Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 2527
< 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 >
Santhanam Anand P - - 2006
In this paper we propose a method to simulate morphological changes caused by both closed and tension pneumothorax. We consider a clinical parameter, the pneumothorax-index (i.e., the degree of lung collapse), as the input to the simulation. Specifically, such an index constitutes a key parameter to the computation of the ...
Fujita Yasuki - - 2006
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate, using a rabbit model, the little-known effect of different levels of peak inspiratory flow on acutely injured lungs. METHODS: Fourteen male rabbits (body weight, 2,711 +/- 146 g) were anesthetized and their lungs were injured by alveolar overstretch with mechanical ventilation ...
Lasocki Sigismond - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Closed-circuit endotracheal suctioning (CES) is advocated for preventing hypoxemia caused by the loss of lung volume resulting from open endotracheal suctioning (OES). However, the efficiency of CES and OES on tracheal secretion removal has never been compared in patients with acute lung injury. The authors designed a two-part study ...
Ehlert Carey A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Hyperoxia and tidal volume mechanical ventilation are independent factors in the genesis of lung injury, but it remains unclear the extent to which each is responsible or contributes to this process in newborns. OBJECTIVES: To study the independent and combined effects of hyperoxia and tidal volume mechanical ventilation on ...
Garber Samuel J - - 2006
Dexamethasone (Dex) limits and all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) promotes alveolarization. While structural changes resulting from such hormonal exposures are known, their functional consequences are unclear. Neonatal rats were treated with Dex and/or RA during the first two weeks of life or were given RA after previous exposure to Dex. Morphology was ...
Zick Günther - - 2006
The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that a pumpless arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (interventional lung assist (ILA)) does not significantly improve oxygenation in a lavage model of acute lung injury. The study was designed as a prospective experimental study. The experiments were performed on seven pigs ...
Künzli Nino - - 2005
Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence correlates current levels of ambient air pollution with both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Oxidative stress, inflammation, induction of a pro-coagulatory state and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system appear to play a major role. Acute effects include changes in lung function, heart rate, blood pressure ...
Cotton Robert B - - 2006
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition with cimetidine reduces hyperoxic lung injury in young lambs. Nitric oxide (NO), also a CYP inhibitor, has been shown to either aggravate or protect against oxidant stress depending on experimental context. The objective of this study was to determine whether NO, like cimetidine, would protect young ...
Tingay David G - - 2006
RATIONALE: The importance of applying high-frequency oscillatory ventilation with a high lung volume strategy in infants is well established. Currently, a lack of reliable methods for assessing lung volume limits clinicians' ability to achieve the optimum volume range. OBJECTIVES: To map the pressure-volume relationship of the lung during high-frequency oscillatory ...
Pfitzner J - - 2005
The present report describes two similar thoracoscopic procedures performed on the same 81-year-old male patient. Because acute hypoxia had developed during one-lung ventilation on the first occasion, serial blood gases were taken during the second. Also, whereas on the first occasion the non-ventilated lung had been left open to air ...
Nawab Ursula S - - 2005
Low-density gas mixtures, such as heliox, were shown to reduce the work of breathing and facilitate the distribution of inspired gas. Since supplemental ventilatory and oxygen requirements may lead to pulmonary inflammation and structural alterations, we hypothesized that by reducing these requirements, heliox breathing may attenuate the acute inflammatory and ...
Pfitzner J - - 2005
At the time one-lung ventilation is initiated, nitrogen from the atmosphere may enter the non-ventilated lung via a double-lumen tube connector that has been left open to air, even momentarily. Ongoing oxygen uptake from the non-ventilated lung raises the partial pressure of nitrogen. This should lead to activation of hypoxic ...
Pekkan Kerem - - 2005
BACKGROUND: In our multicenter study of the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC), a cohort of patients with long-segment left pulmonary artery (LPA) stenosis was observed (35%). The clinically recognized detrimental effects of LPA stenosis motivated a computational fluid dynamic simulation study within 3-dimensional patient-specific and idealized TCPC pathways. The goal of ...
