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Capriles-González D - - 2008
In this article, we study the response of a thermosensitive and ionic microgel to various external stimuli where coupling between different contributions to the total osmotic pressure is needed to describe the observations. We introduce a new Flory solvency parameter chi ( T, Q, n) with strong dependence on the ...
Grandvuillemin Antoine - - 2008
Mg deficiency is considered as a risk factor of cardiovascular disorders like hypertension and atherosclerosis. MGH and MGL mice, selected for high and low Mg status, are animal models which present variations of Mg metabolism of genetic origin. The cardiovascular functions of these mice have never been studied. In this ...
Wagner Carsten A - - 2008
Rare mutations in genes affecting renal salt handling cause various syndromes of hypotension and hypertension and have produced important insights into major physiological processes and their regulation. However, the question arises whether these mutations may also affect blood pressure in a more general population and may contribute to the complex ...
Ishikawa Noriyoshi - - 2008
On rat chromosome 1, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for susceptibility to hypertension-related renal diseases and cerebral stroke are identified in a cluster, some of which have been previously claimed to be independent of hypertension. In this study, we therefore attempted to excise genomic regions contributing to salt-induced renal damage and ...
Francois Helene - - 2008
Actions of the lipid mediator thromboxane (Tx) A2 acting through the TP receptor contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. To further explore the role of TxA2 in hypertension, we examined the consequences of deficiency of the TP receptor on the course of hypertension associated with endothelial dysfunction and salt ...
Caprioli Jessica - - 2008
Almost 50% of hypertensive individuals manifest blood pressure changes in response to salt depletion or repletion and are termed "salt sensitive" (SS). Blunted activity of the endothelin (ET) system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) have been reported as possible mechanisms contributing to salt sensitivity. Data are available that endothelin receptor ...
Yan Jiang-tao - - 2008
AIM: To investigate the effects of the expression of human kallikrein (HK) on basal level blood pressure and high-salt diet-induced hypertension. METHODS: We delivered the recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV)-mediated HK (rAAV- HK) gene and rAAV-LacZ (as the control) to normal, adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were administered a normal diet ...
Edgell Heather - - 2008
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Although fluid intake decreases during spaceflight, there is no increase in urine output, despite the microgravity-induced cephalic fluid shifts. We proposed that fluid and electrolyte balance is controlled not only by cardiac receptors but also by splanchnic baroreceptors. METHODS: Male and female rats bearing indwelling intravenous cannulae, were subjected ...
Kimura Fletcher - - 2008
The response times of pressure sensitive paint (PSP) and pressure sensitive microspheres to passing shockwaves were measured to investigate their ability to accurately determine pressure changes in unsteady flows. The PSPs tested used platinum tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphine (PtTFPP), platinum octaethylporphine (PtOEP), and a novel set of osmium-based organometallic complexes as pressure sensitive ...
Munger Mark A - - 2008
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether coadministration of misoprostol with the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug diclofenac lessens the increase in blood pressure and improves the alterations in renal hemodynamics induced by diclofenac. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. SETTING: Two university research centers. PATIENTS: Nineteen senior (mean age 62 yrs [range ...
Ni Wei W Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1317, - - 2008
We hypothesized that lack of a functional serotonin transporter (SERT) would increase basal blood pressure and enhance the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension compared to wild type (WT) controls. Mean arterial blood pressure was measured in WT and SERT knockout (KO) mice and rat models through radiotelemetry. Basal blood ...
Ritz Eberhard - - 2009
The importance of salt restriction in the treatment of patients with renal disease has remained highly controversial. In the following we marshal the current evidence that salt plays a definite role in the genesis of hypertension and target organ damage, point to practical problems of salt restriction, and report on ...
Goldkamp Carrie E - - 2008
Drowning is potentially fatal. Physiologic responses to aspiration of water differ according to whether the water is salt or fresh; whether these responses are significant depends on the volume of fluid aspirated. Resuscitation efforts should be started at the scene of the accident. Oxygen therapy is essential. Many patients require ...
