Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 2448
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Andersson Lena E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia per se results in atelectasis development in the dependent regions of the lungs. The effect of pneumoperitoneum on atelectasis formation is not known. The aim of the current study was to measure by spiral computed tomography the effect of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery on the development ...
Brégeon Fabienne - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation using tidal volumes around 10 ml/kg and zero positive end-expiratory pressure is still commonly used in anesthesia. This strategy has been shown to aggravate lung injury and inflammation in preinjured lungs but not in healthy lungs. In this study, the authors investigated whether this strategy would result ...
Bigatello Luca M - - 2005
Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome is a syndrome of low respiratory compliance. However, longstanding knowledge of applied respiratory mechanics and refined imaging techniques have shown that this is clearly an oversimplified view. Though the average compliance of the respiratory system is reproducibly low, regional mechanics may vastly differ; lung, ...
Gattinoni Luciano - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to review the mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury as a basis for providing the less damaging mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. RECENT FINDINGS: In normal lungs, high tidal volume causes an immediate gene upregulation and downregulation. Although the ...
Frank James A - - 2005
The role of recruitment maneuvers in mechanical ventilation for patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury remains uncertain in part due to a lack of data on the effects of specific recruitment maneuvers on lung injury severity. The primary objective of this study was to determine ...
Bouvet François - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether hypercapnic acidosis attenuates acute alterations of pulmonary capillary permeability due to high lung stretch in rats using a simple, noninvasive, scintigraphic method. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Male adult Wistar rats weighing 291 +/- 7.5 g. INTERVENTIONS: Three groups of ...
Patel Mayank R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Reperfusion injury after lung transplantation remains a perplexing and unpredictable problem. Most surgeons preserve the lung inflated, but the amount of inflation that should be used is not well documented. Therefore, we studied the effect of high inflation during organ preservation on lung function during reperfusion. Our hypothesis is ...
Mokra D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary inflammation and vasoconstriction are important pathogenetic factors in neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). OBJECTIVES: Study was performed to evaluate cardiopulmonary and inflammatory changes in adult rabbits after meconium administration. METHODS: Animals were anesthetized and ventilated with room air. Initial values of cardiopulmonary parameters were recorded and blood samples ...
Meinhardt Juergen P - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different inhaled perfluorocarbons (PFC) upon pulmonary mechanics and gas exchange in a saline lavage model of acute lung injury. A randomized, controlled animal trial was conducted at the university hospital laboratory. Pulmonary gas exchange (pGE), static compliance (Cst), and ...
Szegedi Laszlo L - - 2005
Data on the effects of isovolemic hemodilution (IH) on oxygenation during one-lung ventilation (OLV) are lacking. We studied 47 patients with hemoglobin >14 g/dL who were scheduled for lung surgery (17 with normal lung function [group NL], 17 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] [group COPD], and 13 with COPD ...
Yumoto Masato - - 2005
PURPOSE: Reactive oxygen species have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Some animal studies suggest that free radical scavengers inhibit the onset of oxidant-induced ALI. Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is chemically similar to phenol-based free radical scavengers such as the endogenous antioxidant vitamin E. Both in vivo ...
Izumi Yotaro - - 2005
PURPOSE: Percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation of lung parenchymal tumors offers a potentially less invasive alternative to thoracoscopic tumor resection. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of transthoracic cryoprobe insertion into the lung parenchyma. DESCRIPTION: Cryoablation was performed in porcine lung through a thoracotomy. A 2-mm diameter cryoprobe was inserted ...
Oliver Rees E - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Conventional mechanical ventilation in acute lung failure potentiates lung injury, which can be assessed by physiologic, histologic, and biochemical markers. Thus, new ventilation strategies are directed at reducing lung injury. Tracheal gas insufflation has been shown to reduce endotracheal tube prosthetic deadspace and peak inspiratory pressure during conventional mechanical ...
