Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 2451
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Harkin D W - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) is associated with a systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction. The potential role of a novel C5 complement inhibitor in attenuation of pathological complement activation and tissue injury was explored in a model of RAAA. METHODS: Anaesthetized rats were randomized to sham ...
Riedel Thomas - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Functional electrical impedance tomography (EIT) measures relative impedance changes in lung tissue during tidal breathing and creates images of local ventilation distribution. A novel approach to analyse the effect of body position and positive pressure ventilation on intrapulmonary tidal volume distribution was evaluated in healthy adult subjects. DESIGN AND ...
Odenstedt Helena - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of different lung recruitment maneuvers using electric impedance tomography. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study in animal model of acute lung injury in an animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Fourteen pigs with saline lavage induced lung injury. INTERVENTIONS: Lung volume, regional ventilation distribution, gas exchange, and hemodynamics ...
Aoki Shinichi - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary damage after reamed or unreamed femoral nailing has been controversial in clinical and experimental studies. We investigated changes in pulmonary function and coagulatory response in normal lungs of sheep after reamed or unreamed intramedullary nailing of an unfractured femur. METHODS: We used three groups of sheep (each group, ...
Duggan Michelle - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Atelectasis results in impaired compliance and gas exchange and, in extreme cases, increased microvascular permeability, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular dysfunction. It is not known whether such atelectasis-induced lung injury is due to the direct mechanical effects of lung volume reduction and alveolar collapse or due to the associated ...
Kemming Gregor I - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Inhaled perfluorohexan vapor has been shown to improve gas exchange and pulmonary mechanics in oleic acid- and ventilator-induced lung injury. However, in the clinical setting, lung injury frequently occurs in the context of systemic inflammation and consecutive lung injury, which may be induced experimentally by intravenous administration of endotoxin. ...
Downey Douglas M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A major complication of lung resection is prolonged leaking at the staple line. Staple-line reinforcement is performed routinely during these procedures using bovine pericardium (peri-strips) and expanded polytetrafluorethylene. Both materials have been shown previously to increase staple-line durability and reduce the overall incidence of prolonged air leaking after lung ...
Nielsen Jonas - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the lung recruitment maneuver on circulation following cardiac surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective randomized cross-over study at the Departments of Anesthesia and Thoracic Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital. PATIENTS: Ten adult undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to two durations of lung ...
Hager David N - - 2005
Use of a volume- and pressure-limited mechanical ventilation strategy improves clinical outcomes of patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). However, the extent to which tidal volumes and inspiratory airway pressures should be reduced to optimize clinical outcomes is a controversial topic. This article addresses the ...
Kaczka David W - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The heterogeneous pattern of acute lung injury (ALI) predisposes patients to ventilator-associated lung injury. Currently, there is no simple technique that can reliably quantify lung heterogeneity during the dynamic conditions of mechanical ventilation. Such a technique may be of use in optimizing mechanical ventilatory parameters such as rate, tidal ...
Gallot Denis - - 2005
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) usually occurs sporadically. The prognosis remains poor, with a 50% perinatal mortality rate. Most deaths result from hypoxemia due to lung hypoplasia and abnormal development of pulmonary vasculature that results in persistent pulmonary hypertension. Our current understanding of the pathogenesis of CDH is based on an ...
Wahn Hans - - 2005
Several cannabinoids elicit systemic vasodilation, mainly via CB1 cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors. However, effects in the pulmonary circulation are unknown. Using the isolated, ventilated, buffer-perfused rabbit lung, we have shown that the endocannabinoids arachidonyl ethanolamide (anandamide) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) dose-dependently increase pulmonary arterial pressure (+19.9 +/- 3.4 mmHg, 5 ...
Peng Z-Y - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of lung fluid in the critically ill patient is believed to attenuate impedance cardiac output (CO(IC)) measurements. However, this phenomenon has never been shown experimentally. METHODS: In eight anaesthetized and ventilated dogs (weight 15-22 kg) a high-precision flow probe was placed on the ascending aorta via a left ...
