Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1196
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Guerzoni Maria Elisabetta - - 2002
The aim of this work was to study the survival of Salmonella enteritidis after a pressure treatment in relation to compositive variables (NaCl content, pH), both in model and real systems, the latter consisting in an egg-based mayonnaise type product. Moreover, the fate of the surviving cells of S. enteritidis ...
Carr F J - - 2002
The localisation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is the first step towards gene identification. This is then verified by the construction of reciprocal congenic strains. The hypertensive SHRSP and normotensive WKY strains were used in a speed congenic approach to confirm the existence of a QTL on rat chromosome 2. ...
Hu Gang - - 2002
Dietary salt intake plays a major role in variation of blood pressure levels and cardiovascular conditions. High salt intake is associated with the occurrence of hypertension. The evidence that high salt intake increases risk of cardiovascular disease is inconsistent. Some studies indicate a significant and positive association between salt intake ...
Boegehold Matthew A - - 2002
In many individuals with essential hypertension, dietary salt can further increase blood pressure by augmentation of an already elevated total peripheral resistance. There is little information on the microvascular changes that contribute to salt-sensitive hypertension in humans, but studies in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat have provided some knowledge of the ...
Park Jeong Bae - - 2002
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased generation of vascular superoxide anion (*O2-) contributes to blood pressure elevation by influencing vascular function and structure in severely hypertensive rats. Sixteen-week-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) (n = ...
Suter Paolo M - - 2002
Differing hypertension prevalence rates between certain population and age groups are partially due to differences in the intake of certain nutrients. Blood pressure is positively associated with higher sodium, alcohol, and protein intakes; it is inversely associated with potassium, calcium, and magnesium intakes. Salt may lead to an increase in ...
Bragulat Ernesto - - 2002
Numerous epidemiologic and clinical studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between high salt intake and blood pressure. However, the mechanisms of a salt-induced increase in blood pressure--a phenomenon known as salt sensitivity--and the heterogeneity of this effect are far from being completely understood. Endothelial dysfunction, and especially the nitric oxide ...
Ozaki Hiroaki - - 2002
The introduction of ultra-low pressure reverse osmosis (ULPRO) membrane has widened the horizon of reverse osmosis (RO) in purification of surface water and wastewater as well as desalination of brackish water. The ULPRO membrane chemistry can provide a high water flux at low operating pressure, while maintaining a very good ...
Kurokawa K - - 2001
The relation between salt intake and high blood pressure has been widely recognized, but its exact mechanisms and the reason of such a relation are not clearly understood. In this review, I discuss the sequence of factors relevant to our understanding of the pathophysiology of 'essential' hypertension. I will first ...
Nagatomi J - - 2001
The present study demonstrated unique correlations between characteristic parameters of mechanical loading and osteoblast functions. Specifically, osteoblast proliferation was dependent on the frequency and on the duration of the applied cyclic pressure stimulus: decreased cell proliferation was only observed when these cells were exposed to cyclic pressure at 1.0-Hz (but ...
Buchholz K - - 2001
Salt-sensitive normotensive men exhibit an enhanced pressor response to mental stress. Although an enhanced pressor response is associated with higher affective startle modulation in men, an association between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and affective startle modulation has not been studied so far. We studied reactivity to mental stress and ...
Swoap S J - - 2001
Caloric restriction of mammals leads to decreases in blood pressure and heart rate. Although relevant clinically, the mechanisms involved, in terms of hormones and signaling pathways invoked, are currently not known. Circumstantial evidence suggests that leptin signaling may be involved with the bradycardia and hypotension associated with caloric restriction. This ...
Kyselovic J - - 2001
1. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are anti-hypertensive drugs that are usually considered to act mainly as vasodilators. We investigated the relation between the reduction of blood pressure evoked by two long-acting CCBs and their protective effect against cardiac and renal damage in salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). 2. SHRSP ...
Yu M - - 2001
The contribution of endothelin to the changes in blood pressure, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance evoked by arginine vasopressin and angiotensin II was investigated in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats by infusing the peptides intravenously before and after pretreatment with the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan. Blood pressure was recorded ...