Karzai Waheedullah - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Based on the association between the neutrophil and ventilator-induced lung injury, the authors hypothesized that neutrophil inhibition with fucoidin would be beneficial and stimulation with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) would be harmful in a rat model of lethal ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS: Animals (n = 111) were randomly assigned ...
Ellman Peter I - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: It is well known that hyperoxia can be potentially harmful to the ventilated patient, although little is known about the potential effects in the setting of lung reperfusion. We hypothesized that hyperoxic ventilation at the time of reperfusion could worsen the effects of lung reperfusion injury. METHODS: Using an ...
Brady Ken M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To describe lung isolation and the selective application of continuous positive airway pressure using an endobronchial blocker in a patient with sickle cell disease and unilateral necrotizing Clostridium perfringens pneumonia. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit. PATIENT: A 12-yr-old male with sickle cell disease developed persistent necrotizing ...
David Matthias - - 2005
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study the dynamics of lung compartments by dynamic CT (dCT) imaging during uninterrupted pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) settings in healthy and damaged lungs. DESIGN: Experimental animal investigation. SETTING: Experimental animal facility of a university department. INTERVENTIONS: In seven anesthetized pigs, static inspiratory ...
Ng Ju-Mei - - 2005
A 64-yr-old man underwent right thoracotomy and upper lobectomy for lung carcinoma. Hypoxemia on one-lung ventilation was being managed with continuous positive airway pressure to the nondependent lung when a sleeve resection had to be performed. As this positive airway pressure would no longer be maintained with the bronchus open, ...
Haney Michael F - - 2005
Lung inflation with positive airway pressure may have rapid and dynamic effects on myocardial contractile function. We designed this study to assess the magnitude and time to onset of myocardial function changes during the initiation of single positive pressure lung inflation at clinically relevant inflation pressures. In 8 anesthetized 40-kg ...
Bull Joseph L - - 2005
The effects of end-inspiratory lung volume (EILV) and expiratory flow rate (Q) on the location of flow limitation in liquid-filled lungs were investigated by measuring pressure along the airways and by radiographic imaging. The lungs of New Zealand white rabbits were filled with perfluorocarbon to the randomly selected EILV of ...
Ji Qing - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that pentoxifylline (PTX) exerts multiple beneficial effects on the inflammatory cascade, particularly on the function of neutrophils. We investigated whether continuous infusion of PTX could reduce indirect lung injury (ILI) caused by fresh water drowning and if so, what is the possible molecular mechanism. METHODS: ...
Henzler Dietrich - - 2006
Although recruitment of atelectatic lung is a common aim in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the effects of a recruitment maneuver have not been assessed quantitatively. By multislice spiral CT (MSCT), we analyzed the changes in lung volumes calculated from the changes in the CT values of hyperinflated (V(HYP)), normally ...
Negrini Daniela - - 2006
The specific role of solid extracellular matrix components in opposing development of pulmonary interstitial edema was studied in adult anesthetized rabbits by challenging the lung parenchyma with an intravenous injection of a bolus of collagenase or heparanase. In 10 rabbits, pulmonary interstitial pressure (Pip) was measured by micropuncture in control ...
Izumi Yotaro - - 2005
Previously, we, and others found that cryoablation on normal lung produced localized pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, causing obliteration of air space. Therefore, we hypothesized that lung air leakage may be diminished by this procedure. In the present study, we examined if cryoablation can attenuate experimentally created lung air leakage. Male ...
Jegger D - - 2005
When lung function is compromised,alternative devices need to be deployed in order to maintain blood oxygenation. A new device, NovaLung, has been designed for acute lung failure. We went about evaluating its gas exchange capability. Three calves (79.5 +/- 7.8 kg) were connected to the NovaLung System with a priming ...
