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Results 451 - 500 of 1198
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Agnoli G C - - 2001
In healthy women submitted to a short-term expansion in extracellular fluid volume we have evaluated the urinary excretory profile of the stable metabolites of prostaglandin(PG) I2 and thromboxane(TX) A2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha(6KPGF) and TXB2 respectively, and assessed the physiological role played by the prostanoids in this experimental condition. Salt retention (SR ...
Saad Y - - 2001
A series of congenic strains were constructed in which segments of chromosome (chr) 1 from Lewis (LEW) rats were introgressed into the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) strain. Three blood pressure quantitative trait loci (QTL) were defined. Two of these (QTL 1a and QTL 1b) were closely linked in the region between ...
Strazzullo P - - 2001
Experimental and clinical studies provided evidence in favor of complex relationships between sympathetic nervous system activity and salt-sensitivity of blood pressure. Genetic and acquired metabolic alterations associated with a tendency to retain salt and water may generate salt-sensitivity of blood pressure and shift the pressure-natriuresis curve to the right, promoting ...
MacGregor G A - - 2001
The height of the blood pressure is one of the most important determinants of strokes and heart attacks, the two most common causes of death and disability in the western world. In undeveloped communities that do not have access to salt, blood pressure remains low throughout life in comparison with ...
Ciechanowicz A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that alpha-adducin (alpha-ADD) polymorphism may identify patients with a salt-sensitive form of hypertension. AIM: To investigate the association between Gly460Trp polymorphism of alpha-ADD and the pattern of blood pressure response to subacute (1 week) salt loading and depletion in young adult thin Polish hypertensives. METHODS: ...
Sugiyama F - - 2001
To investigate the genetic control of salt-induced hypertension, we performed a quantitative trait locus analysis on male mice from a reciprocal backcross between the salt-sensitive C57BL/6J and the normotensive A/J inbred mouse strains after they were provided with water containing 1% salt for 2 weeks. Genome-wide scans performed on these ...
Li F - - 2001
Non-invasive methods to evaluate skin hydration by measuring electrical properties are widely used in the cosmetic industry. However, there is still some controversy about factors that affect measurement. For example, concerns have often been expressed about the possible confounding effect of salts, either in the formulation or on the skin. ...
d'Uscio Livius V. - - 2001
-To determine whether natriuretic peptides in addition to the renin-angiotensin system are involved in functional and structural vascular changes in salt-sensitive hypertension, we compared equipotent hypotensive treatment with the dual neutral endopeptidase/ACE inhibitor omapatrilat (35 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)) or the ACE inhibitor captopril (100 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)). The reactivity and ...
Sinal C J - - 2000
Renal microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid generates a series of regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids that can be further metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase to the corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. Evidence exists that these metabolites affect renal function and, in particular, blood pressure regulation. To examine this possibility, blood pressure ...
Reina R - - 2000
Microsphere and morphometric techniques were used to investigate any circulatory changes that accompany secretion by the salt glands of hatchling Chelonia mydas. Salt glands were activated by a salt load of 27.0 mmol NaCl x kg body mass (BM)(-1), resulting in a mean sodium secretion rate of 4.14 +/- 0.11 ...
White P C - - 2000
Mutations in the HSD11B2 gene encoding the kidney (11-HSD2) isozyme of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase cause the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess, a form of salt-sensitive hypertension. Enzymatic activities of mutant enzymes measured in cultured cells are correlated with several parameters of clinical severity including urinary steroid product:precursor ratios, age at diagnosis, ...
Chiolero A - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of renal sodium handling by the proximal tubule as an independent determinant of blood pressure responsiveness to salt in hypertension. We measured blood pressure (BP), renal hemodynamics, and segmental renal sodium handling (with lithium used as a marker of proximal ...
Yagil Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that non-genetic factors such as age, gonads and maternal environment modulate the expression of the salt-susceptibility genes and affect the blood pressure response to salt-loading (salt-sensitivity and salt-resistance) in the Sabra rat model of hypertension. METHODS: The blood pressure response to ...
Jaƛkowski P - - 2000
Hypotheses about variations of response force have emphasised the influences of arousal and of motor preparation. To study both types of influences in one experiment, the effects of time pressure and of validity of S1 were investigated in tasks wherein a first stimulus (S1) indicated the most probable response (80% ...
Kalus U - - 2000
Mediterranean diet has got a favourable effect on life expectancy. One of the crucial components of the diet are onions. In an open and a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over phase-I study a spontaneous pharmacological effect 5 h after administration of an onion-olive-oil maceration capsule formulation on arterial blood pressure could ...
Cubeddu L X - - 2000
Studies in laboratory animals suggest that altered nitric oxide (NO) production may be associated with salt sensitivity. In this investigation we determined whether the endogenous NO production was altered in salt-sensitive human subjects when salt intake was changed. Salt sensitivity was assessed from the magnitude of the blood pressure (BP) ...