Henzler Dietrich - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Atelectasis is a common finding in acute lung injury, leading to increased shunt and hypoxemia. Current treatment strategies aim to recruit alveoli for gas exchange. Improvement in oxygenation is commonly used to detect recruitment, although the assumption that gas exchange parameters adequately represent the mechanical process of alveolar opening ...
Martínez Martínez María Santos - - 2005
An experimental model of artificially perfused and mechanically ventilated lung has been applied to compare the kinetic behaviour of levofloxacin, cefepime and netilmicin in this body tissue. The study has been performed to explore the usefulness of the isolated lung technique in the pharmacokinetic field, particularly to study the disposition ...
Memtsoudis Stavros G - - 2005
We describe a 29-yr-old male, status post-bilateral lung transplant, who developed unilateral negative pressure pulmonary edema induced by chest tube suction in association with bilateral bronchial anastomotic strictures. We conclude that negative pressure pulmonary edema may occur secondary to high levels of negative pressure applied to the intrapleural space via ...
Sehgal Arvind - - 2005
Respiratory diseases are the commonest cause of morbidity and mortality in newborn babies. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment like surfactant have been introduced. One of them, and probably the most fascinating, is of liquid ventilation. Partial liquid ventilation, on which much of the existing research ...
Reuter Jon D - - 2005
The following case report describes a complication after accidental overinflation of the lungs in an anesthetized rabbit. After anesthetic induction, endotracheal intubation, and preparation for surgery, the rabbit's arterial oxygen saturation dropped. Positive-pressure ventilation was administered using manual compression on the reservoir bag. The rabbit's condition rapidly deteriorated, and emergency ...
Rouby Jean-Jacques - - 2005
Mechanical ventilation is indispensable for the survival of patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, excessive tidal volumes and inadequate lung recruitment may contribute to mortality by causing ventilator-induced lung injury. This bench-to-bedside review presents the scientific rationale for using adjuncts to mechanical ventilation aimed at ...
Skovgaard Nini - - 2005
Low O2 levels in the lungs of birds and mammals cause constriction of the pulmonary vasculature that elevates resistance to pulmonary blood flow and increases pulmonary blood pressure. This hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) diverts pulmonary blood flow from poorly ventilated and hypoxic areas of the lung to more well-ventilated parts ...
Hassanzadeh Mohammad - - 2005
The present study was designed to compare the anatomical parameters of the cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens with different susceptibility to ascites syndrome. Eggs from three different genetic lines-commercial broiler and layer lines and one native to Iran--were incubated and hatched, and 1-day-old chicks used. The relative ...
Terragni Pierpaolo - - 2005
We present a case of independent lung ventilation in an adult with asymmetric acute lung injury. We applied a conventional protective ventilatory strategy to the more homogeneously infiltrated lung and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation to the almost totally collapsed lung, because a conventional protective strategy exposed this lung to plateau pressure ...
Hedenstierna G - - 2005
Cardiac output and the pulmonary perfusion can be affected by anesthesia and by mechanical ventilation. The changes contribute to impeded oxygenation of the blood. The major determinant of perfusion distribution in the lung is the relation between alveolar and pulmonary capillary pressures. Perfusion increases down the lung, due to hydrostatic ...
Yoshida Shigetoshi - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Because of the shortage of suitable brain-dead donors, the use of non-heart-beating donor lungs has been investigated experimentally. However, no effective lung protection method has been developed. In this study, we preliminarily investigated the protective effect of partial liquid ventilation (PLV) on a non-heart-beating rabbit lung. METHODS: We used ...
Michard Frédéric - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors that may influence the estimation of extravascular lung water (EVLW) with a single (cold) indicator compared with assessment using two indicators (thermo-dye dilution). DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of an electronic hemodynamic database. SETTING: Surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS: Forty-eight critically ill patients ...
