Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 2468
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Vieira Silvia R R - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: In acute lung injury, lung overinflation resulting from mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can be assessed using lung computed tomography. The goal of this study was to compare lung overinflation measured on low and high spatial resolution computed tomography sections. DESIGN: Lung overinflation was measured on thick ...
Wisniewski Wlodzimierz M - - 2005
Our objective was to study meconium-induced lung injury in isolated perfused rat lungs exposed to anoxia. Our working hypothesis was that meconium-induced lung injury is independent of preexisting hypoxia, and that hypoxia will increase severity of lung injury observed after meconium aspiration. We compared five different groups of animals (n ...
Martin J S - - 2005
An experiment was conducted to determine the response of the human lung to water-borne sound in the range of 20 to 500 Hz. A small pool inside a hyperbaric chamber was used to simulate four ambient pressure conditions spanning the range of recreational diving depths. Ten subjects were tested on ...
Hübler Matthias - - 2005
We tested the hypothesis that administration of perfluorohexane (PFH) vapor does not significantly affect the relative pulmonary blood flow (Qrel) distribution in isolated rabbit lungs. Fourteen isolated rabbit lungs were perfused with a Krebs-Henseleit buffer solution (flow 150 mL/min). Pulmonary afterload was set to 3 mm Hg. The lungs were ...
Frerichs Inéz - - 2005
The aim of our study was to check the effect of varying blood volume in the chest and gravity on the distribution of ventilation and aeration in the lungs. The change in intrathoracic blood volume was elicited by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of -50 cmH2O. The variation ...
Leipälä Jaana A - - 2005
Our aim was to assess the influence of oscillatory frequency, inspiratory-to-expiratory (I:E) ratio and airway pressure on gas trapping during high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). A lung model was used, which had a high compliance (4.0 ml (cmH(2)O)(-1)) and resistance (160 cmH(2)O l(-1) s(-1)) resulting in a long time constant ...
Pillow J Jane - - 2005
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is often used to provide noninvasive respiratory support in infants with Respiratory distress syndrome. The recruitment of atelectatic lung and appropriate lung volume maintenance are vital to the success of CPAP treatment. The noisy pressure waveform of bubble CPAP superimposed on pressure fluctuations as a ...
Ikeyama K - - 2005
In lung transplantation, cold preservation is an important process. However, the mechanical changes in the airway and tissue during cold preservation, especially before reperfusion, are unknown. To test the hypothesis that the mechanical changes in the airway and lung parenchyma start during cold preservation, we investigated the mechanical properties of ...
Gama de Abreu Marcelo - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The authors tested the hypothesis that administration of vaporized perfluorohexane may attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS: In isolated, perfused rabbit lungs, airway pressure-versus-time curves were recorded. At baseline, peak inspiratory pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure of mechanically ventilated lungs were set to obtain straight pressure-versus-time curves in both the ...
Pillow J Jane - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Overview of the mechanisms governing gas transport, mechanical factors influencing the transmission of pressure and flow to the lung, and the measurement of lung mechanics during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in acute respiratory distress syndrome. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Studies indexed in PubMed illustrating key concepts relevant to ...
Nemmar Abderrahim - - 2005
Particulate air pollution is associated with respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It has been suggested that ultrafine particles are able to translocate from the airways into the bloodstream in vivo. We have investigated this in an isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lung preparation lacking pulmonary lymphatic flow. Fluorescent polystyrene ...
Van de Kieft Michael - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Review data obtained from high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and mechanical test lung models with respect to delivered tidal volume, distal pressure transmission, endotracheal tube cuff leaks, and simulated clinical conditions. DESIGN: Review of selected studies from PubMed, published abstracts, and institutional mechanical test lung data. RESULTS: Tidal volume delivery ...
Wolf Gerhard K - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) are two monitoring techniques that have been used to assess lung volume noninvasively. METHODS: RIP uses two elastic bands around the chest and abdomen to assess global changes in lung volume. In animal models, RIP has been shown to detect ...
Luecke Thomas - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This review describes how computed tomography has increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. It summarizes current knowledge about lung volume changes and alveolar recruitment during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) assessed by computed tomography (CT), outlines potential problems when comparing HFOV with conventional ventilation (CV) ...
O'Brien William D WD - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to augment and reevaluate the ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage findings of a previous 5 x 3 factorial design study (Ultrasound Med Biol 2001; 27:267-277) that evaluated the role of pulse repetition frequency (PRF: 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 Hz) and exposure duration (ED; ...
Carney David - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To review the mechanism of dynamic alveolar mechanics (i.e., the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during ventilation) in both the normal and acutely injured lung; to investigate the alteration in alveolar mechanics secondary to acute lung injury as a mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI); and to ...
Taguchi Nobuko - - 2005
The epithelial Na(+) transport via an epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) expressed in the lung epithelium would play a key role in recovery from lung edema at acute lung injury by removing the fluid in lung luminal space. The lung edema causes dysfunction of gas exchange, decreasing oxygen pressure level of ...