Evans R G - - 2000
We tested for sex-related differences in the pressure diuresis/natriuresis relationships in anaesthetized, renally denervated rabbits, using an extracorporeal circuit to perfuse the left kidney with the rabbit's own blood, through a series of step-wise increases in renal artery pressure (RAP) (from 65 to 130 mmHg). Urine flow, sodium excretion, and ...
Perry I J - - 2000
AIM: Diet is a major contributor to variation in the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, including stroke, worldwide. Dietary salt intake plays a critical role in blood pressure regulation. However the question of whether high dietary salt intake increases risk of stroke, either indirectly via effects on blood pressure ...
Bihorac A - - 2000
Cardiovascular events occur more frequently in sodium-sensitive patients with essential hypertension; recently, sodium sensitivity was shown to be a cardiovascular risk factor independently of other classic factors such as blood pressure and cigarette smoking This study examined the relationship between salt sensitivity status and target organ damage in hypertensive patients. ...
Siegfried B D - - 2000
Susceptibility to Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was determined for 12 field populations of neonate corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), from the United States. Earworm larvae were exposed to artificial diet treated with increasing Bt concentrations, and mortality and growth inhibition were evaluated after 7 d. The range of ...
Wickelgren I - - 2000
A team of researchers at Yale Medical School has uncovered a gene mutation that leads to early-onset hypertension that may point the way to causes for more common forms of high blood pressure. On page 119, the Yale group reports finding a new mutation in the so-called mineralocorticoid receptor, a ...
Weinberger M H - - 2000
A substantial amount of new information concerning salt-sensitivity of blood pressure in humans has appeared in the recent past. This review discusses recent studies examining two techniques used for the assessment of salt sensitivity as well as several studies attempting to identify specific genetic factors associated with variations in the ...
Gross V - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: The hypertension in AT2 receptor knockout mice is imperfectly defined. Therefore, we investigated the influence of dietary salt loading and deoxycorticosterone (DOCA)-salt treatment on blood pressure and diurnal patterns of blood pressure in these mice by radiotelemetry. METHODS: We used telemetry in AT2 receptor knockout and wild-type mice to ...
Schorr U - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A functional single-nucleotide variant of the gene encoding the beta3 subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gbeta3 C825T), associated with enhanced G-protein activation and increased activity of the sodium-proton exchanger (NHE1), has been implicated in the development of hypertension. Given the possible involvement of NHE1 in sodium homeostasis, ...
Sanae F - - 2000
We examined the effects of 9 kinds of Kampo medicines, which are clinically used for the treatment of hypertension, on anesthetized rats with increases in arterial blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral blood flow induced by theophylline (5 mg/kg, i.v.) that were partially or completely mediated by endogenous catecholamines. Each ...
Bendtsen L - - 2000
The aim of the present thesis was to investigate the pathophysiology of chronic tension-type headache with special reference to central mechanisms. Increased tenderness to palpation of pericranial myofascial tissues is the most apparent abnormality in patients with tension-type headache. A new piece of equipment, a so-called palpometer, that makes it ...
Steele J E - - 2000
In 1967, Guyton and Coleman modeled pressure diuresis as the underlying, essential, long-term mechanism that regulates arterial pressure when sodium intake changes. Other mechanisms that influence renal function interact with pressure diuresis to achieve sodium balance and determine the blood pressure. Increases in sodium intake suppress sodium conserving mechanisms and ...
Poch E - - 2000
We evaluated the association of a common polymorphism in gammaENaC, consisting in a C to G transversion in codon 649, with essential hypertension and to the pressor response to salt in whites. Two hundred fifteen essential hypertensive patients, and 137 normotensive controls were genotyped for the gamma649 ENaC polymorphism by ...
Zoccali C - - 2000
Salt is the most suspected environmental factor which may influence arterial pressure. The recent demonstration that in the chimpanzee there is a strict dose-response relationship between salt added to food and arterial pressure and that the large majority of these animals are "salt-sensitive" is solid proof that salt has a ...
Boje K M - - 2000
Excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) in the central nervous system is suspected to contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies showed that excessive central nervous system NO increased the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during experimental meningitis. The present work hypothesizes that the various NO redox forms (NO(*), NO(+), ...
Osborn J W - - 2000
1. The role of the area postrema (AP) in the long-term control of body fluid homeostasis and arterial pressure under conditions of increased dietary salt intake is reviewed. A model is proposed in which sympathetic nerve activity is suppressed when dietary salt is increased. It is hypothesized that the AP ...
Cappuccio F P - - 2000
Evidence from animal, clinical and epidemiological studies suggests that high blood pressure is associated with abnormalities of calcium metabolism, leading to increased calcium loss, secondary activation of the parathyroid gland, increased movement of calcium from bone and increased risk of urinary tract stones. Some of these abnormalities are detectable in ...
Matsunaga T - - 2000
We previously reported that D0870 induced QT prolongation and sudden death due to torsades de pointes (TdP) in dogs and that catecholamines played an important part in the development of the sudden death. In the present study, we analyzed in detail the ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings obtained from the just-mentioned study ...