Hsia Connie C W - - 2005
To examine the effects of chronic high altitude (HA) exposure on lung structure during somatic maturation, we raised male weanling guinea pigs at HA (3800m) for 1, 3, or 6 months, while their respective male littermates were simultaneously raised at low altitude (LA, 1200m). Under anaesthesia, airway pressure was measured ...
Ichimura Hideo - - 2005
Although pressure elevation in lung postcapillary venules increases endothelial P-selectin expression, the extent to which P-selectin causes lung leukocyte margination remains controversial. To address this issue, we optically viewed postcapillary venules of the isolated blood-perfused rat lung by real-time fluorescence imaging. To determine leukocyte margination in single postcapillary venules, we ...
Reece T Brett - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Reperfusion injury continues to significantly affect patients undergoing lung transplantation. Isolated lung models have demonstrated that adenosine A 2A receptor activation preserves function while decreasing inflammation. We hypothesized that adenosine A 2A receptor activation by ATL-146e during the initial reperfusion period preserves pulmonary function and attenuates inflammation in a ...
Bütter Andreana - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Accelerated lung growth has previously been demonstrated after fetal tracheal occlusion. The purpose of this study was to determine if short-term perfluorocarbon (PFC) distension could increase lung growth postnatally in neonatal piglets. METHODS: Eleven piglets aged 5 to 8 days were divided into 3 groups: (a) controls (n = ...
Pracht Eberhard D - - 2005
Magnetic susceptibility gradients caused by tissue/air interfaces lead to very short T(2)* times in the human lung. These susceptibility gradients are dependent on the magnetic susceptibility of the respiratory gas and therefore should influence T(2)* relaxation. In this work, a technique for quantitative T(2)* mapping of the human lung during ...
DurmuĊŸ-Altun Gulay - - 2005
The purpose of the study was; (i) to determine whether 123I-MIBG scintigraphy is sensitive for detection of amiodarone induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT) and (ii) to compare it with 99mTc-DTPA radioaerosol. Twelve white New Zealand rabbit with initial mean body weight 4.24 +/- 0.47 g were divided into two groups. AIPT ...
Shashikant Beth N - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differential effects of physical properties of combinational perfluorochemical liquids (PFC) during partial liquid ventilation (PLV) on inflammatory indexes in the injured lung. DESIGN:: Interventional laboratory study. SETTING: Academic medical research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Seventeen saline lavage-injured juvenile rabbits. INTERVENTIONS: Rabbits were anesthetized, ventilated, saline lavage-injured, and randomized ...
López-Aguilar Josefina - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of massive brain injury on pulmonary susceptibility to injury attending subsequent mechanical or ischemia/reperfusion stress. DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four anesthetized New Zealand White rabbits randomized to control (n = 12) or induced brain injury (n = 12) group. INTERVENTIONS: ...
Kasuga Ikuma - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Although variation in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus is associated with various diseases, there have been a limited number of studies that have examined the possible role of HLA in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Only HLA-B7 has been shown to be correlated with low forced expiratory volume ...
Vieira Silvia R R - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: In acute lung injury, lung overinflation resulting from mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can be assessed using lung computed tomography. The goal of this study was to compare lung overinflation measured on low and high spatial resolution computed tomography sections. DESIGN: Lung overinflation was measured on thick ...
Wisniewski Wlodzimierz M - - 2005
Our objective was to study meconium-induced lung injury in isolated perfused rat lungs exposed to anoxia. Our working hypothesis was that meconium-induced lung injury is independent of preexisting hypoxia, and that hypoxia will increase severity of lung injury observed after meconium aspiration. We compared five different groups of animals (n ...
Martin J S - - 2005
An experiment was conducted to determine the response of the human lung to water-borne sound in the range of 20 to 500 Hz. A small pool inside a hyperbaric chamber was used to simulate four ambient pressure conditions spanning the range of recreational diving depths. Ten subjects were tested on ...