Wrigge Hermann - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Experimental and clinical studies have shown a reduction in intrapulmonary shunt with spontaneous breathing during airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) in acute lung injury. This reduction was related to reduced atelectasis and increased aeration. We hypothesized that spontaneous breathing will result in better ventilation and aeration of dependent lung ...
Deshpande Deepa S - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to characterize performance of a miniaturized AERx((R)) Pulmonary Delivery System designed for aerosol administration to large animal models. The miniaturized AERx System was developed through a systematic scaling down of the AERx System used for humans to allow for operation in certain animal models ...
Duncker Hans-Rainer - - 2004
Vertebrate lungs are highly diverse in their structure, topographical position, ventilation mechanisms, constructional integration into the locomotor apparatus, and the interrelationships with the mode of their ontogenetic development. Vertebrate lungs evolved as supplementary air-breathing organs in primary fishes, being ventilated by buccal pumping. In most recent fishes the lungs are ...
McCurnin Donald C - - 2005
Nitric oxide (NO) serves multiple functions in the developing lung, and pulmonary NO production is decreased in a baboon model of chronic lung disease (CLD) after premature birth at 125 days (d) gestation (term = 185d). To determine whether postnatal NO administration alters the genesis of CLD, the effects of ...
West John B - - 2004
This essay looks at the historical significance of four APS classic papers that are freely available online: Fenn WO, Rahn H, and OTIS AB. A theoretical study of the composition of the alveolar air at altitude. Am J Physiol 146: 637-653. 1946 (http://ajplegacy.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/146/5/637). Rahn H. A concept of mean alveolar ...
Lim Sung-Chul - - 2004
To compare the relative efficacy of three forms of recruitment maneuvers in diverse models of acute lung injury characterized by differing pathoanatomy. We compared three recruiting maneuver (RM) techniques at three levels of post-RM positive end-expiratory pressure in three distinct porcine models of acute lung injury: oleic acid injury; injury ...
Izumi Yotaro - - 2004
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The volume of lung tumor core biopsy specimens has been restricted because of concerns for complications such as bleeding and air leakage. In this animal experiment, we investigated the possibility of larger bore biopsies through the peripheral lung parenchyma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lung biopsy was done in ...
Ho A C Y - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has emerged as an innovative and popular procedure for the management of postpneumonic empyema in children refractory to medical response. Alternative uses of two- and one-lung ventilations have been required during VATS. This study evaluated the efficacy of alternating one- and two-lung ventilation through intraoperatively ...
Fernández Maria-del-Mar - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in lung volume, oxygenation, airway pressure, and hemodynamic effects induced by suctioning with three systems in critically ill patients with mild-to-moderate lung disease, and also to evaluate the effects of hyperoxygenation applied prior to the maneuver as suggested by some guidelines. DESIGN: Prospective crossover study. SETTING: ...
Rocco Patricia R M - - 2004
The aim of this study was to evaluate the time course of in vivo and in vitro respiratory mechanics and examine whether these parameters could reflect the temporal changes in lung parenchyma remodelling in paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury. Measurements were done 1, 3 and 8 weeks after the intraperitoneal (i.p.) ...
Franke Ulrich F W - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Despite favorable experimental results and an encouraging early experience in humans, isolated lung perfusion (ILP) for treatment of metastases is still not established clinically. The complexity of the procedure as well as poor knowledge regarding the technical necessities of lung perfusion represents major limitations. METHODS: In this novel in ...
Bacuzzi Alessandro - - 2004
Surgery, when feasible, rappresents the treatment of choice for lung cancer. Several problems can come to the attention of the anesthesiologist in relation to the respiratory function with implications in airway control (double-lumen tube for lung collapse required for better surgical exposure of the pulmonary tissue), mechanical and gas-exchange aspects ...
Luh Shi-Ping - - 2004
Pleural tears usually occur after pneumolysis for dense adhesion or after cone biopsy of lung parenchyma. Repair of the tears is sometimes very difficult. Herein we compared different methods on a pig lung air leak model. Twenty pigs with pleural tears by surgical manipulation through sternotomy were not treated (n ...