Lin Jing - - 2008
The left ventricle (LV) remodels with age and in response to pressure overload. While aging and pressure overload are superimposed in the clinical context, the structural and functional consequences of the individual processes are not well-understood. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of both early ...
Klanke Bernd - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We examined the contribution of high blood pressure versus direct mineralocorticoid effects to the progression of kidney inflammation and fibrosis in established experimental deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral nephrectomy and received subcutaneous DOCA pellets as well as 1% NaCl for drinking. After 4 weeks of ...
Tzemos Nikolaos - - 2008
We sought to explore the effects of salt loading in young normotensives on vascular endothelial function, echocardiographic left ventricular diastolic function, and electrocardiographic QT dispersion. Sixteen healthy normotensive male volunteers were randomized in a double-blind crossover fashion to 5-day treatment periods with either placebo or salt tablets (200 mmol/d of ...
Feltrin Kate L - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The regulation of gastrointestinal function and energy intake by fatty acids depends on their chain length. Animal studies suggest that lauric acid (C12) may have more potent suppressive effects on energy intake than does oleic acid (C18). OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of equicaloric loads of C12 and C18 ...
Galib Thomas - - 2008
Pressure fluctuations were measured in an external turbulent boundary layer over a buoyantly propelled axisymmetric body of revolution. Data were measured for three cases, resulting in axial length Reynolds numbers of 6.88x10 , 4.27x10 , and 3.21x10 at the measurement locations. The fresh water measurements were made in a fully ...
Abrams Joanna M - - 2008
1. Although increasing evidence suggests that salt-sensitive hypertension is a disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), little is known about the critical proteins (e.g. ion channels or exchangers) that play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. 2. Central pathways involved in the regulation of arterial pressure have ...
Johnson Keven R - - 2008
The natriuretic peptide (NP) family is a seemingly ubiquitous sodium and volume reducing endocrine system of predominantly cardiac origin. Members of the NP system include ANP, BNP, CNP, VNP, their guanylate cyclase (GC)-linked receptors (NPR-A and NPR-B), and clearance receptor (NPR-C). Through the activation of their membrane-bound GC receptors, these ...
Hoshino-Takao Izumi - - 2008
Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S) rats, serving as a model of hereditary hypertension, were used to examine the effect of mannooligosaccharides (MOS) on blood pressure. Dahl-S rats were induced to develop hypertension by administering them with a 1.25% salt solution ad libitum. In a 10-wk experimental period, the Dahl-S control and MOS ...
Yu Ye-Ling - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to prepare and evaluate the intravenous emulsion (BCOE) containing Brucea javanica oil (BJO) and Coix seed oil (CSO), which is used in anti-tumor treatment. The formulation and preparation of BCOE were systematically investigated. High-pressure homogenization, particle size distribution, zeta-potential and HPLC were carried out. ...
Ahmed Nazir - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factor but its control is still a challenge for physicians all around the world. Control of blood pressure can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, so the compliance to antihypertensive drugs and life style modification play an important role for the ...
Selektor Yelena - - 2008
Congestive heart failure (CHF), a clinical syndrome, comprises a constellation of signs and symptoms whose origins are rooted in a salt-avid state mediated largely by effector hormones of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Stimuli that normally lead to an activation of this circulating neurohormonal system include reduced dietary sodium, upright posture ...
Zhou Ming-Sheng - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Increased endothelial production of reactive oxygen species and decreased nitric oxide bioactivity, associated with the upregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX)-1, link hypertension with atherogenesis. We investigated whether the beneficial effects of thiazide diuretics are exclusively related to a reduction in the ...
