Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1196
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Rosenthal Talma - - 2004
The influence of temperature changes on risk factors like hypertension is often disregarded despite extensive literature on the phenomenon. Numerous surveys and studies have documented the correlation between temperature and blood pressure in various countries among adults, the elderly, and children. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure studies also generally show higher blood ...
Zewde Tewabech - - 2004
Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the renal medulla is regulated by dietary salt intake. The present study was performed to determine the influence of chronic inhibition of medullary cyclooxygenase-2 on arterial blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a high-salt (4% NaCl) or a low-salt (0.4% NaCl) diet. Rats were uninephrectomized ...
Herber S - - 2004
A method is proposed to study the behavior of stimulus-sensitive hydrogels under isochoric conditions. Freedom of swell movement of such a hydrogel was restricted in all directions by enclosing the hydrogel between a micropressure sensor and a porous cover. Water and external stimuli can be applied to the hydrogel through ...
Morita Noriteru - - 2004
Contraction of skeletal muscle generates pressure stimuli to intramuscular tissues. However, the effects of pressure stimuli, other than those created by electricity or nerve impulse, on physiological and biochemical responses in skeletal muscles are unknown. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a pure pressure stimulus ...
Zhou Ming-Sheng - - 2004
Statins, inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis, are endowed with pleiotropic effects that may contribute to their favorable clinical results. Hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats have endothelial dysfunction and cardiorenal injury associated with decreased NO bioavailability and increased superoxide (O2-) production linked to a functional upregulation of angiotensin II. We investigated whether ...
Weinberger Myron H - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In view of the ongoing controversy about the importance of dietary sodium intake in blood pressure control, consideration of the most recent findings in this area is useful. RECENT FINDINGS: New observations regarding the relation between salt intake and its reduction on blood pressure have emerged. Evidence ...
Yamamoto Kazuhiro - - 2004
AIM: Ventricular fibrosis is promoted by many effectors that chronically activate phospholipase D (PLD), and induces cardiac dysfunction and heart failure in cardiovascular diseases. Since ethanolamine is a product of PLD, we hypothesised that an administration of an analogue of ethanolamine, N-methylethanolamine (MEA), decreases PLD activity through a negative feedback ...
Gumieniak Olga - - 2004
Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are associated with increased systemic vascular resistance and hypertension. We examined the relationship between thyroid function and blood pressure homeostasis in euthyroid individuals. A total of 284 subjects (68% hypertensive) consumed high- (200 mmol) and low- (10 mmol) sodium diets, and their blood pressure responses were ...
Jeck Nikola - - 2004
The chloride channel ClC-Kb is expressed in the basolateral cell membrane of the distal nephron and participates in renal NaCl reabsorption. Loss-of-function mutations of ClC-Kb lead to classic Bartter syndrome, a rare salt-wasting disorder. Recently, we identified the ClC-Kb(T481S) polymorphism, which confers a strong gain-of-function effect on the ClC-Kb chloride ...
Fournie-Zaluski Marie-Claude - - 2004
The hyperactivity of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the development and maintenance of hypertension in several types of experimental and genetic hypertension animal models. We previously reported that in the murine brain, aminopeptidase A (APA) is involved in the conversion of angiotensin II (AngII) to AngIII ...
Becker H - - 2004
The aim of this study was to determine nutrition knowledge and dietary practices of hypertensive adults attending hypertensive clinics at Day Hospitals in the Cape Metropole. Ten Day Hospitals were randomly selected from a total of 31 Day Hospitals and the first participants attending the hypertension clinics per day were ...
Quan Hui - - 2004
A family of orphan transporters has been discovered that are structurally related to the Na(+)-Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporters, including the dopamine transporter. One member of this family, the mouse XT2 gene, is predominantly expressed in the kidney and has 95% homology to rat ROSIT (renal osmotic stress-induced Na(+)-Cl(-) organic solute cotransporter). ...