Harkin D W - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) is associated with a systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction. The potential role of a novel C5 complement inhibitor in attenuation of pathological complement activation and tissue injury was explored in a model of RAAA. METHODS: Anaesthetized rats were randomized to sham ...
Riedel Thomas - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Functional electrical impedance tomography (EIT) measures relative impedance changes in lung tissue during tidal breathing and creates images of local ventilation distribution. A novel approach to analyse the effect of body position and positive pressure ventilation on intrapulmonary tidal volume distribution was evaluated in healthy adult subjects. DESIGN AND ...
Odenstedt Helena - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of different lung recruitment maneuvers using electric impedance tomography. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study in animal model of acute lung injury in an animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Fourteen pigs with saline lavage induced lung injury. INTERVENTIONS: Lung volume, regional ventilation distribution, gas exchange, and hemodynamics ...
Aoki Shinichi - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary damage after reamed or unreamed femoral nailing has been controversial in clinical and experimental studies. We investigated changes in pulmonary function and coagulatory response in normal lungs of sheep after reamed or unreamed intramedullary nailing of an unfractured femur. METHODS: We used three groups of sheep (each group, ...
Duggan Michelle - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Atelectasis results in impaired compliance and gas exchange and, in extreme cases, increased microvascular permeability, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular dysfunction. It is not known whether such atelectasis-induced lung injury is due to the direct mechanical effects of lung volume reduction and alveolar collapse or due to the associated ...
Kemming Gregor I - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Inhaled perfluorohexan vapor has been shown to improve gas exchange and pulmonary mechanics in oleic acid- and ventilator-induced lung injury. However, in the clinical setting, lung injury frequently occurs in the context of systemic inflammation and consecutive lung injury, which may be induced experimentally by intravenous administration of endotoxin. ...
Downey Douglas M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A major complication of lung resection is prolonged leaking at the staple line. Staple-line reinforcement is performed routinely during these procedures using bovine pericardium (peri-strips) and expanded polytetrafluorethylene. Both materials have been shown previously to increase staple-line durability and reduce the overall incidence of prolonged air leaking after lung ...
Nielsen Jonas - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the lung recruitment maneuver on circulation following cardiac surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective randomized cross-over study at the Departments of Anesthesia and Thoracic Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital. PATIENTS: Ten adult undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to two durations of lung ...
Hager David N - - 2005
Use of a volume- and pressure-limited mechanical ventilation strategy improves clinical outcomes of patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). However, the extent to which tidal volumes and inspiratory airway pressures should be reduced to optimize clinical outcomes is a controversial topic. This article addresses the ...
Kaczka David W - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The heterogeneous pattern of acute lung injury (ALI) predisposes patients to ventilator-associated lung injury. Currently, there is no simple technique that can reliably quantify lung heterogeneity during the dynamic conditions of mechanical ventilation. Such a technique may be of use in optimizing mechanical ventilatory parameters such as rate, tidal ...
Gallot Denis - - 2005
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) usually occurs sporadically. The prognosis remains poor, with a 50% perinatal mortality rate. Most deaths result from hypoxemia due to lung hypoplasia and abnormal development of pulmonary vasculature that results in persistent pulmonary hypertension. Our current understanding of the pathogenesis of CDH is based on an ...
Wahn Hans - - 2005
Several cannabinoids elicit systemic vasodilation, mainly via CB1 cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors. However, effects in the pulmonary circulation are unknown. Using the isolated, ventilated, buffer-perfused rabbit lung, we have shown that the endocannabinoids arachidonyl ethanolamide (anandamide) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) dose-dependently increase pulmonary arterial pressure (+19.9 +/- 3.4 mmHg, 5 ...
Peng Z-Y - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of lung fluid in the critically ill patient is believed to attenuate impedance cardiac output (CO(IC)) measurements. However, this phenomenon has never been shown experimentally. METHODS: In eight anaesthetized and ventilated dogs (weight 15-22 kg) a high-precision flow probe was placed on the ascending aorta via a left ...
