Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1199
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Guha Prabal K - - 2003
Leptin is a circulating polypeptide hormone produced by an adipocyte-specific gene. It regulates energy balance by binding to receptors in the hypothalamus, leading to alterations in food intake, temperature, and energy expenditure. More recent pharmacologic information suggests that this circulating hormone may play an important role in the regulation of ...
Hurwitz Shelley - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The contribution of salt intake to the pathogenesis of hypertension holds longstanding interest. Recent studies employed the sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) to salt intake as an intermediate phenotype. The validity of this approach relative to the homogeneity of sodium-sensitive hypertension was investigated while simultaneously controlling multiple putative factors. ...
Málaga Serafín - - 2003
To investigate salt perception and discrimination and their possible association with blood pressure (BP), 72 healthy adolescents (42 boys) aged 9-21 years (mean 16.1 years) were studied. BP was measured with a standardized technique. Anthropometric measurement and conventional renal function tests were performed. Sensitivity tests to recognize the presence of ...
Iglarz Marc - - 2003
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) was first characterized as a potent vasoconstrictor and is overexpressed in the vasculature in different models of hypertension, such as deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt rats, Dahl salt-sensitive rats, and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Moreover, patients with moderate to severe hypertension present increased vascular levels of prepro-ET-1 mRNA. In addition to ...
He Feng J - - 2003
Much evidence from epidemiological, migration, intervention, animal and genetic studies suggests that salt intake plays an important role in regulating blood pressure (BP). At the same time, many clinical trials have shown that reducing salt intake lowers BP. However, the magnitude of the fall in BP for a given reduction ...
Somova L O - - 2003
Cardiovascular (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate), antihyperlipidemic (tryglycerides, total cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions), antioxidant (glutathione peroxidase--GPx, and superoxide dismutase--SOD), diuretic/saluretic and hypoglycemic activity of 98% pure oleanolic (OA) and ursolic (UA) acid were studied in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS), insulin resistant rat model of genetic hypertension. Both OA and ...
Fedorova Olga V - - 2003
Marinobufagenin (MBG), an endogenous ligand of alpha-1 Na/K-ATPase, becomes elevated and contributes to hypertension in NaCl-loaded Dahl-S rats (DS). Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates alpha-1 Na/K-ATPase and increases its MBG sensitivity. Cicletanine, an antihypertensive compound with PKC-inhibitory activity, reverses MBG-induced Na/K-ATPase inhibition and vasoconstriction. We hypothesized that increased PKC levels ...
Prochazka S - - 2003
The separation by reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis of the therapeutically developed sodium salt of Pentosan Polysulfate was optimised through the analysis of response surface methodologies, modeled using a central composite design. The optimisation investigated injection pressure, injection time and voltage and the effect of the conditions on retention times, ...
Laffer Cheryl L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Twenty-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a cytochrome P450 metabolite of arachidonic acid that produces vasoconstriction and inhibition of renal tubular sodium transport. In Dahl rats, a 20-HETE deficiency plays a role in salt-sensitive (SS) hypertension. In humans, there are no data on regulation of 20-HETE by salt intake or on ...
Laffer Cheryl L - - 2003
Cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid modulate the natriuretic effect of furosemide. It is not known whether 20-HETE, a monooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid that also inhibits sodium transport, participates in the action of furosemide. We measured urine sodium (UNaV) and 20-HETE during furosemide diuresis (40 mg three times over 12 ...
Hagiwara Kunie - - 2003
To examine the anti-hypertensive effect of taurine, we studied the effects of taurine on the salt-dependent blood pressure elevation, the electrocardiogram, and plasma catecholamine levels in the voltage-dependent calcium channel beta3-subunit-deficient mouse. In the wild-type mice, chronic high-salt loading (8% NaCl in chow) did not increase the blood pressure, whereas ...
Dishy Victor - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide production is a homeostatic mechanism that may regulate blood pressure during salt loading. Salt-sensitive hypertension in animal models and in humans is characterized by increased blood pressure and decreased nitric oxide production after salt loading. It is not known if this impaired nitric oxide production is the ...
