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Kimura Genjiro - - 2010
In healthy subjects, blood pressure (BP) drops by 10-20% during the night. Conversely, in patients with the salt-sensitive type of hypertension or chronic kidney disease, nighttime BP does not fall, resulting in an atypical pattern of circadian BP rhythm that does not dip. This pattern is referred to as the ...
Ekinci E I EI Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health and the University of Melbourne, Level 2 Centaur Building, Repatriation Campus, Austin Health, Heidelberg West, Melbourne, VIC, 3081, Australia. - - 2010
We assessed the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) supplementation on the blood pressure response to treatment with telmisartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and habitually high (HDS, sodium excretion >200 mmol/24 h on two out of three consecutive occasions) or low (LDS, sodium excretion ...
Fedorova Olga V - - 2010
Endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS), also called digitalis like factors, have been postulated to play important roles in pathogenesis of hypertension for nearly half of a century. For the past 50 years biomedical scientists have been in quest of an unidentified factor or hormone that both increases blood pressure and renal ...
Augustyniak Robert A - - 2010
Low birth weight humans often exhibit hypertension during adulthood. Studying the offspring of rat dams fed a maternal low-protein diet is one model frequently used to study the mechanisms of low birth weight-related hypertension. It remains unclear whether this model replicates key clinical findings of hypertension and increased blood pressure ...
He Feng J - - 2010
Raised blood pressure is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, responsible for 62% of stroke and 49% of coronary heart disease. There is overwhelming evidence that dietary salt is the major cause of raised blood pressure and that a reduction in salt intake lowers blood pressure, thereby, reducing blood pressure-related ...
Lai En Yin EY Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, - - 2010
Because defects in renal autoregulation may contribute to renal barotrauma in chronic kidney disease, we tested the hypothesis that the myogenic response is diminished by reduced renal mass. Kidneys from 5/6 nephrectomized mice had only a minor increase in the glomerular sclerosis index. The telemetric mean arterial pressure (108+/-10 mm ...
Iyer Abishek - - 2010
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) silence genes by deacetylating lysine residues in histones and other proteins. HDAC inhibitors represent a new class of compounds with anti-inflammatory activity. This study investigated whether treatment with a broad spectrum HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), would prevent cardiac fibrosis, part of the cardiovascular remodelling in ...
Jose Pedro A - - 2010
Complex interactions between genes and environment result in a sodium-induced elevation in blood pressure (salt sensitivity) and/or hypertension that lead to significant morbidity and mortality affecting up to 25% of the middle-aged adult population worldwide. Determining the etiology of genetic and/or environmentally-induced high blood pressure has been difficult because of ...
Eckel-Mahan Kristin K Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4625, - - 2010
While Cry proteins are necessary for circadian rhythmicity, they now appear to play a seminal role in blood pressure regulation. In a recent issue of Nature Medicine, Doi et al., 2009 show how the circadian clock may use Cry proteins to protect from salt-sensitive hypertension.
Castañeda-Bueno María - - 2010
Arterial hypertension is one of the most important health problems in industrialized cities. Blood pressure levels are influenced by renal salt handling and salt reabsorption in the kidney. In this Closeup, Castañeda-Bueno and Gamba discuss the work from Alessi and coworkers on the in vivo roles of the SPAK kinase ...
Susic Dinko D Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA 70121, USA. - - 2010
This study examined the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in mediating cardiovascular and renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) given salt excess. Since the circulating RAAS is inhibited in this model, it permits examination of the role of local tissue RAASs in mediating this injury. To this end, ...
Szymczyk Anthony - - 2010
The effect of spatially inhomogeneous fixed charge distributions on the pressure-driven transport of ions through cylindrical nanopores have been investigated theoretically by means of an approximate version of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck model that can be used with confidence for moderately charged nanopores with radius smaller than the Debye screening length of ...