Hübler Matthias - - 2005
We tested the hypothesis that administration of perfluorohexane (PFH) vapor does not significantly affect the relative pulmonary blood flow (Qrel) distribution in isolated rabbit lungs. Fourteen isolated rabbit lungs were perfused with a Krebs-Henseleit buffer solution (flow 150 mL/min). Pulmonary afterload was set to 3 mm Hg. The lungs were ...
Frerichs Inéz - - 2005
The aim of our study was to check the effect of varying blood volume in the chest and gravity on the distribution of ventilation and aeration in the lungs. The change in intrathoracic blood volume was elicited by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of -50 cmH2O. The variation ...
Leipälä Jaana A - - 2005
Our aim was to assess the influence of oscillatory frequency, inspiratory-to-expiratory (I:E) ratio and airway pressure on gas trapping during high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). A lung model was used, which had a high compliance (4.0 ml (cmH(2)O)(-1)) and resistance (160 cmH(2)O l(-1) s(-1)) resulting in a long time constant ...
Pillow J Jane - - 2005
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is often used to provide noninvasive respiratory support in infants with Respiratory distress syndrome. The recruitment of atelectatic lung and appropriate lung volume maintenance are vital to the success of CPAP treatment. The noisy pressure waveform of bubble CPAP superimposed on pressure fluctuations as a ...
Ikeyama K - - 2005
In lung transplantation, cold preservation is an important process. However, the mechanical changes in the airway and tissue during cold preservation, especially before reperfusion, are unknown. To test the hypothesis that the mechanical changes in the airway and lung parenchyma start during cold preservation, we investigated the mechanical properties of ...
Gama de Abreu Marcelo - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The authors tested the hypothesis that administration of vaporized perfluorohexane may attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS: In isolated, perfused rabbit lungs, airway pressure-versus-time curves were recorded. At baseline, peak inspiratory pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure of mechanically ventilated lungs were set to obtain straight pressure-versus-time curves in both the ...
Pillow J Jane - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Overview of the mechanisms governing gas transport, mechanical factors influencing the transmission of pressure and flow to the lung, and the measurement of lung mechanics during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in acute respiratory distress syndrome. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Studies indexed in PubMed illustrating key concepts relevant to ...
Nemmar Abderrahim - - 2005
Particulate air pollution is associated with respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It has been suggested that ultrafine particles are able to translocate from the airways into the bloodstream in vivo. We have investigated this in an isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lung preparation lacking pulmonary lymphatic flow. Fluorescent polystyrene ...
Van de Kieft Michael - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Review data obtained from high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and mechanical test lung models with respect to delivered tidal volume, distal pressure transmission, endotracheal tube cuff leaks, and simulated clinical conditions. DESIGN: Review of selected studies from PubMed, published abstracts, and institutional mechanical test lung data. RESULTS: Tidal volume delivery ...
Wolf Gerhard K - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) are two monitoring techniques that have been used to assess lung volume noninvasively. METHODS: RIP uses two elastic bands around the chest and abdomen to assess global changes in lung volume. In animal models, RIP has been shown to detect ...
Luecke Thomas - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This review describes how computed tomography has increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. It summarizes current knowledge about lung volume changes and alveolar recruitment during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) assessed by computed tomography (CT), outlines potential problems when comparing HFOV with conventional ventilation (CV) ...
O'Brien William D WD - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to augment and reevaluate the ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage findings of a previous 5 x 3 factorial design study (Ultrasound Med Biol 2001; 27:267-277) that evaluated the role of pulse repetition frequency (PRF: 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 Hz) and exposure duration (ED; ...
Carney David - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To review the mechanism of dynamic alveolar mechanics (i.e., the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during ventilation) in both the normal and acutely injured lung; to investigate the alteration in alveolar mechanics secondary to acute lung injury as a mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI); and to ...
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