Kelly K P - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquid can improve gas exchange in acute lung injury. How PFC aerosol is distributed in the lung is unknown. METHODS: We induced lung injury in rabbits with saline lavage, followed by mechanical ventilation in the supine position. The animals were divided into three groups: a control group, ...
Berger Philip J - - 2005
We measured the velocity and attenuation of audible sound in the isolated lung of the near-term fetal sheep to test the hypothesis that the acoustic properties of the lung provide a measure of the volume of gas it contains. We introduced pseudorandom noise (bandwidth 70 Hz-7 kHz) to one side ...
Andersson Lena E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia per se results in atelectasis development in the dependent regions of the lungs. The effect of pneumoperitoneum on atelectasis formation is not known. The aim of the current study was to measure by spiral computed tomography the effect of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery on the development ...
Brégeon Fabienne - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation using tidal volumes around 10 ml/kg and zero positive end-expiratory pressure is still commonly used in anesthesia. This strategy has been shown to aggravate lung injury and inflammation in preinjured lungs but not in healthy lungs. In this study, the authors investigated whether this strategy would result ...
Bigatello Luca M - - 2005
Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome is a syndrome of low respiratory compliance. However, longstanding knowledge of applied respiratory mechanics and refined imaging techniques have shown that this is clearly an oversimplified view. Though the average compliance of the respiratory system is reproducibly low, regional mechanics may vastly differ; lung, ...
Gattinoni Luciano - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to review the mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury as a basis for providing the less damaging mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. RECENT FINDINGS: In normal lungs, high tidal volume causes an immediate gene upregulation and downregulation. Although the ...
Frank James A - - 2005
The role of recruitment maneuvers in mechanical ventilation for patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury remains uncertain in part due to a lack of data on the effects of specific recruitment maneuvers on lung injury severity. The primary objective of this study was to determine ...
Bouvet François - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether hypercapnic acidosis attenuates acute alterations of pulmonary capillary permeability due to high lung stretch in rats using a simple, noninvasive, scintigraphic method. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Male adult Wistar rats weighing 291 +/- 7.5 g. INTERVENTIONS: Three groups of ...
Patel Mayank R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Reperfusion injury after lung transplantation remains a perplexing and unpredictable problem. Most surgeons preserve the lung inflated, but the amount of inflation that should be used is not well documented. Therefore, we studied the effect of high inflation during organ preservation on lung function during reperfusion. Our hypothesis is ...
Mokra D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary inflammation and vasoconstriction are important pathogenetic factors in neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). OBJECTIVES: Study was performed to evaluate cardiopulmonary and inflammatory changes in adult rabbits after meconium administration. METHODS: Animals were anesthetized and ventilated with room air. Initial values of cardiopulmonary parameters were recorded and blood samples ...
Meinhardt Juergen P - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different inhaled perfluorocarbons (PFC) upon pulmonary mechanics and gas exchange in a saline lavage model of acute lung injury. A randomized, controlled animal trial was conducted at the university hospital laboratory. Pulmonary gas exchange (pGE), static compliance (Cst), and ...
Szegedi Laszlo L - - 2005
Data on the effects of isovolemic hemodilution (IH) on oxygenation during one-lung ventilation (OLV) are lacking. We studied 47 patients with hemoglobin >14 g/dL who were scheduled for lung surgery (17 with normal lung function [group NL], 17 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] [group COPD], and 13 with COPD ...
Yumoto Masato - - 2005
PURPOSE: Reactive oxygen species have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Some animal studies suggest that free radical scavengers inhibit the onset of oxidant-induced ALI. Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is chemically similar to phenol-based free radical scavengers such as the endogenous antioxidant vitamin E. Both in vivo ...
Izumi Yotaro - - 2005
PURPOSE: Percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation of lung parenchymal tumors offers a potentially less invasive alternative to thoracoscopic tumor resection. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of transthoracic cryoprobe insertion into the lung parenchyma. DESCRIPTION: Cryoablation was performed in porcine lung through a thoracotomy. A 2-mm diameter cryoprobe was inserted ...
Oliver Rees E - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Conventional mechanical ventilation in acute lung failure potentiates lung injury, which can be assessed by physiologic, histologic, and biochemical markers. Thus, new ventilation strategies are directed at reducing lung injury. Tracheal gas insufflation has been shown to reduce endotracheal tube prosthetic deadspace and peak inspiratory pressure during conventional mechanical ...
Wrigge Hermann - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Experimental and clinical studies have shown a reduction in intrapulmonary shunt with spontaneous breathing during airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) in acute lung injury. This reduction was related to reduced atelectasis and increased aeration. We hypothesized that spontaneous breathing will result in better ventilation and aeration of dependent lung ...
Deshpande Deepa S - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to characterize performance of a miniaturized AERx((R)) Pulmonary Delivery System designed for aerosol administration to large animal models. The miniaturized AERx System was developed through a systematic scaling down of the AERx System used for humans to allow for operation in certain animal models ...
