Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1197
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Coruzzi Paolo - - 2005
Salt-sensitive hypertensive subjects, as defined by conventional categorical classification, exhibit alterations of autonomic cardiovascular control. The aim of our study was to explore whether, in hypertensive subjects, the degree of autonomic dysfunction and the level of salt sensitivity are correlated even when the latter is only mildly elevated and displays ...
Okere Isidore C - - 2005
1. The role that dietary lipid and plasma fatty acid concentration play in the development of cardiac hypertrophy in response to hypertension is not clear. 2. In the present study, we treated Dahl salt-sensitive rats with either normal chow (NC), normal chow with salt added (NC + salt) or a ...
Altun Bulent - - 2006
Hypertension is a worldwide epidemic and its control is costly, but still inadequate. The mechanisms underlying the development of primary hypertension remain elusive. Several observations point to the kidney as a primary actor and sodium as the main culprit for development of hypertension. Over the last few decades, experimental, observational ...
Zhang Jin - - 2005
A key question in hypertension is: How is long-term blood pressure controlled? A clue is that chronic salt retention elevates an endogenous ouabain-like compound (EOLC) and induces salt-dependent hypertension mediated by Na(+)/Ca(2)(+) exchange (NCX). The precise mechanism, however, is unresolved. Here we study blood pressure and isolated small arteries of ...
Imig John D - - 2005
The present study tested the hypothesis that increasing epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) would lower blood pressure and ameliorate renal damage in salt-sensitive hypertension. Rats were infused with angiotensin and fed a normal-salt diet or an 8% NaCl diet for 14 days. The sEH inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic ...
Francois Helene - - 2005
Specific inhibitors of COX-2 have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular complications. These agents reduce prostacyclin (PGI2) without affecting production of thromboxane (Tx) A2. While this abnormal pattern of eicosanoid generation has been implicated in the development of vascular disease associated with COX-2 inhibition, its role in the development ...
Abularrage Christopher J - - 2005
Macrocirculatory endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilatation is integral to tissue-bed oxygen delivery and homeostasis. Dysfunction of macrocirculatory vasoreactivity is a precursor to atherosclerosis and occurs in a similar fashion in multiple tissue beds long before the onset of symptoms. Impaired macrocirculatory vasodilatation has been shown to occur in certain disease states ...
Frohlich Edward D - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A large body of epidemiologic evidence has been amassed attesting to the relation of increased salt ingestion to the prevalence of hypertension; however, only a minority of patients with essential hypertension are salt sensitive. This report discusses the hypothesis that salt sensitivity need not be demonstrated exclusively ...
Wang Qing - - 2005
We have demonstrated previously that deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt induces cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction independent of blood pressure (BP) in 1-renin gene mice. Because these mice also develop hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis caused by mineralocorticoid excess, we investigated whether correcting hypokalemia by dietary potassium supplementation would prevent the DOCA/salt-induced ...
Gerzer R - - 2005
The present manuscript summarizes recent discoveries that were made by studying salt and fluid homeostasis in weightlessness. These data indicate that 1. atrial natriuretic peptide appears not to play an important role in natriuresis in physiology, 2. the distribution of body fluids appears to be tightly coupled with hunger and ...
Atalar Hakan - - 2005
In 20 New Zealand rabbits (two groups of 10 rabbits each), hind limb circumference and anterior compartment pressure were measured following ketamin anaesthesia (time zero). During the same anaesthesia, closed transverse proximal tibial shaft fractures were created in both groups. Twenty-four hours after the fractures, during a second anaesthesia, limb ...
Derby Richard - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relation between annular disruption determined by computed tomography (CT) scan and diskographic findings using pressure-controlled manometric diskography. DESIGN: Cross-sectional using prospectively gathered data. SETTING: Ambulatory spine intervention unit. SPECIMENS: Two hundred seventy-nine disks from 86 patients (55 men, 31 women) who were referred for diskography of ...
Vasdev Sudesh - - 2005
There is strong evidence that excess dietary salt (NaCl) is a major factor contributing to the development of hypertension. Salt sensitive humans and rats develop hypertension even on a normal salt diet. Salt sensitivity is associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in both humans and animal models, including Dahl ...
Swift Pauline A - - 2005
High blood pressure and proteinuria are the major risk factors for cardiovascular and renal disease. In black individuals, there is an increased risk of hypertension, stroke, heart failure, and kidney disease. There are no controlled studies of the effects of reducing salt intake on blood pressure and urine protein excretion ...
Magee J T - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of cyclic antibiotic selection pressure on resistance in a simple mathematical model. METHODS: The model assumed that resistance in microbial ecologies changes slowly with changing selection pressure, at a rate proportional to the difference between the current resistance level and the resistance level that would ...
He Feng J - - 2005
Many randomized trials have shown that a reduction in salt intake lowers blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. However, few have looked at the effects according to hypertension category. A recent analysis of the third and fourth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey suggests that salt intake may not be related ...
Schiffrin Ernesto L - - 2005
Endothelins are powerful vasoconstrictor peptides that also play numerous other functions in many different organs. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the most abundant and important of this family of peptides in blood vessels. Production of ET-1 is increased in the endothelium and the kidney in salt-dependent models of hypertension (e.g.: DOCA-salt rats ...
