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury remains uncertain in part due to a lack of data on the effects of specific recruitment maneuvers on lung injury severity. The primary objective of this study was to determine ...
Duncker Hans-Rainer - - 2004
Vertebrate lungs are highly diverse in their structure, topographical position, ventilation mechanisms, constructional integration into the locomotor apparatus, and the interrelationships with the mode of their ontogenetic development. Vertebrate lungs evolved as supplementary air-breathing organs in primary fishes, being ventilated by buccal pumping. In most recent fishes the lungs are ...
McCurnin Donald C - - 2005
Nitric oxide (NO) serves multiple functions in the developing lung, and pulmonary NO production is decreased in a baboon model of chronic lung disease (CLD) after premature birth at 125 days (d) gestation (term = 185d). To determine whether postnatal NO administration alters the genesis of CLD, the effects of ...
West John B - - 2004
This essay looks at the historical significance of four APS classic papers that are freely available online: Fenn WO, Rahn H, and OTIS AB. A theoretical study of the composition of the alveolar air at altitude. Am J Physiol 146: 637-653. 1946 (http://ajplegacy.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/146/5/637). Rahn H. A concept of mean alveolar ...
Lim Sung-Chul - - 2004
To compare the relative efficacy of three forms of recruitment maneuvers in diverse models of acute lung injury characterized by differing pathoanatomy. We compared three recruiting maneuver (RM) techniques at three levels of post-RM positive end-expiratory pressure in three distinct porcine models of acute lung injury: oleic acid injury; injury ...
Izumi Yotaro - - 2004
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The volume of lung tumor core biopsy specimens has been restricted because of concerns for complications such as bleeding and air leakage. In this animal experiment, we investigated the possibility of larger bore biopsies through the peripheral lung parenchyma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lung biopsy was done in ...
Ho A C Y - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has emerged as an innovative and popular procedure for the management of postpneumonic empyema in children refractory to medical response. Alternative uses of two- and one-lung ventilations have been required during VATS. This study evaluated the efficacy of alternating one- and two-lung ventilation through intraoperatively ...
Fernández Maria-del-Mar - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in lung volume, oxygenation, airway pressure, and hemodynamic effects induced by suctioning with three systems in critically ill patients with mild-to-moderate lung disease, and also to evaluate the effects of hyperoxygenation applied prior to the maneuver as suggested by some guidelines. DESIGN: Prospective crossover study. SETTING: ...
Rocco Patricia R M - - 2004
The aim of this study was to evaluate the time course of in vivo and in vitro respiratory mechanics and examine whether these parameters could reflect the temporal changes in lung parenchyma remodelling in paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury. Measurements were done 1, 3 and 8 weeks after the intraperitoneal (i.p.) ...
Franke Ulrich F W - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Despite favorable experimental results and an encouraging early experience in humans, isolated lung perfusion (ILP) for treatment of metastases is still not established clinically. The complexity of the procedure as well as poor knowledge regarding the technical necessities of lung perfusion represents major limitations. METHODS: In this novel in ...
Bacuzzi Alessandro - - 2004
Surgery, when feasible, rappresents the treatment of choice for lung cancer. Several problems can come to the attention of the anesthesiologist in relation to the respiratory function with implications in airway control (double-lumen tube for lung collapse required for better surgical exposure of the pulmonary tissue), mechanical and gas-exchange aspects ...
Luh Shi-Ping - - 2004
Pleural tears usually occur after pneumolysis for dense adhesion or after cone biopsy of lung parenchyma. Repair of the tears is sometimes very difficult. Herein we compared different methods on a pig lung air leak model. Twenty pigs with pleural tears by surgical manipulation through sternotomy were not treated (n ...
Yang S S - - 2005
To test the hypothesis that intrapulmonary perfluorochemical (PFC) liquid may induce hypothermia, and to compare the effects of internal (IC), external (EC), and combined cooling techniques (EC + IC), 14 juvenile rabbits were randomized to EC by a cold blanket (4 degrees C, n = 5), IC by intrapulmonary cold ...
Brégeon Fabienne - - 2004
Because we already showed (Brégeon, F., Roch, A., Delpierre, S., Ghigo, E., Autillo-Touati, A., Kajikawa, O., Martin, T., Pugin, J., Portugal, H., Auffray, J., Jammes, Y., 2002. Conventional mechanical ventilation of healthy lungs induced pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription, Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 132, 191-203) that non-injurious mechanical ventilation (MV) elicited inflammatory ...