Ando Katsuyuki - - 2010
It is well known that high salt intake induces hypertension and cardiovascular damage, while dietary potassium supplementation counteracts these harmful effects. Actually, the protective effect of potassium is strengthened with excess salt as compared with salt depletion. Although the precise mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, in our previous reports, ...
Ok Ercan - - 2010
Most chronic dialysis patients are volume overloaded. This has two consequences. The first is hypertension. Even though the pathophysiologic mechanism causing this blood pressure (BP) elevation is well known, many patients are treated with antihypertensive drugs. These are often ineffective and, even if they lower BP, they do not eliminate ...
Padidela Raja - - 2010
Approximately 75%-80% of patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) fail to synthesize sufficient mineralocorticoids to maintain salt and water balance. In most instances genotype can predict mineralocorticoid deficiency in CAH. Early recognition and replacement with 9alpha-fludrocortisone and salt supplements will prevent development of potentially lethal salt losing crises. In infancy ...
Mori T A - - 2010
There is substantial evidence that omega-3 fatty acids reduce blood pressure, with a greater effect in hypertensive patients and those with high-normal blood pressure. The dose of omega-3 fatty acids required to achieve a blood pressure reduction is likely to be at least 3-4 g/day. However, the magnitude of the ...
Jessup Jewell A - - 2010
The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is expressed in various tissues including the heart. Since the mRen2.Lewis strain exhibits salt-dependent hypertension and early diastolic dysfunction, we assessed the effects of the GPER agonist (G-1, 40 nmol/kg/hr for 14 days) or vehicle (VEH, DMSO/EtOH) on cardiac function and structure. Intact female ...
Varagic Jasmina - - 2010
Angiotensin II has a critical role in the regulation of blood pressure and cell growth and excess activity of the peptide is implicated in the pathogenesis of salt-induced cardiovascular injury. On the other hand, the role of counteracting angiotensin-(1-7) in cardiac structural and functional responses to high salt diet has ...
Ohta Yuko - - 2009
We investigated the usefulness of measuring urinary salt excretion by using a self-monitoring device. Subjects were 34 hypertensive patients who underwent successful 24-h home urine collection five times and 25 volunteers. Four volunteers were diagnosed as having hypertension based on home blood pressure (BP) readings. All subjects were asked to ...
Chen Yu-Yun - - 2010
Available evidence indicates that brown algae may be beneficial for the treatment of high blood pressure. Our recent study demonstrated that low molecular mass potassium alginate (L-PA), one of the major polysaccharides extracted from brown algae, decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) in spontaneous hypertensive rats. The present study investigated the ...
Zhang L - - 2010
The cytochrome P-450 3A5 (CYP3A5) gene has recently been implicated in renal sodium reabsorption and blood pressure regulation. The genetic effect of CYP3A5*1 (expressor) and *3 (reduced-expressor) variants on blood pressure has been studied in African Americans and Caucasians, but not yet in the Asian population. In this cross-sectional study, ...
Seifi Behjat - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: We assessed whether co-supplementation of vitamins C and E has additive beneficial effects on reducing the kidney damage and attenuation of the arterial pressure elevation compared to administration of either vitamin C or vitamin E alone in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty rats were divided into 4 ...
Osborn John W - - 2010
It is now well accepted that many forms of experimental hypertension and human essential hypertension are caused by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. However, the role of region-specific changes in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in the pathogenesis of hypertension has been difficult to determine because methods for chronic ...
Yemane Henok - - 2010
This brief review describes the role of neural and non-neural mechanisms during different phases of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. There are contradictory data for and against a role of the sympathetic nervous system and neurohumoral agents, including endothelin and vasopressin. Elucidating the factors responsible for DOCA-salt hypertension will be helpful ...
Seifi Behjat - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the onset expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the aorta and kidney and establish their correlation with the increase in arterial blood pressure in rats subjected to DOCA-salt treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral nephrectomy and received subcutaneous DOCA (20 mg/rat/week) as well ...