Nomura Masahiro - - 2003
The effects of benidipine hydrochloride (CAS 91559-74-5, Coniel) on autonomic nervous activity in hypertensive patients with high- and low-salt diets were investigated. Six patients having a urinary sodium excretion of 80 mEq/day or less (low salt group) and 6 patients having a urinary sodium excretion of 200 mEq/day or more ...
Bianchi S - - 2003
Some patients with essential hypertension manifest greater than normal urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Salt-sensitive hypertensives also manifest greater UAE compared to salt-resistant individuals. Although the significance of these associations is not well established, several lines of evidence suggest that microalbuminuria and/or salt sensitivity may be associated with greater prevalence of ...
Bettelheim Frederick A - - 2003
PURPOSE: The study was designed to observe whether a reversible syneretic response to pressure is operative in normal human lenses and whether such a response demonstrates a uniform age dependence. METHODS: Seven sections (from the anterior outer cortex to the posterior outer cortex) of 10 human lenses were imaged at ...
Radin M Judith - - 2003
A link between leptin resistance, obesity, and salt sensitivity has been suggested. SHHF/Mcc-fa(cp) rats (SHHF) were used to study the effect of gene dosage of a null mutation of the leptin receptor (cp) on salt sensitivity and response to a combined endothelin A and B receptor antagonist (bosentan). Obese (cp/cp), ...
Morgan Trefor - - 2003
Hypertension and arthritis are both common diseases in the older age group and require pharmacologic treatment. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) alter renal function if given in high enough doses, reducing renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate and causing sodium retention. In salt sensitive subjects, this retention of sodium ...
Rodriguez-Gomez Isabel I Departamento de Fisiología, Unidad Experimental, Servicio de Nefrología, Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, - - 2003
This study investigates the effects of chronic administration of omapatrilat (OMA) on blood pressure (BP), renal injury, and other variables in N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) hypertension and in the low-renin model produced by the simultaneous administration of L-NAME and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA). The control, DOCA, L-NAME, L-NAME + DOCA, L-NAME ...
Abrahão S B - - 2002
The objective of our study was to evaluate the role of the baroreflex control of peripheral sympathetic nervous system on the increase of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in salt-sensitive (SS) and salt-resistant (SR) hypertensives under low salt diet. In phase I mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients (n=5) received three diet periods: ...
Lacolley Patrick P INSERM EMI U0107, Paris, - - 2002
Previous studies have demonstrated the development of cardiac fibrosis in aldosterone (Aldo)-salt hypertensive rats. Our aim was to determine the effects of Aldo and the Aldo receptor antagonist eplerenone (Epl) on in vivo mechanical properties of the carotid artery using echo-tracking system. Aldo was administered (1 microg/h) in uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley ...
He F J - - 2002
Two recent meta-analyses of randomised salt reduction trials have concluded that there is little purpose in reducing salt intake in the general population. However, the authors, as with other previous meta-analyses, included trials of very short duration (eg 1 week or less) and trials of acute salt loading followed by ...
Hirvonen Jorma - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The study was a follow-up one, in which blood pressure and hormonal changes were investigated during one winter swimming season in winter swimmers (WSs) and non-swimmer controls on three occasions (autumn, winter and spring). Humoral results were compared to psychological traits recorded at the time of the three blood ...
Kato Norihiro - - 2002
Although a variety of techniques have been devised to assess salt sensitivity, most have proven cumbersome from a methodological perspective. We therefore attempted to develop a 2-week method by which participants could be tested in an outpatient setting without requirement of a strict dietary regimen. In this method, subjects take ...
Rothermund Lars - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Salt-sensitive hypertension represents a major cause of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We therefore explored the potential effects of the selective endothelin-A (ETA) receptor antagonist darusentan on the development of hypertension, LV hypertrophy (LVH), and dysfunction in a genetic rat model of salt-sensitive hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Animals from the ...