Campese V M VM Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90033, USA. - - 2001
Omapatrilat, a vasopeptidase inhibitor, simultaneously inhibits neutral endopeptidase and ACE. The efficacy and hormonal profile of omapatrilat and lisinopril were compared in salt-sensitive hypertensive patients. On enrollment, antihypertensive medications were withdrawn, and patients received a single-blind placebo. On day 15, salt-sensitivity determinations were made. Salt-sensitive hypertensive patients returned within 5 ...
De Witt B J - - 2001
Pulmonary vascular responses to the novel diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide (NO) donors diethylamine/NO, diethylenetriamine/NO, spermine/NO, sulfite/NO, and angeli's salt, were investigated and compared in the intact-chest cat. Under conditions of controlled blood flow, when tone in the pulmonary vascular bed had been raised to a high steady level, intralobar injections of ...
Leutin V P - - 2001
The goal of the study was to elucidate psychophysiological characteristics of subjects who can adapt effectively to Arctic and Subarctic conditions. Plasma cortisol and insulin levels, blood pressure as well as functional sensori-motor asymmetry have been examined in the groups of North Selkups and transit workers from the Subarctic regions. ...
Higashi Y - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a high NaCl intake impairs endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation of forearm circulation in salt sensitive (SS) patients with essential hypertension. We evaluated the effects of intra-arterial acetylcholine (ACh) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) on forearm hemodynamics in 29 patients with essential hypertension, ...
Quaschning T T Cardiovascular Research, Institute of Physiology, University of Zürich, Zürich, - - 2001
Renovascular hemodynamics plays a pivotal role in the regulation of BP. The effect of the vasopeptidase inhibitor omapatrilat (O) and the ACE-inhibitor captopril (C) on endothelial function in the renal circulation in salt-induced hypertension were investigated. Dahl salt-sensitive rats (n = 6 per group) on standard or salt-enriched chow were ...
Zemel M B - - 2001
Regulation of intracellular calcium plays a key role in hypertension and obesity. Dysregulation of calcium homeostasis appears to be a fundamental factor linking these conditions. Regulation of intracellular calcium in key disease-related target tissues by calcitrophic hormones provides the opportunity to modulate disease risk with dietary calcium. Overall, sub-optimal calcium ...
Ledoussal C - - 2001
To study the role of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 2 (NHE2) and isoform 3 (NHE3) in sodium-fluid volume homeostasis and renal Na+ conservation, mice with Nhe2 (Nhe2-/-) and/or Nhe3 (Nhe3-/-) null mutations were fed a Na+-restricted diet, and urinary Na+ excretion, blood pressure, systemic acid-base and electrolyte status, and renal function ...
Behr T M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Numerous pathological mediators of cardiac hypertrophy (eg, neurohormones, cytokines, and stretch) have been shown to activate p38 MAPK. The purpose of the present study was to examine p38 MAPK activation and the effects of its long-term inhibition in a model of hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy/dysfunction and end-organ damage. METHODS AND ...
Hayashida T - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Increased Na+-H+ exchanger activity (NHE) has been reported as an intermediate phenotype in hypertensive subjects, particularly those with insulin resistance. To investigate whether NHE abnormality plays a role in hypertension, Wistar fatty rat (WFR) with overt obesity, hyperglycemia and marked hyperinsulinemia was examined. METHODS: WFR and Wistar lean rats ...
Monard M C - - 2001
A program in Maple V is developed that allows for the calculation of polarizabilities of both anions and cations on the basis of a new method and of the extension of the one developed previously. Furthermore, an alternative way of evaluation of delta r(i)/delta p is given. Values of delta ...
Ortiz P A - - 2001
Blood pressure is influenced by several vasoactive factors that also regulate nephron transport. An imbalance in regulation of salt reabsorption by the nephron contributes to hypertension. In the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), the responses to dopamine and angiotensin II in the proximal nephron are diminished and enhanced, respectively. This partially ...