Henzler Dietrich - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Atelectasis is a common finding in acute lung injury, leading to increased shunt and hypoxemia. Current treatment strategies aim to recruit alveoli for gas exchange. Improvement in oxygenation is commonly used to detect recruitment, although the assumption that gas exchange parameters adequately represent the mechanical process of alveolar opening ...
Martínez Martínez María Santos - - 2005
An experimental model of artificially perfused and mechanically ventilated lung has been applied to compare the kinetic behaviour of levofloxacin, cefepime and netilmicin in this body tissue. The study has been performed to explore the usefulness of the isolated lung technique in the pharmacokinetic field, particularly to study the disposition ...
Memtsoudis Stavros G - - 2005
We describe a 29-yr-old male, status post-bilateral lung transplant, who developed unilateral negative pressure pulmonary edema induced by chest tube suction in association with bilateral bronchial anastomotic strictures. We conclude that negative pressure pulmonary edema may occur secondary to high levels of negative pressure applied to the intrapleural space via ...
Sehgal Arvind - - 2005
Respiratory diseases are the commonest cause of morbidity and mortality in newborn babies. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment like surfactant have been introduced. One of them, and probably the most fascinating, is of liquid ventilation. Partial liquid ventilation, on which much of the existing research ...
Reuter Jon D - - 2005
The following case report describes a complication after accidental overinflation of the lungs in an anesthetized rabbit. After anesthetic induction, endotracheal intubation, and preparation for surgery, the rabbit's arterial oxygen saturation dropped. Positive-pressure ventilation was administered using manual compression on the reservoir bag. The rabbit's condition rapidly deteriorated, and emergency ...
Rouby Jean-Jacques - - 2005
Mechanical ventilation is indispensable for the survival of patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, excessive tidal volumes and inadequate lung recruitment may contribute to mortality by causing ventilator-induced lung injury. This bench-to-bedside review presents the scientific rationale for using adjuncts to mechanical ventilation aimed at ...
Skovgaard Nini - - 2005
Low O2 levels in the lungs of birds and mammals cause constriction of the pulmonary vasculature that elevates resistance to pulmonary blood flow and increases pulmonary blood pressure. This hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) diverts pulmonary blood flow from poorly ventilated and hypoxic areas of the lung to more well-ventilated parts ...
Hassanzadeh Mohammad - - 2005
The present study was designed to compare the anatomical parameters of the cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens with different susceptibility to ascites syndrome. Eggs from three different genetic lines-commercial broiler and layer lines and one native to Iran--were incubated and hatched, and 1-day-old chicks used. The relative ...
Terragni Pierpaolo - - 2005
We present a case of independent lung ventilation in an adult with asymmetric acute lung injury. We applied a conventional protective ventilatory strategy to the more homogeneously infiltrated lung and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation to the almost totally collapsed lung, because a conventional protective strategy exposed this lung to plateau pressure ...
Hedenstierna G - - 2005
Cardiac output and the pulmonary perfusion can be affected by anesthesia and by mechanical ventilation. The changes contribute to impeded oxygenation of the blood. The major determinant of perfusion distribution in the lung is the relation between alveolar and pulmonary capillary pressures. Perfusion increases down the lung, due to hydrostatic ...
Yoshida Shigetoshi - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Because of the shortage of suitable brain-dead donors, the use of non-heart-beating donor lungs has been investigated experimentally. However, no effective lung protection method has been developed. In this study, we preliminarily investigated the protective effect of partial liquid ventilation (PLV) on a non-heart-beating rabbit lung. METHODS: We used ...
Michard Frédéric - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors that may influence the estimation of extravascular lung water (EVLW) with a single (cold) indicator compared with assessment using two indicators (thermo-dye dilution). DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of an electronic hemodynamic database. SETTING: Surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS: Forty-eight critically ill patients ...
< 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 >