Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1199
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Leonard Allison M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Although impaired nitric oxide production contributes importantly to salt-sensitivity, the role of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has received little attention. In the present study we compared the effects of a high-salt diet on the blood pressure response of eNOS knockout (eNOS-/-) and control (eNOS+/+) mice. ...
Borrell Brendan J - - 2006
The orchid bee Euglossa imperialis sucks nectars through a slender proboscis. I tested how nectar properties influence this suction pressure and whether ambient air pressure sets the upper limit for suction feeding. Nectar intake rate was measured as a function of sucrose concentration (5-75% w/w), nectar viscosity (2-80 mPa s), ...
Favaloro Joanne L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The nitroxyl anion (HNO) is the one-electron reduction product of NO(). This redox variant has been shown to be endogenously produced and to have effects that are pharmacologically distinct from NO(). This study investigates the vasodilator and chronotropic effects of HNO in the rat isolated coronary vasculature. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley ...
Khan Arif-ullah - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) is commonly used for hyperactive gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. AIM OF STUDY: The aqueous extract of Rooibos tea (RT) was studied for the possible bronchodilator, antispasmodic and blood pressure lowering activities in an attempt to rationalize some of its medicinal uses. METHODS: Isolated tissue ...
Makhanova Natalia N Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, - - 2006
We have determined that differences in expression of aldosterone synthase (AS) affect responses to a low-salt diet. In AS-null mice (AS(-/-)), but not in wild-type, low salt significantly decreased plasma sodium and increased potassium. The increased urine volume (1.5xwild-type) and decreased urine osmolality (0.7xwild-type), present in AS(-/-) mice on normal ...
Møhlenberg F - - 2007
Nineteen years of monitoring data from the eutrophic Skive Fjord, Denmark were examined for linkages to external pressures and drivers, including nutrient inputs, meteorology and stocks of blue mussels. Linkages were examined by: 1) time-series analysis to document effects of nutrient reduction programs, 2) Pearson Rank correlations, 3) multivariate statistical ...
Aukes Annet M - - 2007
Previous studies have demonstrated that pregnancy prevents protective hypertension-induced remodeling of cerebral arteries using nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition to raise mean arterial pressure (MAP). In the present study, we investigated whether this effect of pregnancy was specific to NOS inhibition by using the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat as a ...
Zhang Ling - - 2006
The contribution of angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion-deletion polymorphism (ACE I/D) to salt-sensitivity hypertension has been extensively studied by means of salt-loading tests, but whether or not the interaction with daily salt intake affects blood pressure still remains to be clarified. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study of 284 Japanese male ...
He Feng J - - 2006
To assess the effect of reducing salt intake on blood pressure in children, we carried out a meta-analysis of controlled trials. Trials were included if participants were children (< or = 18 years), and duration of salt reduction must have been for > or = 2 weeks. Mean effect size ...
Rickard Amanda J - - 2006
The pathophysiological consequences of excess mineralocorticoid for salt status include hypertension, vascular inflammation, and cardiac fibrosis. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade can both prevent and reverse established inflammation and fibrosis due to exogenous mineralocorticoids or endogenous glucocorticoid activation of the MR. Glucocorticoids also exert potent antiinflammatory effects via glucocorticoid receptors (GR) ...
O'Donaughy Theresa L - - 2006
To test the hypothesis that increased osmolality contributes to hypertension in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-hypertensive rats by acting in the brain, DOCA-salt and Sham-salt rats were instrumented with bilateral, nonoccluding intracarotid and femoral catheters. Two weeks prior, rats were uninephrectomized and received subcutaneous implants with or without DOCA (65 mg) and ...
Karppanen Heikki - - 2006
In current diets, the level of sodium is very high, whereas that of potassium, calcium, and magnesium is low compared with the level in diets composed of unprocessed, natural foods. We present the biologic rationale and scientific evidence that show that the current salt intake levels largely explain the high ...