Tomita M - - 2001
The necessary exposure of blood to biomembranes during hemodialysis has been viewed by many as an immunogenic challenge leading to an acute phase response. In this study we examined the relationship between hemodialysis-induced immune activation and intradialytic hypotension, using the acute phase reactant serum C-reactive protein (CRP) as a surrogate ...
He F J - - 2001
Hypertensive (n=93) and normotensive (n=39) white individuals were given a high sodium intake of approximately 350 mmol/d for 5 days followed by a low sodium intake of 10 to 20 mmol/d for 5 days. With this acute and large reduction in salt intake, no significant change was seen in blood ...
Morgan T - - 2001
Cardiac hypertrophy is common in hypertension but its development is influenced by angiotensin II, sodium intake aldosterone, and the time of day blood pressure (BP) is elevated. This study examined and compared cardiac hypertrophy in the 2 kidney-1 clip (2K-1C) and 1 kidney-clip (1K-1C) Goldblatt models of hypertension. Blood pressure ...
Supowit S C SC Department of Medicine, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. - - 2001
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilator neuropeptide, plays a counterregulatory role in subtotal nephrectomy-salt (SN-salt)-induced hypertension, reflecting a stimulation of the efferent vasodilator function of perivascular sensory nerves. To determine the effect of omapatrilat, a dual ACE and neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, on blood pressure and the potential antihypertensive role ...
Bohlooly-Y M - - 2001
Acromegaly is associated with cardiovascular disease. We studied vascular function and mean arterial blood pressure in transgenic mice overexpressing bovine GH. Mean arterial blood pressure was measured in conscious, unrestrained male and female bovine GH and littermate control mice during normal as well as high salt intake using telemetric devices. ...
Mukherjee N - - 2001
Cartilage repair by autologous periosteal arthroplasty is enhanced by continuous passive motion (CPM) of the joint after transplantation of the periosteal graft. However, the mechanisms by which CPM stimulate chondrogenesis are unknown. Based on the observation that an oscillating intra-synovial pressure fluctuation has been reported to occur during CPM (0.6-10 ...
Mignon-Grasteau S - - 2001
A selection experiment on the shape of the growth curve was performed on meat-type chickens through combined selection on juvenile and adult BW. Line X-+ was selected for low BW at 8 wk (BW8) and high BW at 36 wk (BW36). Line X+- was selected for high BW8 and low ...
Cruz D N - - 2001
The relationship between salt homeostasis and blood pressure has remained difficult to establish from epidemiological studies of the general population. Recently, mendelian forms of hypertension have demonstrated that mutations that increase renal salt balance lead to higher blood pressure, suggesting that mutations that decrease the net salt balance might have ...
Dakshinamurti K - - 2001
This review attempts to delineate the underlying mechanisms leading to the development of hypertension as well as the function of vitamins and minerals in the regulation of blood pressure. Physiological processes that regulate cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance impact on the control of blood pressure. Metabolic abnormalities associated with ...
Brooks V L - - 2001
At rest, sympathetic nerves exhibit tonic activity which contributes to arterial pressure maintenance. Significant evidence suggests that the absolute level of sympathetic tone is altered in a number of physiologic and pathophysiologic states. However, the mechanisms by which such changes in sympathetic tone occur are incompletely understood. The purpose of ...
Freedman D A - - 2001
The salt hypothesis is that higher levels of salt in the diet lead to higher levels of blood pressure, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Intersalt, a cross-sectional study of salt levels and blood pressures in 52 populations, is often cited to support the salt hypothesis, but the data are ...
Quaschning T T Cardiovascular Research, Institute of Physiology, University of Zürich, CH-8091 Zürich, - - 2001
Vasopeptidase inhibition (VPI) represents a new therapeutic principle including both inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP). The present study investigated the effect of the vasopeptidase inhibitor omapatrilat on endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vascular function in salt-induced hypertension. Dahl salt-sensitive rats (n=6/group) on standard or salt-enriched (4% NaCl) chow were ...