Liu Zhiquan - - 2009
High dietary salt consumption is considered a risk factor for hypertension. In order to determine the relationship between dietary sodium and blood pressure in the Chinese population, several nationwide epidemiological surveys have been conducted to investigate salt intake and the incidence of high blood pressure. These surveys found that the ...
Mu Jianjun - - 2009
Potassium and calcium are important in blood pressure (BP) regulation. The aim of this study was to test the effects on BP of adding potassium and calcium to dietary salt. A total of 325 adolescents selected with high BP (systolic BP (SBP) >or=90th percentile by age and sex) along with ...
Zhou Xin - - 2009
Salt restriction, an important approach for primary and secondary prevention of hypertension, is undermined by unsatisfactory adherence. A salt-restriction study tested the efficacy and safety of a compound ion salt (CISalt) with low sodium content in an animal model and in a community-based population. In part 1, 8-week-old male spontaneously ...
He Feng J - - 2009
A reduction in salt intake lowers blood pressure. However, most previous trials were in whites with few in blacks and Asians. Salt reduction may also reduce other cardiovascular risk factors (eg, urinary albumin excretion, arterial stiffness). However, few well-controlled trials have studied these effects. We carried out a randomized double-blind ...
Pimenta Eduardo - - 2009
Observational studies indicate a significant relation between dietary sodium and level of blood pressure. However, the role of salt sensitivity in the development of resistant hypertension is unknown. The present study examined the effects of dietary salt restriction on office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension. ...
Manhiani Marlina - - 2009
Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to be renal protective in rat models of salt-sensitive hypertension. Here, we hypothesize that targeted disruption of the sEH gene (Ephx2) prevents both renal inflammation and injury in deoxycorticosterone acetate plus high salt (DOCA-salt) hypertensive mice. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) ...
Mohan Sailesh - - 2009
HBP (high blood pressure) is the leading risk of death in the world. Unfortunately around the world, blood pressure levels are predicted to become even higher, especially in developing countries. High dietary salt is an important contributor to increased blood pressure. The present review evaluates the association between excess dietary ...
Al-Solaiman Y - - 2009
Salt induces oxidative stress in salt-sensitive (SS) animals and man. It is not known whether in SS subjects the low-sodium dietary approaches to stop hypertension (LS-DASH) reduces oxidative stress more than DASH, which is high in antioxidants. To assess the effects of DASH and LS-DASH on oxidative stress, 19 volunteers ...
Carlström Mattias - - 2009
Hydronephrosis causes renal dysfunction and salt-sensitive hypertension, which is associated with nitric oxide deficiency and abnormal tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) response. We investigated the role of oxidative stress for salt sensitivity and for hypertension in hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis was induced in superoxide dismutase 1-transgenic (SOD1-tg), SOD1-deficient (SOD1-ko), and wild-type mice and in ...
Klotz Stefan - - 2009
It is widely accepted that ice, no matter what phase, is unable to incorporate large amounts of salt into its structure. This conclusion is based on the observation that on freezing of salt water, ice expels the salt almost entirely as brine. Here, we show that this behaviour is not ...
Montani Jean-Pierre - - 2009
With the publication in 1972 of a large computer model of circulatory control, Guyton and colleagues challenged the then prevailing views on how blood pressure and cardiac output were controlled. At that time, it was widely accepted that the heart controlled cardiac output and that peripheral resistance controlled arterial blood ...
Takeda Yoshiyu Y Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan. takeday@ - - 2009
Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) are expressed in non-epithelial tissues, such as blood vessels, the heart and adipose tissue. The combined effects of aldosterone and insulin link the metabolic syndrome with hypertension and salt sensitivity. Eplerenone is the newly developed inhibitor of MRs that has significantly fewer adverse effects than similar doses ...