Aoki Ken - - 2006
In humans, the nocturnal fall in internal temperature is associated with increased endogenous melatonin and with a shift in the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow (SkBF), suggesting a role for melatonin in the control of SkBF. The purpose of this study was to test whether daytime exogenous melatonin would ...
Seymour E M - - 2006
Caloric restriction extends longevity and reduces the onset of chronic disease in many animal models. Recently, caloric restriction was shown in humans to be associated with lower blood pressure, decreased systemic inflammation, and improved cardiac diastolic parameters. However, the causation and mechanisms of caloric restriction were obscured by the varied ...
Maitland Karlene K Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass, - - 2006
Although angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers have emerged as effective antihypertensive agents, it is not known how efficacious these agents are in treating hypertension-associated target organ damage. The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of angiotensin type 1 receptor inhibition on the progression of the organ damage ...
O'Shaughnessy Kevin M - - 2006
The prevalence of hypertension is high and increasing worldwide. Drug therapy is effective, but for both "prehypertensive" and treated hypertensive patients, lifestyle changes are also important. Dietary modification is a key part of these changes, although skepticism about the role of diet in determining blood pressure has slowed implementation of ...
Matsui Hiromitsu - - 2006
Potassium supplementation has a potent protective effect against cardiovascular disease, but the precise mechanism of it against left ventricular abnormal relaxation, relatively early functional cardiac alteration in hypertensive subjects, has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of potassium against salt-induced cardiac dysfunction and the ...
Pedersen O - - 2006
This study elucidated O2 dynamics in shoots and roots of submerged Halosarcia pergranulata (Salicornioideae), a perennial halophytic stem succulent that grows on floodprone mudflats of salt lakes. Oxygen within shoots and roots was measured using microelectrodes, for plants when waterlogged or completely submerged, with shoots in light or in darkness, ...
Carlström Mattias - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a common disease in the Western world and approximately 5% of all cases are secondary to kidney malfunction. It is not clear whether unilateral hydronephrosis due to partial obstruction affects blood pressure. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine whether hypertension develops and to investigate ...
Dobe Christopher - - 2006
Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra are presented for chromium(II) Tutton salts, as a function of the temperature and pressure. Transitions are observed between the levels of the 5Ag (Ci) ground term and the data modeled with a conventional S = 2 spin Hamiltonian. At 10 K and ambient pressure, the ...
Crisafulli Antonio - - 2006
Accumulation of metabolic end products within skeletal muscle stimulates sensory nerves, thus evoking a pressor response termed "metaboreflex." The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in hemodynamics occurring during metaboreflex activation obtained by postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) after two different exercise intensities. In twelve healthy subjects, the metaboreflex ...
Franco Veronica - - 2006
High dietary sodium has been adduced as a cause of hypertension and its target organ damage for millennia; yet careful observations using sophisticated techniques have revealed only a weak relationship between sodium intake/excretion and blood pressure in the general population. Further, studies of the effects of dietary sodium reduction on ...
Yamasue K - - 2006
We investigated a simple device to monitor daily salt intake at home and examined the relationship between salt excretion and morning blood pressure in order to enable patients to better manage daily salt intake and hypertension. The correlation between 24-h urinary salt excretion and measured value with salt monitor from ...
Kudo Satoshi - - 2006
The pressure dependence of the magnetic properties of weak ferromagnets (BDH-TTP)[M(isoq)2(NCS)4] [BDH-TTP = 2,5-bis(1',3'-dithiolan-2'-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene; M = Cr, Fe; isoq = isoquinoline] is discussed. These salts form two-dimensional magnetic sheets, where ferrimagnetic chains of donor cation radical (S = 1/2) and anion [S = 3/2 (Cr), 5/2 (Fe)] are antiferromagnetically connected ...
Lee Chung-Yung J - - 2006
Dark soy sauce (DSS) is a powerful antioxidant in vitro. We investigated whether this effect could occur in vivo and improve vascular function. Healthy human subjects were given DSS or placebo meals in a randomized, crossover study. Blood and urine were sampled before and 1, 2, 3, and 4h after ...