Deter H C - - 2001
Individuals whose mean arterial blood pressure is depending on oral salt intake are considered salt-sensitive and are at risk of developing essential hypertension. This study investigates the role of salt-sensitivity with respect to systolic blood pressure reactions under standardized mental stress. Forty-three healthy young males, previously characterized as salt-sensitive (n=16) ...
Kang D H - - 2001
Recent studies have demonstrated a role for microvascular and tubulointerstitial injury in some models of salt-sensitive hypertension. We utilized a model of post-cyclosporin A (CsA) nephropathy and hypertension to test the hypothesis that treatment with an angiogenic factor aimed at ameliorating the microvascular and renal injury would prevent the development ...
Sica D A - - 2001
Minoxidil is a direct vasodilator that has been in use for over two decades. It is used primarily to reduce blood pressure in hypertensives who have been poorly controlled on various multidrug regimens. Although minoxidil is extremely effective, its usefulness is limited by its tendency to increase the pulse rate ...
Peng H - - 2001
We previously reported that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) prevented the hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt (DOCA-salt) in 129/SvEvTac mice, which have 2 renin genes (Ren-1 and Ren-2). In the present study, we induced hypertension by uninephrectomy and DOCA-salt in mice having only the Ren-1 gene ...
Lameire N - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To review the factors that impact control of blood pressure and euvolemia in peritoneal dialysis patients. DESIGN: Review of the most recent publications on this subject; inclusion of some personal data on the relation between plasma volume and evolution of blood pressure in short-term and long-term peritoneal dialysis patients. ...
Lim P O - - 2001
The effect of salt on blood pressure (BP) is controversial. A more important question is whether salt can produce cardiac target-organ damage, irrespective of its effect on BP. We assessed the effect of salt with fludrocortisone on QT dispersion and echocardiographic left ventricular diastolic function in a prospective interventional study ...
Sun C - - 2001
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of salt form, i.e., different anions with a common cation (L-lysinium), on compaction properties and to identify the factors that determine the tensile strength of tablets. METHODS: L-Lysine salts with the following anions were compressed at various pressures: acetate, monochloride, dichloride, L-aspartate, L-glutamate (dihydrate), and ...
Bragulat E - - 2001
The aim of this study was to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation, as well as endothelium biochemical markers, in a group of essential hypertensive patients classified on the basis of salt sensitivity. Changes in forearm blood flow in response to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) infusion were determined by ...
Johnson R J - - 2001
There may be a relation between altered venous function, endothelin (ET)-1, and an impairment in the activity of endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in salt-dependent hypertension. The present study examined the effects of salt intake on ET-induced changes in venomotor tone and the effects of blockade of NO synthase ...
Fedorova O V - - 2001
Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DS), which have a mutation in the alpha-1 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, exhibit impaired pressure natriuresis and on a high-salt diet, retain Na(+) and exhibit increased blood pressure. Recently, we have shown that mammalian tissues contain a bufadienolide Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitory factor, marinobufagenin (MBG), that exhibits greater affinity for ...
Weinberger M H - - 2001
Although factors such as age, blood pressure, and its responsiveness to changes in sodium balance and extracellular fluid volume status (salt sensitivity) are associated with an increased risk of end-organ disease and cardiovascular events in hypertensive subjects, no such relationship with mortality has been demonstrated for salt sensitivity in normotensive ...
Agnoli G C - - 2001
In healthy women submitted to a short-term expansion in extracellular fluid volume we have evaluated the urinary excretory profile of the stable metabolites of prostaglandin(PG) I2 and thromboxane(TX) A2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha(6KPGF) and TXB2 respectively, and assessed the physiological role played by the prostanoids in this experimental condition. Salt retention (SR ...
Saad Y - - 2001
A series of congenic strains were constructed in which segments of chromosome (chr) 1 from Lewis (LEW) rats were introgressed into the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) strain. Three blood pressure quantitative trait loci (QTL) were defined. Two of these (QTL 1a and QTL 1b) were closely linked in the region between ...
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