Kim Soo Mi - - 2008
The beta-adrenergic pathway has been considered one important effector of circadian variation in arterial pressure. Experiments were performed in beta1/beta2-adrenergic receptor-deficient mice (beta1/beta2ADR-/-) to assess whether this pathway is required for circadian variation in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and to determine the impact of its loss on the response to ...
Nolte R Nicholas - - 2008
Female undergraduates were presented the opportunity to earn a small chance of winning a modest prize by memorizing in 2 min two or six nonsense trigrams (meaningless series of three letters, such as AED). Analysis of cardiovascular measures taken during the work period indicated that systolic blood pressure responses first ...
de Boer Michiel P - - 2008
The association between birth weight and blood pressure is well established but at present unexplained. According to the Borst-Guyton concept, chronic hypertension can occur only with a shift in the renal pressure-natriuresis relationship resulting in increased salt sensitivity of blood pressure. We assessed salt sensitivity of blood pressure in a ...
Anderson David E - - 2008
Factors that mediate increases in salt sensitivity of blood pressure with age remain to be clarified. The present study investigated 1) the effects of high-NaCl intake on two Na pump inhibitors, endogenous ouabain (EO) and marinobufagenin (MBG), in middle-aged and older normotensive Caucasian women; and 2) whether individual differences in ...
Gibson Karen J - - 2008
The effects of high salt intake on blood pressure and renal function were studied in nine subtotally nephrectomized pregnant ewes (STNxP) and seven intact pregnant ewes (IntP) in late gestation and in eight subtotally nephrectomized nonpregnant ewes (STNxNP) and seven intact nonpregnant ewes (IntNP). STNxP had higher mean arterial pressures ...
Olson Kenneth R - - 2008
Trout are of interest in defining the relationship between fluid and salt balance on cardiovascular function because they thrive in freshwater (FW; volume loading, salt depleting), saltwater (SW; volume depleting, salt loading), and FW while fed a high-salt diet (FW-HS; volume and salt loading). The effects of chronic (>2 wk) ...
LOREAUX, ELIZABETH L.
Na,K-ATPase is ubiquitously expressed and is essential for maintaining electrochemical and osmotic gradients. The α subunit of Na,K-ATPase is the receptor for cardiotonic steroids which act through the ouabain-binding site and have been shown to be important in cardiovascular regulation. Interestingly, the presence of endogenous Na,K-ATPase ligands have been implicated ...
Onwuzulike, Kaine C.
Essential hypertension is a multifactorial disorder whose prevalence, morbidity, and mortality are disproportionately high in the Black population. Blacks are also reported to display amplified increase in blood pressure compared to other populations in response to salt, although much of this observed difference may be based on unmatched patient selection. ...
Mayer Gert - - 2008
The relationship between salt intake and blood pressure has been noteworthy for a long time. Nevertheless, the complex hemodynamic alterations associated with the salt-induced blood pressure changes have become clear only quite recently. Despite this knowledge, the concept of Guyton, which postulates that any increase in blood pressure should lead ...
Song Yixuan - - 2008
AIMS: CYP11B2 gene encodes a key enzyme for the production of aldosterone. Our aim is to investigate the association of -344T/C polymorphism with hypertension in Japanese men. The interaction between genotypes and dietary salt intake was also considered. METHODS: Three hundred and ten Japanese male workers participated in this study. ...
Franco Martha - - 2008
It has been recognized for many years that salt intake is one of the main environmental factors responsible for the development of hypertension. More than 30 years ago, Guyton and co-workers postulated a relationship between blood pressure and natriuresis which maintains sodium balance and extracellular volume; thus an impaired ability ...
McGuire John J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In this study we used radiotelemetry to measure hemodynamic variables and locomotor activity in conscious unrestrained male Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR-2) knockout mice in order to provide a detailed assessment of their blood pressure phenotype. In addition we tested for an influence of PAR-2 on salt-sensitivity (8% versus 0.5% ...