Endemann Dierk H DH CIHR Multidisciplinary Research Group on Hypertension, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, - - 2004
We examined the effect of different levels of salt intake on the role of aldosterone on cardiac and vascular changes in salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Eleven-week-old SHRSP were fed high-salt (4.2% NaCl), normal-salt (0.28%), or low-salt (0.03%) diets with or without eplerenone (100 mg/kg per day, in food) ...
Little Paul - - 2004
To assess the effect of brief interventions during the "watchful waiting" period for hypertension. Factorial trial. General practice. 296 patients with blood pressure > 160/90 mm Hg were randomised to eight groups defined by three factors: an information booklet; low sodium, high potassium salt; prompt sheets for high fruit, vegetable, ...
O'Shaughnessy Kevin M - - 2004
The kidney plays a central role in our ability to maintain appropriate sodium balance, which is critical to determination of blood pressure. In this review we outline current knowledge of renal salt handling at the molecular level, and, given that Westernized societies consume more salt than is required for normal ...
Kobori Hiroyuki - - 2004
We have recently reported that Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DS) on high salt diet (HS) have an inappropriate augmentation of intrarenal angiotensinogen. Recent studies also reported that the augmented superoxide anion formation plays important roles in this animal model of hypertension. This study was performed to address the hypothesis that an ...
Doulton Timothy W R - - 2004
This review outlines the major mechanisms for control of blood pressure (BP) in individuals with renal failure on haemodialysis. Dietary salt stimulates thirst and, thereby, greater fluid intake with excessive fluid gain between dialysis sessions and chronic expansion of extracellular volume. At the same time, this volume expansion often fails ...
Otani Lila - - 2004
The effect of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy on the offspring's blood pressure was assessed in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) which are genetically predisposed to hypertension and stroke. After the confirmation of pregnancy, the control group was given a 20% casein diet, and the low-protein group was fed a ...
Dukes James - - 2004
Field experiments with the mosquito adulticide fenthion (Baytex) compared the conventional flat-fan nozzle system (Tee Jet 8002SS) and a new high-pressure hollow-cone nozzle system (1/8 MISS). Ground deposition and aerial flux of the mosquito adulticide fenthion were measured up to 4.83 km downwind by using filter paper and yarn collectors, ...
Claydon Victoria E - - 2004
Salt supplementation improves orthostatic tolerance in many patients with posturally related syncope (PRS). This study aimed to examine whether in those patients who responded to salt loading there was also evidence of improved cerebral autoregulation and more powerful peripheral vasoconstriction during orthostasis. Eleven PRS patients were studied before and after ...
Elias S O - - 2004
There is a strong association between salt intake and hypertension. Alterations in baroreceptor activity, which precede and contribute to the elevation in blood pressure, have also been shown to affect chemoreceptor reflex response. Dietary salt loading with 8% sodium chloride was carried out in Sprague Dawley rats aged 8 weeks ...
McCarty Mark F - - 2004
Although supplemental calcium typically lowers blood pressure in subjects with salt-sensitive, low-renin hypertension - presumably by down-regulating increased production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and/or parathyroid hypertensive factor (PHF) - its impact on the blood pressure of unselected hypertensive or normotensive subjects, as assessed by meta-analyses, appears to be trivial at ...
McCarty Mark F - - 2004
Low-salt diets have potential for prevention and treatment of hypertension, and may also reduce risk for stroke, left ventricular hypertrophy, osteoporosis, renal stones, asthma, cataract, gastric pathology, and possibly even senile dementia. Nonetheless, the fact that salt restriction evokes certain counter-regulatory metabolic responses-- increased production of renin and angiotensin II, ...
He F J - - 2004
Many randomised trials assessing the effect of salt reduction on blood pressure show reduction in blood pressure in individuals with high blood pressure. However, there is controversy about the magnitude and the clinical significance of the fall in blood pressure in individuals with normal blood pressure. Several meta-analyses of randomised ...