Mu J J - - 2005
An investigation of the reductive effect of blood pressure and increment of urinary sodium excretion with calcium and potassium supplementation in children with sodium sensitivity is conducted. In total of 261 school children who had completed a 2-year double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with calcium and potassium supplementation salt sensitivity, with a ...
Vasdev Sudesh - - 2005
There is strong evidence that excess dietary salt (NaCl) is a major factor contributing to the development of hypertension. Salt-sensitive humans and rats develop hypertension even on a normal-salt diet. Salt sensitivity is associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in both humans and animal models, including Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) ...
Fujita Megumi - - 2005
Central sympathetic activation is one of the possible mechanisms underlying hypertension, in which reactive oxygen species may play a role. Thus, we examined whether adrenomedullin, an antioxidant peptide, is involved in the central regulation of arterial pressure through sympatho-modulatory action. Adrenomedullin knockout mice were fed with high-salt diet for 4 ...
Nakamura A - - 2005
Gitelman's syndrome (GS), an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect of the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (TSC) at the distal tubule, is characterized by hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism with normal or low blood pressure, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. An 18-yr-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with a history ...
Schmidlin Olga - - 2005
We tested the hypothesis that in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP), the Cl- component of dietary NaCl dominantly determines its pressor effect (salt-sensitivity). We telemetrically measured systolic aortic blood pressure (SBP) in SHRSP loaded with: nothing (CTL); NaCl alone (NaCl) (44 mmol/100 grams chow); KCl (KCl) alone (44 mmol); ...
Abu-Amarah Isam - - 2005
Salt-supplemented stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRsp) develop more severe hypertension-induced renal damage (HIRD) compared with their progenitor SHR. The present studies were performed to examine whether in addition to increasing the severity of hypertension salt also enhanced the transmission of such hypertension to the renal vascular bed in the SHRsp. ...
Meneton Pierre - - 2005
Epidemiological, migration, intervention, and genetic studies in humans and animals provide very strong evidence of a causal link between high salt intake and high blood pressure. The mechanisms by which dietary salt increases arterial pressure are not fully understood, but they seem related to the inability of the kidneys to ...
Spiering Wilko - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Clinical observations point towards heterogeneity in patients' responses to antihypertensive drugs. As our earlier work showed that angiotensin II (AngII) sensitivity is associated with the A1166C polymorphism of the AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R) gene, we conducted the present study in which the responses to acute AT1R blockade were ...
Deng Pan-Yue - - 2005
Capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves participate in the regulation of cardiovascular functions both in the normal state and the pathophysiology of hypertension through the actions of potent vasodilator neuropeptides, including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). CGRP, a very potent vasodilator, is the predominant neurotransmitter in capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves, and plays an important role ...
Lev-Ran Arye - - 2005
Our hunter-gatherer ancestors appeared to survive on little salt. When today's rural dwellers move to urban environments, they increase their salt intake and the salt-sensitive among them become prone to age-related increase in blood pressure and hypertension. This paper reviews our knowledge of the mechanisms of salt disposal and plasma ...
Johnson Richard J - - 2005
We present the hypothesis that most cases of essential hypertension occur via two phases. The first phase is initiated by episodes of renal vasoconstriction induced by a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system, activation of the renin-angiotensin system, or hyperuricemia resulting from diet or genetics. During this phase the hypertension is salt ...
Brennan Ixchel M - - 2005
There is evidence that CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mediate the effects of nutrients on appetite and gastrointestinal function and that their interaction may be synergistic. We hypothesized that intravenous CCK-8 and GLP-1 would have synergistic effects on appetite, energy intake, and antropyloroduodenal (APD) motility. Nine healthy males (age 22 ...
Martínez Nivia I - - 2005
Hypertension is a common complication of canine hyperadrenocorticism. Increased pressor sensitivity to endogenous catecholamines is currently believed to be the main mechanism involved in the development of hypertension in human hyperadrenocorticism. The aim of this study was to evaluate pressor sensitivity to norepinephrine in dogs after induction of iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism ...
Kerry Sally M - - 2005
Selection bias in cluster randomized trials may threaten the validity of the results. This bias may occur either at the level of the cluster or of the individual. We describe measures for maintaining comparability of intervention groups in a cluster randomized trial of a health education package to reduce dietary ...
McCarty Mark F - - 2005
Individuals who eat salty diets and who are "salt-sensitive" tend to have increased left ventricular mass, independent of blood pressure; this phenomenon awaits an explanation. It is clear that local up-regulation of angiotensin II (AngII) production and activity play a key role in the induction of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). ...
Isogai O - - 2005
High salt intake has been shown to augment the sensitivity of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) sympathoexcitatory neurons. We examined the effects of 4 weeks of high dietary salt (8%) on the sensitivity of nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) in controlling RVLM. In chloralose-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, high ...
Weir Matthew R - - 2005
The relationship between sodium chloride (salt) intake and blood pressure and cardiovascular disease has been debated for decades. Overlooked is whether there is a relationship between dietary electrolyte ingestion (both sodium and potassium) and risk for progression of kidney disease, particularly in patients who manifest early evidence of chronic kidney ...