Klotz Stefan - - 2006
The impact of hypertension on left ventricular (LV) structure, pump function, and heart failure in Dahl salt-sensitive rats is poorly characterized but hypothesized to yield insights into the pathophysiology of heart failure with normal or preserved ejection fraction. Eighty Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed either a high-salt (HS) or low-salt ...
Ugrekhelidze J - - 2006
The study was aimed to assess influence of nebivolol (nebilet) on endothelial factors (NO and endothelin1) during treatment of salt-sensitive hypertensive patients. A total of 40 patients (18 females and 22 males, mean age 53,1+/-1,58 yrs) with mild (I stage) arterial hypertension (with diastolic pressure 90-99 mm Hg and/or systolic ...
Pelletier Cathy A - - 2006
There is evidence that a strong, unpalatable, sour bolus improves swallowing in neurogenic dysphagia. It is not known whether other tastes may alter swallowing physiology. This study investigated the effect of moderate versus high taste concentrations (sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and barium taste samples on lingual swallowing pressure in ten ...
Burnier Michel - - 2006
Blood pressure response to changes in dietary salt intake is highly variable among individuals. This heterogeneity results from the combined effects of genetic and environmental determinants. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms leading to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Much information ...
Al-Hilali Nabieh - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This audit was conducted to study the level of achievement of some criteria relevant to blood pressure control in haemodialysis patients and to evaluate if auditing process improves the quality of medical care given to these patients. METHODS: The records of all 105 patients on maintenance haemodialysis were included ...
Zouari Nacim - - 2006
Using the classical emulsified system and the monomolecular film technique, we compared the interfacial properties of the scorpion digestive lipase (SDL) with those of higher animals'. In the absence of bile slats, SDL does not hydrolyse efficiently pure tributyrin, as well as dicaprin films maintained at low surface pressure. The ...
Kömhoff Martin - - 2006
BACKGROUND: To analyse whether congenital furosemide- or thiazide-like renal salt loss protects against the potential prohypertensive effects of two cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors: rofecoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, and indomethacin, an unselective COX-inhibitor. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, the effects of rofecoxib and indomethacin on blood pressure (bp: transformed into age-independent ...
Dutta Utpal K - - 2006
To determine the role of superoxide (O(2)(-)) formation in the kidney during alterations in the renin-angiotensin system, we evaluated responses to the intra-arterial infusion of an O(2)(-) - scavenging agent, tempol, in the denervated kidney of anesthetized salt-depleted (SD, n=6) dogs and salt-replete (SR, n=6) dogs. As expected, basal plasma ...
Engler Mary B - - 2006
Cocoa and chocolate have recently been found to be rich plant-derived sources of antioxidant flavonoids with beneficial cardiovascular properties. These favorable physiological effects include: antioxidant activity, vasodilation and blood pressure reduction, inhibition of platelet activity, and decreased inflammation. Increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies using cocoa-derived products and chocolate ...
Ladipo C O - - 2006
The role of renin-angiotensin system and baroreceptors in the pathogenesis and prevention of hypertension due to salt-loading and concurrent dietary calcium for 6 weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Blood pressure measurements were done in anaesthetized animals while the activities of renin-angiotensin and parasympathetic nervous systems were determined by the ...
Genet Jean-Luc - - 2006
Resistance to QoI fungicides (strobilurins, famoxadone and fenamidone) in populations of Plasmopara viticola (Berk & Curt) Berlese & de Toni developed soon after their introduction in France and Italy. Current resistance management strategies include limitation of the number of applications, use of mixtures and alternation of fungicides with different modes ...
Bayorh Mohamed A MA Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30310-1495, USA. - - 2006
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of salt-induced hypertension. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II-type 1 receptor blockers, and aldosterone receptor blockers are used to treat hypertension and congestive heart disease. In addition to their blood pressure lowering effects, they appear to protect against myocardial, renal, ...