Tranquillo Joseph V - - 2004
The extracellular potential at the site of a mechanical deformation has been shown to resemble the underlying transmembrane action potential, providing a minimally invasive way to access membrane dynamics. The biophysical factors underlying the genesis of this signal, however, are still poorly understood. With the use of data from a ...
Love Sandy - - 2003
Since 1917, only 11 new endoparasiticides have been developed for the horse, of which five chemical classes are in common use. The selection pressure of frequent administration of deworming doses for parasite control programs has been associated with the development of resistance of small strongyle parasites to the effects of ...
Vasdev Sudesh - - 2003
There is strong evidence that points to excess dietary salt as a major factor contributing to the development of hypertension. Salt sensitivity is associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in both animal models and humans. In insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism leads to elevated endogenous aldehydes which bind to ...
Yoneda Takeshi - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The Rho/Rho kinase pathway plays an important role in regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell contraction and is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, little is known about the role of this pathway in the evolution of salt-sensitive hypertension and vascular remodeling. The aim of this study was ...
He Feng J - - 2003
The current public health recommendations are to reduce salt intake from 9 to 12 g/d to 5 to 6 g/d. However, these values are based on what is feasible rather than the maximum effect of salt reduction. In a meta-analysis of longer-term trials, we looked at the dose response between ...
Mangenot S - - 2003
We present a phase diagram of the nucleosome core particle (NCP) as a function of the monovalent salt concentration and applied osmotic pressure. Above a critical pressure, NCPs stack on top of each other to form columns that further organize into multiple columnar phases. An isotropic (and in some cases ...
Lewkowski Maxim D - - 2003
To test the prediction that sweet taste modifies responses to cold induced pain, 72 young adults held sweet, bitter and water solutions in their mouths, in counterbalanced order, before and during a cold pain stimulus. To test whether or not blood pressure interacts with sweet taste analgesia, measurements of resting ...
Lorenz John N - - 2003
Guanylin and uroguanylin, peptides synthesized in the intestine and kidney, have been postulated to have both paracrine and endocrine functions, forming a potential enteric-renal link to coordinate salt ingestion with natriuresis. To explore the in vivo role of uroguanylin in the regulation of sodium excretion, we created gene-targeted mice in ...
Petzke Frank - - 2003
Fibromyalgia (FM) is defined in part by sensitivity to blunt pressure. Pressure pain sensitivity in FM is evaluated typically by the use of 'ascending' testing methods such as tender point counts or dolorimetry, which can be influenced by response bias of both the subject and examiner. Methods that present stimuli ...
Hartner Andrea - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The genetic background may exert important modifying effects on the course and severity of experimental kidney diseases in mice. We investigated its influence on the development of hypertension and renal injury following treatment with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt in several mouse strains. METHODS: Four mouse strains were used for ...
Bobillier-Chaumont Sylvie - - 2003
Because oxidative stress is involved in arterial hypertension, impairment of hepatic antioxidant defences could develop in the course of this disease. Metallothionein (MT), an antioxidant protein, is present in high rates in the liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a mineralocorticoid-salt treatment on blood ...
Swoap Steven J - - 2004
We used mice deficient in dopamine beta-hydroxylase [Dbh(-/-)] and their littermate controls [Dbh(+/-)] to examine the role of epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) in the maintenance of cardiovascular parameters during 7 days of caloric restriction and acute exposure to environmental stress. Cardiovascular parameters of the mice were monitored using blood ...
Rigatto Katya - - 2003
To explore the role of oxytocin in the regulation of salt appetite and blood pressure, we conducted studies in oxytocin gene-knockout mice and determined (1) blood pressure and heart rate during day and night periods, (2) salt appetite after iso-osmotic volume depletion, and (3) salt appetite and blood pressure after ...
