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Mustard, J
A greenhouse study was designed to test the response of red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) to NaCl during the onset of bud break. Seedlings treated with 50 mmol center dot L-1 NaCl for 32 d had lower shoot dry mass and shoot height than untreated seedlings. Transpiration and photosynthetic rates, ...
- - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Dietary sodium and potassium consumption is associated with blood pressure levels. The objective of this study was to define a practical and low-cost method for the control of blood pressure by modification of these dietary cations in rural Chinese. METHODS: This study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial designed ...
Dong Guanghui - - 2007
Liaoning Province is located in northeast China, which has distinct weather conditions, geographic characteristics and lifestyles compared with other regions of the country; the lifestyle differences are especially pronounced in the rural parts of this region, where there is a dearth of financial and other resources. However, information on the ...
Kawano Yuhei - - 2007
Salt excess is well known to be involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension, and thus restriction of salt intake is widely recommended for management of the disease. Excessive salt intake induces blood pressure (BP)-dependent as well as -independent progression of cardiovascular disease. Although the human body is considered to be ...
Shafto Patrick - - 2007
Past research suggests that category-based induction flexibly draws on different kinds of knowledge in different contexts, and that different kinds of knowledge may differ in accessibility. The present study investigates the degree to which knowledge accessibility mediates context-sensitive induction by examining the effects of time pressure on inferences about novel ...
Rodriguez-Iturbe Bernardo - - 2007
Changes in salt intake are associated in general with corresponding changes in arterial blood pressure. An exaggerated increment in blood pressure driven by a salt load is characteristic of salt-sensitive hypertension, a condition affecting more than two thirds of individuals with essential hypertension who are older than 60 years. In ...
He F J FJ Blood Pressure Unit, Cardiac and Vascular Sciences, St George's University of London, London, UK. - - 2008
To study the relationship between salt intake and blood pressure in children and adolescents, we analysed the data of a large cross-sectional study (the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for young people), which was carried out in Great Britain in 1997 in a nationally representative sample of children aged between ...
de Jongh Renate T - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Generalized microvascular dysfunction may contribute to the development of salt sensitivity, insulin resistance and hypertension, and may thus link these cardiovascular risk factors. To test this hypothesis, we examined skin microvascular function, salt sensitivity, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in 27 normotensive and 26 hypertensive individuals. METHODS: Capillary density ...
Krzesinski J-M JM Division of Nephrology/Transplantation, University of Liège, Sart Tilman B35 Belgium. - - 2007
The kidneys play a major role in the regulation of the salt balance and thereby regulate blood pressure. Salt sensitivity is acquired or genetically-induced and is noted in about 50% of patients with essential hypertension. This property leads to a high cardiovascular risk. In this situation, the benefit of salt ...
Ott Christian - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: In patients with hypertension left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with genetic variations of the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R). Hypertension and LVH are often aggravated by salt intake. Our objective was to assess the relationship between AT2R gene variation and salt intake and their impact on left ventricular ...
Ishimaru Kazuhiro - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, on mineralocorticoid-induced myocardial remodeling, we investigated whether fasudil would suppress myocardial fibrosis and inflammation in deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA)/salt hypertensive rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats treated with DOCA combined with 1% NaCl and 0.2% KCl in the drinking water after receiving left nephrectomy ...
Guasti Luigina - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Elevated blood pressure levels that are associated with hypalgesia and hypothyroidism have major influences on the cardiovascular system. The potential modulation of pain sensitivity by thyroid hormones is largely undetermined. Moreover, a few experimental studies show that peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs), which may be altered in hypothyroidism, seem to ...
He Feng J - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the evidence that relates salt intake to blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Raised blood pressure throughout the range seen in developed countries is the major cause of cardiovascular disease, responsible for 62% of strokes and 49% of coronary heart disease. There is overwhelming ...