MacIntyre Neil R - - 2004
Airspace collapse is a hallmark of parenchymal lung injury. Strategies to reopen and maintain patency of these regions offer three advantages: improved gas exchange, less ventilator-induced lung injury, and improved lung compliance. Elevations in intrathoracic pressure to achieve these goals, however, may overdistend healthier lung regions and compromise cardiac function. ...
Kim Ha Young - - 2004
In acute respiratory distress syndrome, computed tomography (CT) typically demonstrates symmetric ground-glass opacity and gravity-dependent consolidation when patients are positioned supine. Moreover, CT findings may vary according to the evolutional stage of the disease over time. The slope of the pressure-volume curve, which is a direct or indirect measure of ...
Carpenter Todd - - 2004
Acute lung injury remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric intensive care units. Research over the past decade has altered our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute lung injury and the effects of mechanical ventilation on the lung. As a result, approaches to conventional mechanical ventilation of ...
Broccard Alain F - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether nitric oxide (NO) might modulate ventilator-induced lung injury. DESIGN: Randomized prospective animal study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Isolated, perfused rabbit heart-lung preparation. INTERVENTIONS: Thirty-six isolated, perfused rabbit lungs were randomized into six groups (n = 6) and ventilated using pressure-controlled ventilation ...
Albaiceta Guillermo M - - 2004
The inflection points of the pressure-volume curve have been used for setting mechanical ventilation in patients with acute lung injury. However, the lung status at these points has never been specifically addressed. In 12 patients with early lung injury we traced both limbs of the pressure-volume curve by means of ...
Lapinsky Stephen E - - 2005
In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the lung comprises areas of aeration and areas of alveolar collapse, the latter producing intrapulmonary shunt and hypoxemia. The currently suggested strategy of ventilation with low lung volumes can aggravate lung collapse and potentially produce lung injury through shear stress at the ...
Beckmann Nicolau - - 2004
Proton signals from lung parenchyma were detected with the use of a gradient-echo sequence to noninvasively obtain information on pulmonary function in models of airway diseases in rats. Initial measurements carried out in artificially ventilated control rats revealed a highly significant negative correlation between the parenchymal signal and the partial ...
Su Fuhong - - 2004
Recent studies have indicated that protective lung strategies may improve outcomes in acute lung injury. We hypothesized that the use of a lower tidal volume early during septic shock may protect against the subsequent development of acute lung injury. Fourteen fasted, anesthetized, invasively monitored, mechanically ventilated, female sheep (26.4 +/- ...
Roth H - - 2004
BACKGROUND: There is still controversy about the optimal inspiratory flow pattern for ventilation of patients with acute lung injury. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) with a decelerating inspiratory flow with volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) with constant inspiratory flow on pulmonary gas distribution ...
Gattinoni Luciano - - 2004
In the last several years, we definitely learned that the acute respiratory distress syndrome lung is small, nonhomogeneous, and that mechanical ventilation in this baby lung may cause physical damage as well as inflammatory reaction. The clinical benefit of the gentle lung treatment, based on a decrease of global/regional stress ...
McVerry Bryan J - - 2004
Excessive mechanical stress is a key component of ventilator-associated lung injury, resulting in profound vascular leak and an intense inflammatory response. To extend our in vitro observations concerning the barrier-protective effects of the lipid growth factor sphingosine 1-phosphate (Sph 1-P), we assessed the ability of Sph 1-P to prevent regional ...
Rizi Rahim R - - 2004
Alveolar ventilation/perfusion ratio (VA/Q) is a key parameter in functional imaging of the lung. Herein, regional VA/Q was calculated from regional values of alveolar partial pressure of oxygen (PAO2) measured by hyperpolarized 3He gas MRI (HP 3He MRI). Yorkshire pigs (n = 7, mean weight = 25 kg) were paralyzed ...
Nieszkowska Ania - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: In patients with acute lung injury, alveolar recruitment resulting from positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may be associated with overinflation of previously aerated lung regions. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and regional distribution of lung overinflation resulting from mechanical ventilation with PEEP. DESIGN: Reanalysis with ...
Schimmel Carmel - - 2004
We studied the airway gas exchange properties of five inert gases with different blood solubilities in the lungs of anesthetized sheep. Animals were ventilated through a bifurcated endobronchial tube to allow independent ventilation and collection of exhaled gases from each lung. An aortic pouch at the origin of the bronchial ...
Peták Ferenc - - 2004
The involvement of pulmonary circulation in the mechanical properties was studied in isolated rat lungs. Pulmonary input impedance (ZL) was measured at a mean transpulmonary pressure (Ptpmean) of 2 cmH2O before and after physiological perfusion with either blood or albumin. In these lungs and in a group of unperfused lungs, ...