Beevers D G - - 2002
The relationship between salt intake and blood pressure was once highly controversial. Early comparisons of populations did support the salt hypothesis but were difficult to interpret because of unmeasured confounding variables. However, the INTERSALT project, published in 1988 overcame many of these problems and reported within - and between - ...
Van Ooteghem N A M - - 2002
In the fasting state, gallbladder emptying is related to phase III of the intestinal migrating motor complex. The effects of ileal infusion of mixed taurocholate-phospholipid micelles on fasting small intestinal motility (by a 17-channel catheter with side holes located in duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and gallbladder motility (by ultrasound) were ...
Larsen Christen P - - 2002
Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) causes asthma after a latency period of sensitization. In non-sensitized humans and animals, limited studies indicate that TMA exposure may also cause symptoms of asthma without a latency period. Our previous studies (J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 296 (2001) 284) in a guinea pig model of TMA-induced asthma ...
Takahashi Koki - - 2002
Phosphodiesterase (PDE) was shown to be downregulated in the failing hearts of transplant recipients, while it was upregulated in hypertrophied hearts induced by isoproterenol and calsequesterin overexpression. We examined the time course of gene expression and the activity of PDE3 and PDE4 in an animal model of salt-induced hypertension, left ...
Watanabe Susumu - - 2002
Humans have elevated serum uric acid as a result of a mutation in the urate oxidase (uricase) gene that occurred during the Miocene. We hypothesize that the mutation provided a survival advantage because of the ability of hyperuricemia to maintain blood pressure under low-salt dietary conditions, such as prevailed during ...
Bonazzola P - - 2002
The role of calcium influx on energy expenditure during cardiac contraction was studied. For this purpose, the described ability of lithium and KB-R 7943 (KBR) to diminish Ca entry through Na-Ca exchanger (Ponce-Hornos & Langer, J Mol Cell Cardiol 1980, 12, 1367, Satoh et al., Circulation 2000, 101, 1441) were ...
Takakuwa Hiroshi - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of dietary sodium restriction on diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation in primary aldosteronism. We studied the diurnal variation in the systemic hemodynamic indices and in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). In 13 subjects with aldosterone-producing adenomas (2 males; mean age, 39+/-2 years), ...
Mauri Marina - - 2002
The effects of chromium on the life history and demography of Dinophilus gyrociliatus (Polychaeta) were studied on a control and three treated cohorts kept in artificial seawater enriched with nominal concentrations of chromium at 1.0, 1.4, and 1.6 microg/ml. Survival and fecundity were significantly reduced by chromium. Fecundity was higher ...
Nassar Taher - - 2002
Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a multifunctional protein that has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes involving cell adhesion and migration in addition to fibrinolysis. In a previous study we found that two-chain urokinase plasminogen activator (tcuPA) stimulates phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction of isolated rat aortic rings. In the present ...
Araújo L D - - 2002
Vasoconstrictor substances, as norepinephrine and epinephrine, were mixtured to local anesthetics to decrease their toxic effects and to prolong the depth of the anesthesia. However, these catecholamines produce systolic and diastolic hypertension. The effects of felypressin, a synthetic vasoconstrictor, upon arterial blood pressure and heart are lesser than those of ...
Cooper Victoria Louise - - 2002
This study had three main objectives: to examine in patients presenting with unexplained syncope the relationship between orthostatic tolerance and dietary salt intake; to examine in patients with relative low baseline salt excretion the effect of salt loading on both orthostatic tolerance and blood pressure; and to examine the relationship ...
Gunal Ali Ihsan - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Nephrogenic ascites refers to the condition of refractory ascites of unknown aetiology and occurs mainly in patients with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing haemodialysis. Despite many treatment modalities, nephrogenic ascites remains difficult to control and has a poor prognosis. METHODS: We investigated six such patients who had developed ...
De Wardener Hugh E - - 2002
The human race is genetically programmed to consume less than 1 g of salt per day. In most human populations, the diet contains 6 to 12 g of salt per day and, in contrast to populations that consume less than 3 g of salt per day, their blood pressure rises ...