Cowley A W AW Jr Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, - - 2000
A genetic segregation analysis was performed to identify genes that cosegregate with arterial blood pressure traits reflective of salt sensitivity. A population of 113 F2 male rats was derived from an intercross of inbred SS/JrHsd/Mcw (Dahl salt-sensitive) and BN/SsN/Mcw (Brown Norway) rats. Rats were maintained on an 8% salt diet ...
Suzuki M - - 2000
Insulin resistance was demonstrated in hypertensive patients and in salt-sensitive subjects. It was recently reported that the salt-sensitive state was related to a reduced fall in blood pressure during the night in essential hypertension. In the present study, the relationship among insulin sensitivity, blood pressure response to salt intake, and ...
Siani A - - 2000
The paper focuses on some aspects of the complex relationship between dietary salt intake and blood pressure. The first part is a short review of the evidence available from epidemiological and clinical studies, indicating that a moderate reduction in dietary salt intake represents an effective non-pharmacological measure for the treatment ...
Law M - - 2000
The rise in average blood pressure with age seen in Western populations does not occur in isolated traditional nomadic communities. Several factors contribute to the higher blood pressure in the West. Salt is particularly important, however, because its effect on blood pressure is large, the dietary intake by Western populations ...
Giner V - - 2000
We evaluated the association between salt-sensitive hypertension and 3 different genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system. Fifty patients with essential hypertension were classified as salt sensitive or salt resistant, depending on the presence or absence of a significant increase (P<0.05) in 24-hour ambulatory mean blood pressure (BP) after high salt ...
Lind L - - 2000
Using both in vitro and in vivo techniques, it has repeatedly been shown that endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) is impaired in different forms of experimental hypertension (SHR, Dahl salt-sensitive rat, DOCA-salt rat and renovascular hypertension). EDV has also been found to be impaired in primary, as well as in secondary forms ...
Hou R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of salt intake on the circadian rhythm of blood pressure and the characteristics of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in salt-sensitive (SS) subjects. METHODS: Twenty-three normotensive subjects and forty-three patients with essential hypertension were included in this study. Salt sensitivity was determined with a chronic dietary ...
Swales J - - 2000
The scientific evidence that underlies public health advice depends upon critical integration of information from several sources. The most informative evidence relating to the effects of population reduction in salt intake comes from systematic reviews of clinical trials. Recent rigorous reviews of salt restriction trials in normal subjects show extremely ...
Godfraind T - - 2000
It appears that the beneficial action of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in hypertension may be related to short-term and long-term effects. This paper summarises pharmacological studies aiming to characterise those effects. The primary consequence of the short-term effects is the decrease of blood pressure related to a selective interaction of ...
Thibonnier M - - 1999
We assessed the clinical and pharmacological profile of the orally active V(1) vascular vasopressin (AVP) receptor nonpeptide antagonist SR49059 (SR) during the osmotic stimulation of AVP release in hypertensive patients. In a double-blind crossover-versus-placebo study, 24 untreated stage I or II essential hypertensive patients (12 whites and 12 blacks) received ...
Miyajima E - - 1999
The purpose of our study was to investigate the sympathetic response to excess salt loading of 54 normotensive young adults with and without a family history of hypertension. We examined muscle sympathetic nerve activity, plasma concentration and urinary excretion of catecholamines, and ambulatory blood pressures during low (4 g NaCl) ...
Watts S W - - 1999
This study tests the hypothesis that the functional upregulation of the arterial 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2B receptor in arteries of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats depends on the development of high blood pressure. Wistar-Furth and Wistar rats were given sham or DOCA-salt treatment (200 mg/kg DOCA, SC; 1.0% NaCl and 0.2% KCI ...
Sarkari M - - 1999
An important advantage of carrying out enzymatic catalysis in organic media is the increased solubility of hydrophobic substrates. This study compares a model lipase catalyzed esterification of cholesterol using vinyl acetate (VA) in two such nontraditional media: high-pressure hexane and supercritical (SCF) ethane. The effect of using one of the ...
Arjamaa O - - 1999
The objective of the present study was to test a hypothesis that a high dietary salt intake potentiates a cold induced increase in blood pressure in normotensive men. Male subjects (n = 12) were given 7 g day-1 sodium chloride during the cold months of the year, divided in 3-4 ...
Reiff S - - 1999
The object of this experiment was to demonstrate that blood pressure responses could be classically conditioned in human subjects and to describe the topography of the conditioned response. Despite clear evidence for classical blood pressure conditioning in animals there is little evidence concerning a clear demonstration of the phenomenon in ...
Nurkiewicz T R - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to determine if local nitric oxide (NO) activity attenuates the arteriolar myogenic response in rat spinotrapezius muscle. We also investigated the possibility that hypertension, dietary salt, or their combination can alter any influence of local NO on the myogenic response. Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and ...
Korhonen M H - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine the adherence to a salt restriction diet and the effect of salt restriction on blood pressure in free living subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure. DESIGN: Subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure participated in a controlled study on the effect of ...
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