Berkow Susan E - - 2005
Hypertension affects approximately 50 million individuals in the United States and approximately 1 billion worldwide. Although heredity plays a role in blood pressure variability, diet and lifestyle exert considerable influence in blood pressure regulation. This report reviews the evidence of the relationship between a vegetarian diet and blood pressure regulation ...
Watanabe Hidetsuna - - 2005
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether targeted disruption of the genes for the prostacyclin receptor (IP) or the thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) confers a susceptibility to salt-dependent hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight female IP- or TP-deficient mice were examined. Baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) did not differ between TP(-/-) and TP(+/+), ...
Bayorh Mohamed A - - 2005
The pathogenesis of hypertension has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. We have previously shown that palm oil (PO), with an unsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio close to one and rich in antioxidants vitamins, reduces oxidative stress-induced hypertension in normal rats. Here, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of natural ...
Haldiya Kripa Ram - - 2005
Workers working close to salt milling plants may inhale salt particles floating in the air, leading to a rise in plasma sodium, which, in turn, may increase the blood pressure and the risk of hypertension. To test the above hypothesis, occupational health check-up camps were organized near salt manufacturing units ...
Sofola, OA; Department of ...
The present review describes the effects of ingestion of high salt diet on blood pressure and attempts to elucidate some of the cardiovascular changes that give rise to elevated blood pressure. High dietary salt loading especially in experimental animals tend to result in elevated levels of arterial blood pressure. Studies ...
Howard Laura L - - 2005
Transient exposure to ANG II results in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension in rats. This study was performed to determine whether a transient hypertensive episode can induce salt-sensitive hypertension in transgenic rats with inducible expression of the mouse Ren2 renin gene [strain name TGR(Cyp1a1-Ren2)]. Systolic blood pressures were measured in ...
Taylor Meghan M - - 2005
Intermedin (IMD)/adrenomedullin-2 (AM2) is a novel peptide that was independently discovered by two groups. The 47-amino acid peptide is homologous to adrenomedullin (AM) and can activate both the AM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors. IMD should therefore have actions similar to those of AM and CGRP. Indeed, like AM ...
Ye Tao - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To observe blood pressure change with age in salt-sensitive teenagers whose salt sensitivity were determined by repeated testing. METHODS: Salt sensitivity was determined through intravenous infusion of normal saline combined with volume-depletion by oral diuretic furosemide in 55 teenagers. After five years, salt sensitivity was re-examined and subject blood ...
Song Wei-zhong - - 2004
AIM: To test the hypothesis that production of superoxide in mesenteric resistance arteries is increased and contributes to the development of hypertension induced by sensory denervation plus high salt intake. METHODS: Newborn Wistar rats were given capsaicin 50 mg/kg sc on the 1st and 2nd d of life. After weaning, ...
Zhang Ling - - 2004
Recent studies implicate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hypertension; however, whether reactive oxygen species promote hypertensive derangements is not fully clear. We thus investigated the effects of an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, on hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats. High-salt intake for 4 weeks markedly elevated systolic arterial pressure, urinary excretion of protein, ...
He Feng J - - 2005
Salt intake is a major regulator of blood pressure. There is evidence that those who develop high blood pressure have an underlying defect in the ability of the kidney to excrete salt. It has been suggested that this results in a greater tendency to retain sodium and an increased compensatory ...
Frohlich Edward D - - 2004
Excessive salt intake exacerbates hypertension and further increases left-ventricular mass in clinical essential and experimental hypertension. Additionally, a growing body of evidence strongly suggests that high dietary salt loading exerts detrimental cardiac effects independently of its hemodynamic load. The clinical evidence of cardiac structural and functional alterations associated with salt ...
Martínez Alfredo - - 2004
MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) play a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension by altering the extracellular matrix during cardiovascular remodelling. In the present study we show that MMP-2, but not MMP-9, cleaves the vasodilator peptide AM (adrenomedullin). Addition of the AM-binding protein, complement factor H, prevents this cleavage, providing a ...
Chiba Katsuyoshi - - 2004
Given a limited information regarding the difference of the sensitivity of surrogate markers of drug-induced torsades de pointes, including early afterdepolarization, ectopic beats, phase 3 repolarization and dispersion of ventricular repolarization, we simultaneously analyzed them in the halothane-anesthetized canine model (n=5). A non-specific IKr channel blocker sparfloxacin, which has been ...
Iwamoto Takahiro - - 2004
Excessive salt intake is a major risk factor for hypertension. Here we identify the role of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger type 1 (NCX1) in salt-sensitive hypertension using SEA0400, a specific inhibitor of Ca(2+) entry through NCX1, and genetically engineered mice. SEA0400 lowers arterial blood pressure in salt-dependent hypertensive rat models, but not ...
Ukoh V A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the salt taste threshold (STT) and salt threshold (STT) and salt intake(SI) in first degree relations of hypertensive and normotensive Nigerians. Hence to determine the relevance of STT in the genesis of hypertension in the Nigerian Africans. The relevance of salt to the development of systemic hypertension ...
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