Grobe Justin L - - 2006
Cardiac remodeling is a hallmark hypertension-induced pathophysiology. In the current study, the role of the angiotensin-(1-7) fragment in modulating cardiac remodeling was examined. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent uninephrectomy surgery and were implanted with a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) pellet. DOCA animals had their drinking water replaced with 0.9% saline solution. A subgroup ...
Ritz Eberhard - - 2006
It has been known for decades that salt (NaCl) determines extracellular volume as well as blood pressure and is one cause of hypertension. The difficulty to control the NaCl balance and thus treat sodium overload and hypertension in patients on dialysis has been recognized by Scribner in the early days ...
McCullough Marjorie L - - 2006
A low sodium diet has often been implicated in the protection of low blood pressure populations from hypertension, but several other dietary factors, including those as yet unidentified, may also be involved. The Kuna Indians of Panama are free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but this is changing with migration ...
Manunta Paolo - - 2006
Endogenous Ouabain (EO) and Adducin enhance the Na-K pump function and play an important role in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure (BP) regulation. In the general population, plasma EO modulates BP either by inhibiting the prohypertensive effect of an excessive salt intake or counteracting the depressor action of normal-moderate salt ...
Yu Zhenrong - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The role of albumin on blood pressure response to different salt challenges is not known. Therefore, we studied the blood pressure response of analbuminemic Nagase rats (NAR) to different salt challenges. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2), the enzyme regulating the glucocorticoid access to the mineralocorticoid receptor, an enzyme that ...
Katori Makoto - - 2006
It is widely accepted that a high sodium intake triggers blood pressure rise. However, only one-third of the normotensive subjects were reported to show salt-sensitivity in their blood pressure. Many factors have been proposed as causes of salt-sensitive hypertension, but none of them provides a satisfactory explanation. We propose, on ...
Hernandez Schulman Ivonne - - 2006
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and renal disease. After menopause, the incidence of hypertension increases in women to levels that equal or exceed that in men, suggesting a protective role of female sex hormones. Salt sensitivity of blood pressure is associated with an increased risk for ...
El Hafidi Mohammed - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glycine, a non-essential amino acid, has been found to protect against oxidative stress in several pathological situations, and it is required for the biosynthesis of structural proteins such as elastin. As hypertension is a disease in which free radicals and large vessel elasticity are involved, this article ...
Krum Henry - - 2006
There has been significant recent interest in the cardiovascular effects of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors. Whereas much attention has been focused on the putative prothrombotic effect of these agents, their cardiorenal and blood pressure elevating actions may be of equal if not greater importance to cardiovascular risk. COX-2 is ...
Deter Hans-Christian - - 2006
Salt sensitivity and psychological factors are thought to be associated with a higher risk for the development of hypertension but data on the relation between age-related blood pressure increase and salt sensitivity or psychological factors are scarce. A total of 31 healthy young males who were previously classified with respect ...
Evans C E - - 2006
Cyclic hydrostatic pressure within bone has been proposed both as a stimulus of aseptic implant loosening and associated bone resorption and of bone formation. We showed previously that cyclical hydrostatic pressure influenced macrophage synthesis of several factors linked to osteoclastogenesis. The osteoprotegerin/soluble receptor activator of NF-kappa beta ligand /receptor activator ...
Elhaïmeur Fatiha - - 2005
Hypertension is known to be associated with an oxidative stress resulting from an imbalance of antioxidant defense mechanisms in various tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the increase of arterial blood pressure, measured during the gradual development of experimental hypertension in deoxycorticosterone (DOCA)-salt-treated rats, ...
Varagic Jasmina - - 2006
Arterial pressure in most experimental and clinical hypertensions is exacerbated by salt. The effects of salt excess on right and left ventricular (RV and LV, respectively) functions and their respective coronary vasodilatory responses have been less explored. We therefore examined the effects of 8 wk of NaCl excess (8% in ...
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