Dias Cristina Márcia - - 2004
Undernutrition thwarts lung structure and function, but there are disagreements about the behavior of lung mechanics in malnourished animals. To clarify this issue, lung and chest wall mechanical properties were subdivided into their resistive, elastic, and viscoelastic properties in nutritionally deprived (ND) rats and correlated with the data gathered from ...
Almgren B - - 2004
Endotracheal suction can cause partial lung collapse and hypoxia and alter lung mechanics. We investigated the effects of adding a recruitment manoeuvre directly after endotracheal suction to restore lung volume in volume-controlled ventilation and pressure-controlled ventilation modes. Five anaesthetized pigs were investigated. The effects of endotracheal suction with or without ...
Faybik Peter - - 2004
PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of iced versus room (RT) temperature single transpulmonary thermodilution (STPD) measurements for cardiac output, intra-thoracic blood, volume and extravascular lung water. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 15 critically ill patients in a surgical intensive care unit with sepsis/septic shock (n = 8), pancreatitis (n = ...
Heller H - - 2004
Because lung nitric oxide (NO) diffusing capacity (DL) represents alveolar-capillary gas diffusion, we queried as to whether disturbances of pulmonary gas exchange in interstitial lung disease (ILD) are appropriately reflected by using NO. In this pilot study, we applied the (15)N-labeled stable isotope (15)NO (relative abundance 0.37% of total NO) ...
Tusman Gerardo - - 2004
Atelectasis in the dependent lung during one-lung ventilation (OLV) impairs arterial oxygenation and increases dead space. We studied the effect of an alveolar recruitment strategy (ARS) on gas exchange and lung efficiency during OLV by using the single-breath test of CO(2) (SBT-CO(2)). Twelve patients undergoing thoracic surgery were studied at ...
Goland Sorel - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of dipyridamole-induced abnormal increased T1-201 lung uptake in patients without coronary artery disease is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between dipyridamole-induced abnormal T1-201 lung uptake and left ventricular (LV) diastolic indexes using Doppler, color M-mode and Tissue Doppler modalities at ...
Frazer David G - - 2004
Experimental evidence suggests that the lung behaves as if it is composed of a large population of units which are recruited and derecruited during lung expansion and contraction. This study combines two previous models in order to estimate the probability distribution function describing lung unit opening pressures and the resulting ...
Dobson Alan - - 2004
Cardiomegaly and accompanying complications contribute to morbidity and mortality in patients on hemodialysis. Our objective is to provide a measure of heart blood volume from data collected during routine measurement of cardiac output during hemodialysis. A heart model based upon the probability of transfer between chambers during a cardiac cycle ...
Soutiere Shawn E - - 2004
Maximal lung volume or total lung capacity in experimental animals is dependent on the pressure to which the lungs are inflated. Although 25-30 cm H2O are nominally used for such inflations, mouse pressure-volume (P-V) curves show little flattening on inflation to those pressures. In the present study, we examined P-V ...
Wang T - - 2004
Arterial blood pressure (P(b)), pulmocutaneous blood flow (Q(pc)), heart rate (f(H)), and fictive ventilation (motor activity in the Vth cranial nerve, V(int)), were recorded from decerebrated, paralysed toads receiving unidirectional ventilation with experimental gas mixtures over a range of lung inflation. At the onset of spontaneous bouts of fictive ventilation, ...
Kenkel Jeffrey M - - 2004
Liposuction is a procedure that allows the surgical removal of excess adipose tissue in healthy individuals. Lipoplasty is commonly performed with few clinical side effects. However, with increased lipoaspirate volumes, complications have been reported. In addition, the abnormal appearance of fat cells in other tissues subsequent to lipoplasty has been ...
Leuchte Hanno H - - 2004
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can develop in lung fibrosis, and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Noninvasive parameters in the evaluation of PH in lung disease could aid in the management of these subjects. In this study, we aimed to characterize the role of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the six-minute ...
Marini J J - - 2004
Clinicians managing acute lung injury must reconcile the competing objectives of ensuring adequate oxygen delivery and minimizing the adverse effects of ventilatory support. Judging from our experimental work, microvascular stresses appear to be a potent cofactor in the development of pulmonary edema as well as in the expression of lung ...
Gudmundsson F F - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) elevates thoracic pressure and airway pressures and reduces lung compliance in humans and laboratory animals. We studied respiratory alterations and arterial blood gas changes in pigs with IAP maintained at 20 mmHg or 30 mmHg for 3 h. METHODS: Domestic pigs of both sexes weighing ...
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