Yang S S - - 2005
To test the hypothesis that intrapulmonary perfluorochemical (PFC) liquid may induce hypothermia, and to compare the effects of internal (IC), external (EC), and combined cooling techniques (EC + IC), 14 juvenile rabbits were randomized to EC by a cold blanket (4 degrees C, n = 5), IC by intrapulmonary cold ...
Brégeon Fabienne - - 2004
Because we already showed (Brégeon, F., Roch, A., Delpierre, S., Ghigo, E., Autillo-Touati, A., Kajikawa, O., Martin, T., Pugin, J., Portugal, H., Auffray, J., Jammes, Y., 2002. Conventional mechanical ventilation of healthy lungs induced pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription, Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 132, 191-203) that non-injurious mechanical ventilation (MV) elicited inflammatory ...
MacIntyre Neil R - - 2004
Airspace collapse is a hallmark of parenchymal lung injury. Strategies to reopen and maintain patency of these regions offer three advantages: improved gas exchange, less ventilator-induced lung injury, and improved lung compliance. Elevations in intrathoracic pressure to achieve these goals, however, may overdistend healthier lung regions and compromise cardiac function. ...
Kim Ha Young - - 2004
In acute respiratory distress syndrome, computed tomography (CT) typically demonstrates symmetric ground-glass opacity and gravity-dependent consolidation when patients are positioned supine. Moreover, CT findings may vary according to the evolutional stage of the disease over time. The slope of the pressure-volume curve, which is a direct or indirect measure of ...
Carpenter Todd - - 2004
Acute lung injury remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric intensive care units. Research over the past decade has altered our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute lung injury and the effects of mechanical ventilation on the lung. As a result, approaches to conventional mechanical ventilation of ...
Broccard Alain F - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether nitric oxide (NO) might modulate ventilator-induced lung injury. DESIGN: Randomized prospective animal study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Isolated, perfused rabbit heart-lung preparation. INTERVENTIONS: Thirty-six isolated, perfused rabbit lungs were randomized into six groups (n = 6) and ventilated using pressure-controlled ventilation ...
Albaiceta Guillermo M - - 2004
The inflection points of the pressure-volume curve have been used for setting mechanical ventilation in patients with acute lung injury. However, the lung status at these points has never been specifically addressed. In 12 patients with early lung injury we traced both limbs of the pressure-volume curve by means of ...
Lapinsky Stephen E - - 2005
In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the lung comprises areas of aeration and areas of alveolar collapse, the latter producing intrapulmonary shunt and hypoxemia. The currently suggested strategy of ventilation with low lung volumes can aggravate lung collapse and potentially produce lung injury through shear stress at the ...
Beckmann Nicolau - - 2004
Proton signals from lung parenchyma were detected with the use of a gradient-echo sequence to noninvasively obtain information on pulmonary function in models of airway diseases in rats. Initial measurements carried out in artificially ventilated control rats revealed a highly significant negative correlation between the parenchymal signal and the partial ...
Su Fuhong - - 2004
Recent studies have indicated that protective lung strategies may improve outcomes in acute lung injury. We hypothesized that the use of a lower tidal volume early during septic shock may protect against the subsequent development of acute lung injury. Fourteen fasted, anesthetized, invasively monitored, mechanically ventilated, female sheep (26.4 +/- ...
Roth H - - 2004
BACKGROUND: There is still controversy about the optimal inspiratory flow pattern for ventilation of patients with acute lung injury. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) with a decelerating inspiratory flow with volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) with constant inspiratory flow on pulmonary gas distribution ...
Gattinoni Luciano - - 2004
In the last several years, we definitely learned that the acute respiratory distress syndrome lung is small, nonhomogeneous, and that mechanical ventilation in this baby lung may cause physical damage as well as inflammatory reaction. The clinical benefit of the gentle lung treatment, based on a decrease of global/regional stress ...