Anderson David E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing has been implicated in hypertension, but whether daytime breathing is a factor in blood pressure regulation has not been investigated to date. The present study sought to determine the role of breathing pattern in salt sensitivity of blood pressure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-six women, ages 40-70, were ...
Barba Gianvincenzo - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of hypertension and the rate of decline in renal function in a sample of 47 Olivetti Heart Study (OHS) participants whose blood pressure (BP) salt-sensitivity and renal tubular sodium handling had been assessed in 1987-88. METHODS: During the 2002-04 OHS follow-up examination, medical history, physical ...
Zhu Hongxin - - 2007
Cardiac hypertrophy is a major predictor of heart failure and a prevalent disorder with high mortality. Little is known, however, regarding mechanisms governing the transition from stable cardiac hypertrophy to decompensated heart failure. Here, we tested the role of autophagy, a conserved pathway mediating bulk degradation of long-lived proteins and ...
Yang Hui-Ting - - 2007
Chronic arsenic exposure is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a strong correlation with hypertension. Oxidative stress may be one of the major contributors to arsenic-induced hypertension. To investigate the antioxidative and CYP systems through which inorganic arsenic compounds may contribute to blood pressure elevation in rats, ...
Yamamoto Noriyuki - - 2007
Remarkably, bathing in hot springs containing high concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) influences cardiovascular function more than bathing in fresh water. The CO(2)-enriched water in hot springs generally contains many salts, whose interactions remain unknown. We separately evaluated the actions of individual factors in CO(2)-enriched water and confirmed that CO(2) ...
Chen Xi - - 2007
Experiments were conducted on rainbow trout to determine the impact of dietary salt on arterial blood pressure. After 4-6 wk, fish fed a salt-enriched diet exhibited a 37% elevation of dorsal aortic pressure (from 23.8 +/- 1.2 to 32.6 +/- 1.4 mmHg) and an 18% increase in ventral aortic pressure ...
Bolten Charles W - - 2007
We evaluated the effects of two thiazolidinediones (TZDs), the potent PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone currently being used to treat diabetes, and a structurally similar experimental compound that is a poor PPARgamma agonist, in a non-diabetic, established hypertension model with continuous measurement of blood pressure by telemetry. Hypertension was induced in male ...
Arguelles J - - 2007
Popular science has emphasized the risks of high sodium intake and many studies have confirmed that salt intake is closely related to hypertension. The present mini-review summarizes experiments about salt taste sensitivity and its relationship with blood pressure (BP) and other variables of clinical and familial relevance. Children and adolescents ...
Simpson Kerry E - - 2007
The records of 204 cats entering the intensive care unit (ICU) at the University of Edinburgh Small Animal Hospital between December 2002 and October 2006 were retrospectively analysed. Of these, 37 cats over 12 months of age had a systolic blood pressure recorded on entry into the ICU, and this ...
Hoffmann I S - - 2007
Salt sensitivity is associated with obesity, and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We investigated whether treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic abnormalities corrects salt sensitivity and restores impaired nitric oxide (NO) metabolism characteristic of salt sensitivity. Twenty, otherwise, healthy obese salt-sensitive subjects completed a 12-month program of caloric restriction, ...
Mojiminiyi F B O - - 2007
The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of an aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) in two forms of experimental hypertension: salt-induced and L-NAME (N(omega)-L-arginine methyl ester)-induced and in normotensive controls. The blood pressure and heart rate fell dose-dependently in both the hypertensive and normotensive rats after ...
Schmidlin Olga O Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 94143-0126, USA. - - 2007
We tested the traditional hypothesis that an abnormally enhanced renal reclamation of dietary NaCl alone initiates its pressor effect ("salt sensitivity"). Under metabolically controlled conditions, we grouped 23 normotensive blacks as either salt-sensitive (SS) or salt-resistant (SR), depending on whether or not dietary NaCl loading did or did not increase ...