Xie J - - 2003
This study evaluates the use of vacuum impregnation (VI) for developing nutritionally fortified fresh cut apples (Royal Gala). Cut apples were immersed in diluted high fructose corn syrup (20% w/w or 50% w/w) containing calcium or zinc. A vacuum pressure of 50 mmHg was applied for 15 min following atmospheric ...
Nagatomi Jiro - - 2003
In an attempt to elucidate the cellular/molecular correlations between mechanical stimuli and new bone formation, the present in vitro study used a custom-made laboratory setup and examined the effects of cyclic pressure on select functions of osteoblasts pertinent to osteogenesis. The results demonstrated that, compared to controls (no pressure), mRNA ...
Berthon Nathalie - - 2003
The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not the decrease in blood pressure induced by dietary magnesium supplementation in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats is associated with modifications in expression and tissular production of endothelin-1. DOCA-salt treatment increased blood pressure, induced renal and cardiac hypertrophy, and increased endothelin-1 expression ...
Scuteri Angelo - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO), which plays an important role in natriuresis. We determined whether changes in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDD) and plasma ADMA predict changes in blood pressure (BP) after salt loading in normotensive postmenopausal women (PMW). METHODS: In 15 normotensive PMW (age ...
McNeill J Robert - - 2003
This article reviews data at the in vivo whole animal and human level. The importance of both flow and pressure recordings and of the methods used to record these variables is emphasized. Exogenous administration of endothelin-1 evokes a transient depressor response mediated by endothelial endothelinB receptors, but the predominate effect ...
Zhongfan Lu - - 2003
The present study investigated differences in information processing rate of high and low level soccer players under three time-pressure conditions: High (0.5 sec.), Medium (1 sec.), and Low (2 sec.). No significant difference was found under Low time pressure, but under Medium time pressure the higher skilled group processed more ...
da Silva A Alves - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To study the influence of high salt intake during pregnancy and lactation on body weight, blood pressure, and the function of the renin-angiotensin system in adult rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Female Wistar rats received a low (0.15 NaCl), normal (1.30), or high (8% diet) salt diet. Mating ...
Olayemi S O - - 2003
The role of salt in the genesis of hypertension has been well documented. Earlier studies have demonstrated higher salt taste threshold among hypertensives compared to normotensives. The aim of this study is to compare the salt taste thresholds of normotensive relatives of hypertensive patients with those of normotensives without family ...
Siegel Anja-Kristin - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The salt-sensitive Dahl rat and the spontaneously hypertensive rat develop comparable spontaneous hypertension on a low-salt diet, whereas only the salt-sensitive Dahl rat strain develops a striking increase in blood pressure and cardiovascular hypertrophy on a high-salt diet. We set out to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to ...
Smeda John S - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed an 8.7% NaCl diet exhibited hypertensive encephalopathy and developed seizures associated with areas of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption without brain ischemia. The incidence of hemorrhagic stroke was low (7/47). We tested the hypothesis that a defect in cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation under ...
Guha Prabal K - - 2003
Leptin is a circulating polypeptide hormone produced by an adipocyte-specific gene. It regulates energy balance by binding to receptors in the hypothalamus, leading to alterations in food intake, temperature, and energy expenditure. More recent pharmacologic information suggests that this circulating hormone may play an important role in the regulation of ...
Hurwitz Shelley - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The contribution of salt intake to the pathogenesis of hypertension holds longstanding interest. Recent studies employed the sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) to salt intake as an intermediate phenotype. The validity of this approach relative to the homogeneity of sodium-sensitive hypertension was investigated while simultaneously controlling multiple putative factors. ...
Málaga Serafín - - 2003
To investigate salt perception and discrimination and their possible association with blood pressure (BP), 72 healthy adolescents (42 boys) aged 9-21 years (mean 16.1 years) were studied. BP was measured with a standardized technique. Anthropometric measurement and conventional renal function tests were performed. Sensitivity tests to recognize the presence of ...
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