Westermann Dirk - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Diastolic heart failure is a rising problem with a high incidence and similar mortality and morbidity compared to patients with systolic heart failure. Nevertheless, the underlying pathophysiology is still debated. AIM: We investigated the effect of pharmacological enhancement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) on experimental diastolic heart failure ...
Titze Jens - - 2009
For centuries, salt has been regarded as essential to human health. Recent work, however, has provided further evidence that the current dietary intake of salt in Western societies is an important factor in the genesis of essential hypertension and may even partly cause blood pressure-independent target organ damage including renal ...
Hu Jihong - - 2009
Reduced-sodium, increased-potassium salt substitutes lower blood pressure but may also have direct effects on vascular structure and arterial function. This study aimed to test the effects of long-term salt substitution on indices of these outcomes. The China Salt Substitute Study was a randomized, controlled trial designed to establish the effects ...
Johnson Keven R - - 2009
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are evolutionarily conserved hormones that affect blood pressure and fluid volume through membrane-bound guanylate cyclase (GC)-linked natriuretic peptide receptors-A and -B (NPR-A and NPR-B, respectively) in a variety of vascular, renal, and other tissues. The principal physiological stimulus for cardiac NPs in fish is somewhat debated between ...
Meland Eivind - - 2009
Previous studies, mainly evaluating short-term very low salt diets, suggest that salt restriction may influence glucose and insulin metabolism, catecholamines, renin, aldosterone, and lipid levels adversely. The authors wanted to explore whether sodium restriction for eight weeks influenced insulin secretion unfavourably, and evaluate the efficacy and safety of such treatment ...
McLoone Violeta I - - 2009
In humans, salt intake has been suggested to influence blood pressure (BP) on a wide range of time scales ranging from several hours or days to many months or years. Detailed time course data collected in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat strain suggest that the development of salt-induced hypertension may consist ...
Vernerová Z - - 2009
The rat strain transgenic for the murine Ren-2 renin gene (TGR) is defined as a monogenic model of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension with endogenous activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Homozygous males TGR develop malignant hypertension with a strong salt-sensitive component. These animals show severe hypertension, proteinuria and high mortality. Morphological changes ...
Gao Feng - - 2009
To test the hypothesis that activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel conveys a hypotensive effect that is enhanced during salt load, male Wistar rats fed a normal-sodium (0.5%) or high-sodium (HS; 4%) diet for 3 weeks were given 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4 alpha-PDD), a specific TRPV4 ...
Etzion Yoram - - 2009
High pressure, which induces central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction (high-pressure neurological syndrome) depresses synaptic transmission at all synapses examined to date. Several lines of evidence indicate an inhibitory effect of pressure on Ca(2+) entry into the presynaptic terminal. In the present work we studied for the first time the effect ...
Russell-Jones David - - 2009
Liraglutide, a human glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue with high homology to native GLP-1, has structural modifications sufficient to amend pharmacokinetics for once-daily administration without compromising biological activity. Data from large, controlled, clinical studies have confirmed the therapeutic profile of liraglutide, with robust reductions in HbA(1c), low risk of hypoglycaemia ...
Shabala Sergey - - 2009
Nutrient acquisition in the mature root zone is under systemic control by the shoot and the root tip. In maize, exposure of the shoot to light induces short-term (within 1-2 min) effects on net K+ and H+ transport at the root surface. H+ efflux decreased (from -18 to -12 nmol ...
Kopf Phillip G - - 2008
The mechanisms by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increases the incidence of human cardiovascular disease are not known. We investigated the degree to which cardiovascular disease develops in mice following subchronic TCDD exposure. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were dosed with vehicle or 300 ng TCDD/kg by oral gavage three times per week ...
Deng Alan Y - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Hypertension and diastolic heart failure are two common cardiovascular diseases that inflict heavy morbidity and mortality, yet relatively little is understood about their pathophysiology. The identification of quantitative trait loci for blood pressure is important in unveiling the causes of polygenic hypertension. Although Dahl salt-sensitive strain is also an ...
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