Duncker Hans-Rainer - - 2004
Vertebrate lungs are highly diverse in their structure, topographical position, ventilation mechanisms, constructional integration into the locomotor apparatus, and the interrelationships with the mode of their ontogenetic development. Vertebrate lungs evolved as supplementary air-breathing organs in primary fishes, being ventilated by buccal pumping. In most recent fishes the lungs are ...
McCurnin Donald C - - 2005
Nitric oxide (NO) serves multiple functions in the developing lung, and pulmonary NO production is decreased in a baboon model of chronic lung disease (CLD) after premature birth at 125 days (d) gestation (term = 185d). To determine whether postnatal NO administration alters the genesis of CLD, the effects of ...
West John B - - 2004
This essay looks at the historical significance of four APS classic papers that are freely available online: Fenn WO, Rahn H, and OTIS AB. A theoretical study of the composition of the alveolar air at altitude. Am J Physiol 146: 637-653. 1946 (http://ajplegacy.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/146/5/637). Rahn H. A concept of mean alveolar ...
Lim Sung-Chul - - 2004
To compare the relative efficacy of three forms of recruitment maneuvers in diverse models of acute lung injury characterized by differing pathoanatomy. We compared three recruiting maneuver (RM) techniques at three levels of post-RM positive end-expiratory pressure in three distinct porcine models of acute lung injury: oleic acid injury; injury ...
Izumi Yotaro - - 2004
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The volume of lung tumor core biopsy specimens has been restricted because of concerns for complications such as bleeding and air leakage. In this animal experiment, we investigated the possibility of larger bore biopsies through the peripheral lung parenchyma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lung biopsy was done in ...
Ho A C Y - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has emerged as an innovative and popular procedure for the management of postpneumonic empyema in children refractory to medical response. Alternative uses of two- and one-lung ventilations have been required during VATS. This study evaluated the efficacy of alternating one- and two-lung ventilation through intraoperatively ...
Fernández Maria-del-Mar - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in lung volume, oxygenation, airway pressure, and hemodynamic effects induced by suctioning with three systems in critically ill patients with mild-to-moderate lung disease, and also to evaluate the effects of hyperoxygenation applied prior to the maneuver as suggested by some guidelines. DESIGN: Prospective crossover study. SETTING: ...
Rocco Patricia R M - - 2004
The aim of this study was to evaluate the time course of in vivo and in vitro respiratory mechanics and examine whether these parameters could reflect the temporal changes in lung parenchyma remodelling in paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury. Measurements were done 1, 3 and 8 weeks after the intraperitoneal (i.p.) ...
Franke Ulrich F W - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Despite favorable experimental results and an encouraging early experience in humans, isolated lung perfusion (ILP) for treatment of metastases is still not established clinically. The complexity of the procedure as well as poor knowledge regarding the technical necessities of lung perfusion represents major limitations. METHODS: In this novel in ...
Bacuzzi Alessandro - - 2004
Surgery, when feasible, rappresents the treatment of choice for lung cancer. Several problems can come to the attention of the anesthesiologist in relation to the respiratory function with implications in airway control (double-lumen tube for lung collapse required for better surgical exposure of the pulmonary tissue), mechanical and gas-exchange aspects ...
Luh Shi-Ping - - 2004
Pleural tears usually occur after pneumolysis for dense adhesion or after cone biopsy of lung parenchyma. Repair of the tears is sometimes very difficult. Herein we compared different methods on a pig lung air leak model. Twenty pigs with pleural tears by surgical manipulation through sternotomy were not treated (n ...
Yang S S - - 2005
To test the hypothesis that intrapulmonary perfluorochemical (PFC) liquid may induce hypothermia, and to compare the effects of internal (IC), external (EC), and combined cooling techniques (EC + IC), 14 juvenile rabbits were randomized to EC by a cold blanket (4 degrees C, n = 5), IC by intrapulmonary cold ...
Brégeon Fabienne - - 2004
Because we already showed (Brégeon, F., Roch, A., Delpierre, S., Ghigo, E., Autillo-Touati, A., Kajikawa, O., Martin, T., Pugin, J., Portugal, H., Auffray, J., Jammes, Y., 2002. Conventional mechanical ventilation of healthy lungs induced pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription, Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 132, 191-203) that non-injurious mechanical ventilation (MV) elicited inflammatory ...
MacIntyre Neil R - - 2004
Airspace collapse is a hallmark of parenchymal lung injury. Strategies to reopen and maintain patency of these regions offer three advantages: improved gas exchange, less ventilator-induced lung injury, and improved lung compliance. Elevations in intrathoracic pressure to achieve these goals, however, may overdistend healthier lung regions and compromise cardiac function. ...
Kim Ha Young - - 2004
In acute respiratory distress syndrome, computed tomography (CT) typically demonstrates symmetric ground-glass opacity and gravity-dependent consolidation when patients are positioned supine. Moreover, CT findings may vary according to the evolutional stage of the disease over time. The slope of the pressure-volume curve, which is a direct or indirect measure of ...
Carpenter Todd - - 2004
Acute lung injury remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric intensive care units. Research over the past decade has altered our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute lung injury and the effects of mechanical ventilation on the lung. As a result, approaches to conventional mechanical ventilation of ...
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