McVerry Bryan J - - 2004
Excessive mechanical stress is a key component of ventilator-associated lung injury, resulting in profound vascular leak and an intense inflammatory response. To extend our in vitro observations concerning the barrier-protective effects of the lipid growth factor sphingosine 1-phosphate (Sph 1-P), we assessed the ability of Sph 1-P to prevent regional ...
Rizi Rahim R - - 2004
Alveolar ventilation/perfusion ratio (VA/Q) is a key parameter in functional imaging of the lung. Herein, regional VA/Q was calculated from regional values of alveolar partial pressure of oxygen (PAO2) measured by hyperpolarized 3He gas MRI (HP 3He MRI). Yorkshire pigs (n = 7, mean weight = 25 kg) were paralyzed ...
Nieszkowska Ania - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: In patients with acute lung injury, alveolar recruitment resulting from positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may be associated with overinflation of previously aerated lung regions. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and regional distribution of lung overinflation resulting from mechanical ventilation with PEEP. DESIGN: Reanalysis with ...
Schimmel Carmel - - 2004
We studied the airway gas exchange properties of five inert gases with different blood solubilities in the lungs of anesthetized sheep. Animals were ventilated through a bifurcated endobronchial tube to allow independent ventilation and collection of exhaled gases from each lung. An aortic pouch at the origin of the bronchial ...
Peták Ferenc - - 2004
The involvement of pulmonary circulation in the mechanical properties was studied in isolated rat lungs. Pulmonary input impedance (ZL) was measured at a mean transpulmonary pressure (Ptpmean) of 2 cmH2O before and after physiological perfusion with either blood or albumin. In these lungs and in a group of unperfused lungs, ...
Dias Cristina Márcia - - 2004
Undernutrition thwarts lung structure and function, but there are disagreements about the behavior of lung mechanics in malnourished animals. To clarify this issue, lung and chest wall mechanical properties were subdivided into their resistive, elastic, and viscoelastic properties in nutritionally deprived (ND) rats and correlated with the data gathered from ...
Almgren B - - 2004
Endotracheal suction can cause partial lung collapse and hypoxia and alter lung mechanics. We investigated the effects of adding a recruitment manoeuvre directly after endotracheal suction to restore lung volume in volume-controlled ventilation and pressure-controlled ventilation modes. Five anaesthetized pigs were investigated. The effects of endotracheal suction with or without ...
Faybik Peter - - 2004
PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of iced versus room (RT) temperature single transpulmonary thermodilution (STPD) measurements for cardiac output, intra-thoracic blood, volume and extravascular lung water. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 15 critically ill patients in a surgical intensive care unit with sepsis/septic shock (n = 8), pancreatitis (n = ...
Heller H - - 2004
Because lung nitric oxide (NO) diffusing capacity (DL) represents alveolar-capillary gas diffusion, we queried as to whether disturbances of pulmonary gas exchange in interstitial lung disease (ILD) are appropriately reflected by using NO. In this pilot study, we applied the (15)N-labeled stable isotope (15)NO (relative abundance 0.37% of total NO) ...
Tusman Gerardo - - 2004
Atelectasis in the dependent lung during one-lung ventilation (OLV) impairs arterial oxygenation and increases dead space. We studied the effect of an alveolar recruitment strategy (ARS) on gas exchange and lung efficiency during OLV by using the single-breath test of CO(2) (SBT-CO(2)). Twelve patients undergoing thoracic surgery were studied at ...
Goland Sorel - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of dipyridamole-induced abnormal increased T1-201 lung uptake in patients without coronary artery disease is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between dipyridamole-induced abnormal T1-201 lung uptake and left ventricular (LV) diastolic indexes using Doppler, color M-mode and Tissue Doppler modalities at ...
Frazer David G - - 2004
Experimental evidence suggests that the lung behaves as if it is composed of a large population of units which are recruited and derecruited during lung expansion and contraction. This study combines two previous models in order to estimate the probability distribution function describing lung unit opening pressures and the resulting ...
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