Jiang Youchun - - 2007
Sustained pressure overload causes cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure. We show here that dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper (Cu) reverses preestablished hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by pressure overload induced by ascending aortic constriction in a mouse model. The reversal occurs in the continued presence of ...
Demetriou Georgia - - 2007
In the present study the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was used to assess the effects of high salinity (high NaCl-concentration) on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus and the possibility for alleviation by exogenous putrescine (Put). Chlorophyll fluorescence data revealed the range of the changes induced in the ...
Mercier Nathalie - - 2007
BACKGROUND: We examined the effects of early high salt diet (HSD) and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist valsartan (Val) on mortality and carotid distensibility in surviving spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). METHODS: The HSD was initiated either early (week 4 after birth) or late (week 10), continued until 20 ...
Young J Hunter - - 2007
The human propensity for hypertension is a product, in part, of our evolutionary history. Adaptation to climate, first in Africa and then throughout the world, has driven our evolution and may have shaped current patterns of hypertension susceptibility. This article reviews human evolution and the impact of climatic adaptation on ...
Carlström M - - 2007
AIM: Hypertension is a common disease in the industrialized world and approximately 5% of all cases are secondary to kidney malfunction. We have recently shown that hydronephrosis due to partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) causes salt-sensitive hypertension in rats. The mechanisms are still unclear, but appear to be intrarenal and ...
Kamei Kenichi - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The contribution of conduction disturbances to susceptibility to ventricular tachycardia (VT) has not been directly examined in the process of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). METHODS AND RESULTS: Dahl salt-sensitive (S) and -resistant rats were raised on a high-salt diet. After echocardiography, a fractionation study was conducted using wavelet transform ...
Czupryniak L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Effective treatment of obesity is extremely difficult, and taste modulation has been suggested as a feasible option. We aim at presenting dangers associated with stroke-induced taste impairment. METHODS: A case report is presented with clinical and laboratory findings. We review literature on the effect of taste modulation on body ...
Melander Olle - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The effect of salt restriction on blood pressure is under intense debate. We tested the effect of 100 mmol salt reduction on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in 46 Swedish individuals, 39 of whom completed the study, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Furthermore, we tested whether the basal plasma ...
Ni Wei - - 2007
The highly effective anorexigen (+)-fenfluramine was widely used to control body weight until the association with primary pulmonary hypertension and valvular heart disease. (+)-Norfenfluramine is the major hepatic metabolite of (+)-fenfluramine and is primarily responsible for the anorexic effect as well as side effects. We reported that (+)-norfenfluramine causes vasoconstriction ...
Montero P - - 2007
The effects of different salting and smoking conditions on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) fillets were evaluated. High concentrations of phenol (72.47 ppm) and salt (3.25%) in muscle inhibited L. monocytogenes growth in smoked fish stored at 20 degrees C for 4 days. The antibacterial ...
Yasui Naomi - - 2007
In a previous study, we performed a genome-wide quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis for blood pressure using F2 rats derived from Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) and Lewis (LEW) rats and identified two QTLs that influenced blood pressure levels. Although we determined that one of the causative genes in the chromosome (Ch) ...
Lee Won Gu - - 2007
This paper presents a novel method for an on-chip erythrocyte deformability test under optical pressure, especially to enhance the level of sensitivity with respect to the detection of cancerous diseases. To demonstrate the performance and sensitivity of the combined method, we introduce the concept of transit velocity, a modified elongation ...
Chamarthi Bindu B Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2007
Emerging evidence suggests a role for cortisol in essential hypertension, and preliminary reports indicate that urinary free cortisol (UFC) may be an intermediate phenotype. The objectives of this study were: 1) confirm bimodality of UFC, 2) assess whether UFC variations aggregate in hypertensive families, and 3) compare low-mode and high-mode ...