Weinberger Myron H - - 2002
While a variety of studies have demonstrated the heterogeneity of the blood pressure response to salt loading and depletion, none has examined the relationship of these responses to mortality. We conducted a follow-up study of 430 normal and 278 hypertensive subjects studied as long ago as 28 years by techniques ...
Elijovich F - - 2002
Salt sensitivity of blood pressure is a cardiovascular risk factor, independent of and in addition to hypertension. In essential hypertension, a conglomerate of clinical and biochemical characteristics defines a salt-sensitive phenotype. Despite extensive research on multiple natriuretic and antinatriuretic systems, there is no definitive answer yet about the major causes ...
Di Filippo Clara - - 2002
The present study investigated the role possibly played by ET-receptor antagonism at periaqueductal grey (PAG) area level in decreasing the arterial blood pressure and heart rate values reached in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. A 3-week DOCA-salt treatment induced an increase in blood pressure of up to 174+/-3 mmHg in Sprague-Dawley (SD) ...
Berthon Nathalie - - 2002
The aim of this study was to show whether the decrease in blood pressure induced by Mg supplementation in deoxycorticosterone acetate - salt (DOCA-salt) hypertensive rats is associated with mechanical modifications of blood vessels and (or) changes in tissular production and (or) vasoconstrictor activity to endothelin-1. DOCA-salt treatment increased blood ...
Oki K - - 2002
In this study, the experimental denture base on the hard palate of the molar region of osteoporotic rats was designed to cover without any mechanical pressure or to load continuous pressure (0.5, 1.5 or 3.4 kPa). Experimental osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy and feeding on a low calcium diet. Histopathological ...
Niijima Akira - - 2002
The effects of L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) on the neural activity of the renal sympathetic nerve and on DOCA-salt hypertension in rats were examined. Intravenous injection of 1 microg L-carnosine inhibited renal sympathetic nerve activity in urethane-anesthetized animals, and a diet containing 0.0001% or 0.001% L-carnosine decreased blood pressure elevation in DOCA-salt ...
Rühli F J - - 2002
It is striking that evidence for hyperostosis frontalis interna - a phenomenon of exclusive bilateral thickening of frontal endocranial surface - in archaeological samples is very rare in contrast to its modern prevalence. Because microevolutionary changes have been shown for various human characteristics any alteration of hormonal levels is very ...
Butler David G - - 2002
Indwelling catheters were used to collect fluid directly from the medial and lateral segments of duck nasal salt glands showing, for the first time, that the secretions are fully hypertonic before reaching the medial and lateral drainage ducts. Using this method it was possible to show that (a) there is ...
de Wardener H E - - 2002
In addition to raising the blood pressure dietary salt is responsible for several other harmful effects. The most important are a number which, though independent of the arterial pressure, also harm the cardiovascular system. A high salt intake increases the mass of the left ventricle, thickens and stiffens conduit arteries ...
Aviv Abraham - - 2002
Opinions about the impact of dietary salt on blood pressure have dominated the debate regarding 'salt sensitivity', which can be broadly defined as the blood pressure response to changes in sodium intake among individuals in a population. However, the larger question is whether salt consumption exerts significant biological effects independent ...
de la Sierra A - - 2002
The existence of a heterogeneous blood pressure (BP) response to salt intake, a phenomenon known as salt sensitivity, has increasingly become a subject of clinical hypertension research, and has important clinical and prognostic implications. However, two different methodologies are currently used to diagnose salt sensitivity. The aim of the present ...
Lin Yingzi - - 2002
We determined the cardiovascular responses as well as food and water intakes to chronic intracerebroventricular administration of orexin-A and orexin-B for 14 days in conscious rats. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of orexin-A (50 pmol/h) elicited a significant increase in systolic blood pressure on the third day (+15.6 +/- 2.9 mm Hg), ...
Ikeda Shuntaro - - 2002
The exact mechanisms responsible for the progression of heart failure remain unclear. We investigated the in vivo relationship between the incidence of apoptotic cell death and left ventricular function serially from the beginning of hypertension to decompensated heart failure in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Dahl salt-resistant and Dahl salt-sensitive rats were ...
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