Qi Xin - - 2008
Hypertensive encephalopathy is a potentially fatal condition associated with cerebral edema and the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The molecular pathways leading to this condition, however, are unknown. We determined the role of deltaPKC, which is thought to regulate microvascular permeability, in the development of hypertensive encephalopathy using deltaV1-1 ...
Wirth Angela - - 2008
The tone of vascular smooth muscle cells is a primary determinant of the total peripheral vascular resistance and hence the arterial blood pressure. Most forms of hypertension ultimately result from an increased vascular tone that leads to an elevated total peripheral resistance. Regulation of vascular resistance under normotensive and hypertensive ...
Smith D P - - 2007
In the United States a large percentage of raw poultry meat is marinated prior to cooking. Many products are marinated by vacuum tumbling meat with a mixture of water, salt, and phosphates to increase cook yield and perceived tenderness. This study was designed to determine the effect of 3 pressure ...
Varagic Jasmina - - 2008
Our recent studies have demonstrated that salt excess in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) produces a modestly increased arterial pressure while promoting marked myocardial fibrosis and structural damage associated with altered coronary hemodynamics and ventricular function. The present study was designed to determine the efficacy of an angiotensin II type ...
Li Xu-guang - - 2007
AIM: The renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in the development and establishment of hypertension, and the pharmacological blockade of the system results in a reduction in blood pressure. In the present study, we investigated whether the effects of a novel, double-stranded, recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV)-mediated antisense angiotensin II ...
Tessitore Antonio - - 2007
The study aimed at verifying the effect of soccer refereeing on power performances, evaluated by means of countermovement (CMJ) and bounce (BJ) jumps. Ten soccer referees (age 23 +/- 3 years; V(.-)O2max 51.8 +/- 3.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) participated in this study. The physical load of refereeing was ...
Osborn John W - - 2008
1. Dysregulation of peripheral sympathetic pathways contributes to some forms of salt-dependent hypertension. However, at the present time it is not known whether salt-induced activation of sympathetic nerves or loss of normal sympathoinhibitory responses to salt-induced volume expansion contributes to neurogenic salt-dependent hypertension. The present study was performed to the ...
Chen Chiao-Yun - - 2008
Impulsive violent criminal behavior is often ascribed to problems with behavioral control. Such behavior could be a consequence of stronger pre-potent responses or a failure of inhibitory control. A countermanding task which allows dissociation of these two processes was used to examine whether impulsive violent offenders were found to exhibit ...
Moustafa-Bayoumi Moustafa - - 2007
We have overexpressed either the cDNA of human profilin 1 or expressed the mutant (88R/L) in the blood vessels of transgenic FVB/N mice. Reverse transcription-PCR indicated selective overexpression of profilin 1 and 88R/L in vascular smooth muscle cells. Polyproline binding showed increased profilin 1 and 88R/L proteins in transgenic mice ...
Schmidlin Olga - - 2007
We tested the hypothesis that the Na(+) component of dietary NaCl can have a pressor effect apart from its capacity to complement the extracellular osmotic activity of Cl(-) and, thus, expand plasma volume. We studied 35 mostly normotensive blacks who ingested a low-NaCl diet, 30 mmol/d, for 3 weeks, in ...
Mustard, J
A greenhouse study was designed to test the response of red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) to NaCl during the onset of bud break. Seedlings treated with 50 mmol center dot L-1 NaCl for 32 d had lower shoot dry mass and shoot height than untreated seedlings. Transpiration and photosynthetic rates, ...
- - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Dietary sodium and potassium consumption is associated with blood pressure levels. The objective of this study was to define a practical and low-cost method for the control of blood pressure by modification of these dietary cations in rural Chinese. METHODS: This study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial designed ...
Dong Guanghui - - 2007
Liaoning Province is located in northeast China, which has distinct weather conditions, geographic characteristics and lifestyles compared with other regions of the country; the lifestyle differences are especially pronounced in the rural parts of this region, where there is a dearth of financial and other resources. However, information on the ...
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