Watts Stephanie W - - 2007
Arterial remodeling occurs in response to mechanical and neurohumoral stimuli. We hypothesized that veins, which are not exposed to higher pressures in hypertension, would demonstrate less active remodeling than arteries. We assessed remodeling with two standard measures of arterial remodeling: vessel morphometry and the expression/function of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Thoracic ...
H.M. Salahdeen
The results of the present study demonstrated that dietary salt loading in normal and diabetic rats increased the blood pressure, blood volume, plasma sodium level and sensitivity of cardiovascular responses to angiotensin II and Captopril. This probably suggests that salt loading interferes with the mechanism regulating blood pressure in salt ...
Paulis L - - 2007
The production of the pineal hormone melatonin is synchronized with day-night cycle via multisynaptic pathway including suprachiasmatic nucleus linking several physiological functions to diurnal cycle. The recent data indicate that impaired melatonin production is involved in several cardiovascular pathologies including hypertension and ischemic heart disease. However, the mechanisms of melatonin ...
Suzuki Hiromichi - - 2007
Salt is essential and important for maintaining life. Excess salt intake produces an increase in blood pressure. In several subpopulations of patients with hypertension, such as those with obesity, post-menopausal women, and patients with chronic kidney diseases, for example, salt sensitivity is based on a pressure-natriuresis mechanism. In this mechanism, ...
Humphreys Michael H - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSHs, melanocortins) have important roles in feeding and energy metabolism and in inflammation. Recent observations have uncovered major functions for these peptides, particularly gamma-MSH, in cardiovascular regulation and sodium metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: Both alpha- and gamma-MSH acutely elevate blood pressure and heart rate through ...
Wendt Norbert - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Unlike Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats, some strains of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats develop only minor organ damage even when exposed to high-salt diet. In previous linkage studies, we identified quantitative trait loci on rat chromosome 19 (RNO19) linked to the SHR allele suggesting a protective effect against salt-induced hypertensive ...
Carlström M - - 2007
AIM: The incidence of hydronephrosis due to ureteropelvic junction obstruction is approx. 0.5%. During the last decade, the management of non-symptomatic hydronephrosis has become much more conservative, but the long-term physiological consequences of this policy are not clear. Previously, we have shown that animals with chronic partial unilateral ureteral obstruction ...
Manhiani M M - - 2007
Impaired cytochrome P450 epoxygenase enzyme (Cyp2c) regulation contributes to renal damage in angiotensin salt-sensitive hypertension (ANG/HS). We hypothesized that interleukin-6 null mice (IL6-/-) would improve Cyp2c regulation and reduce renal damage in hypertensive mice fed a high salt diet. Systolic blood pressure increased to a greater extent in ANG/HS hypertension ...
Orth Stephan R - - 2007
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of endothelin (ET) in cardiovascular remodeling was investigated by treating uninephrectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats of the stroke-prone strain (UNX-SHRsp) on normal- or high (3%)-salt diet with the selective ET(A) receptor blocker LU 135252. METHODS: SHRsp on normal or high salt were sham-operated (n = 10/11) or UNX; ...
Shreenivas Satya - - 2007
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a powerful vasoconstrictor and mitogen that contributes to blood pressure elevation and related vascular remodeling and target organ damage. ET-1 also influences salt and water homeostasis through effects on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasopressin, thus elevating blood pressure and increasing vascular tone. Circulating ET-1 levels are elevated ...
Bertram Hanne Christine - - 2006
This study investigated the replacement of tumbling (intermittent vacuum tumbling for 6 h) with pressure treatment (7 MPa for 4 s) in the production of a cured ham product with the aim of elucidating if the pressure treatment could reduce the amount of salt added to obtain a satisfactory product. ...
Oladipo C O - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: The mechanisms responsible for genesis of salt-induced hypertension and its prevention by dietary calcium supplementation are still not clear. Hence, the effect of salt (NaCl) and calcium supplement on blood pressure and renal excretion were investigated. METHODOLOGY: Daily food consumption, water, salt and calcium intake, as well as urine ...
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