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Results 351 - 400 of 1546
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Park Myung H - - 2002
The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the association of peripheral B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels with clinical symptoms and central hemodynamic and echocardiographic measures in cardiac transplantation. BNP reflects ventricular wall stress and correlates with severity of heart failure. No previous investigation has comprehensively assessed the rapid ...
Sabbatini Maria E - - 2002
1. Current evidence supports that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is the brain natriuretic peptide. Natriuretic peptide receptors and mRNA CNP have been reported in the liver and in discrete areas and nucleus of the central nervous system involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal physiology. In the present work, we sought ...
Burger Andrew J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Dobutamine is commonly used as a means of treating decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF). Although typically effective at improving short-term hemodynamics and symptomatology, the frequent occurrence of arrhythmias and tachycardia is undesirable. In this randomized, multicenter trial, we compared the safety and clinical effectiveness of the cardiac hormone nesiritide ...
Wilson Suzanne J - - 2002
Three experiments were performed to see whether cardiac neurons contribute to the intrinsic control of heart rate in right atria of adult rats. The intrinsic heart rate response (IRR) was examined by raising right atrial pressure from 2 to 8 mmHg for 3 min. In isolated preparations of the right ...
Jambrik Zoltán - - 2002
To examine the relationship between plasma cytokine levels and cardiac and hemodynamic function. Measurement of cytokines and the systolic (left ventricular dimensions, heart rate, and cardiac output) and diastolic (early and late transmitral peak flow velocity: E and A-waves and their ratio) functions of the left ventricle (assessed by echocardiography) ...
Ohta Yoko - - 2002
The origin of the pulmonary venous (PV) systolic flow wave is still unclear and could be the atrial relaxation and systolic descent of the atrioventricular plane, which decrease atrial pressure (suction) or raised PV pressure. In atrial fibrillation (AF), loss of atrial contraction and relaxation significantly modifies the systolic PV ...
Terasako K - - 2002
Acute hypotension, transient hypoxaemia and elevation of pulmonary artery pressure are well known to occur during cemented arthroplasty. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to characterize the relationship between plasma concentrations of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP), and changes in blood pressure in patients undergoing hip ...
Suo Maria - - 2002
This study examined the role of angiotensin II in the increase of blood pressure, activation of cardiac natriuretic peptide gene expression, left ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular changes in nitric oxide-deficient hypertension. N(G)-nitro->L-arginine methyl ester (>L-NAME, 20 mg/kg/d), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT ) antagonist losartan (20 mg/kg/d), or their ...
Lenz Franka - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To establish reference ranges with gestation for Doppler parameters of fetal pulmonary venous blood flow during the second half of pregnancy, including not only peak velocities, but also relative indices reflecting left atrial pressure changes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 114 normal singleton pregnancies between 19 and 37 weeks' ...
Nakagawa Kazuhiko - - 2002
Hemodynamic mechanism for brain edema forrmation in patients with hypertensive encephalopathy is unclear. Potential roles of natriuretic peptides in the pathogenesis of hypertensive encephalopathy are discussed. A 32-year-old man presented with slight left hemiparesis. He was slightly confused, and his blood pressure was extremely high. Cranial plain computerized tomography scans ...
Ceresa M - - 2002
The stroke volume response to exercise is a critical determinant in meeting peripheral metabolic demands in patients with chronic hear failure. The Left atrium, by its position, is important in coupling right and left ventricles, to left preload reserve and to modulate sympathetic activity. We performed this study to investigate ...
Menaouar Ahmed - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Acute intravenous administration of moxonidine, an imidazoline I1-receptor agonist, reduces blood pressure (BP) in normotensive and hypertensive rats, induces diuresis and natriuresis, and stimulates plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). In these studies we investigated the involvement of natriuretic peptides (ANP and brain natriuretic peptide) in the effects of chronic ...
Tervonen Virpi - - 2002
The present study tested the hypothesis that salmon cardiac peptide (sCP), a new member of the family of natriuretic peptides, has an important role in the regulation of fluid balance and cardiovascular function. Intra-arterial administration of sCP increased urine output in salmon. It had a diuretic effect in rat as ...
Daniels Stephen R - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of left atrial enlargement and the correlates of left atrial size in children and adolescents with essential hypertension. BACKGROUND: Left atrial enlargement has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including stroke in adults. Risk factors for left atrial size in adults with hypertension ...
Miyata Akira - - 2002
Sudden increases in heart rate cause accumulation of K+ in the extracellular space. However, the exact relationship between rate and extracellular K+ concentration ([K+](o)) in vivo is unknown. We measured [K+](o) in right atria of anesthetized dogs by using K(+)-sensitive electrodes. Peak increase in [K+](o) ranged from 0.18 +/- 0.04 ...
Pump Bettina - - 2002
The hypothesis was tested that changing the direction of the transverse gravitational stress in horizontal humans modulates cardiovascular and renal variables. On different study days, 14 healthy males were placed for 6 h in either the horizontal supine or prone position following 3 h of being supine. Eight of the ...
Palatini P - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the determinants of atrial size, and no study has analyzed whether genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of LA enlargement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the heritability of echocardiographic left atrial size in 290 parents from the Tecumseh Blood Pressure Study and 251 children ...
Fan Katherine - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Mechanoelectrical feedback caused by atrial dilatation plays an important role in atrial fibrillation (AF). To test the hypothesis that remodeling is reversible by reducing atrial stretch, we investigated electrophysiological changes after a reduction of left atrial (LA) pressure in patients undergoing percutaneous balloon mitral commissurotomy (PBMC). METHODS AND RESULTS: ...
Fridman Alexander I - - 2002
BACKGROUND: A reduced cardiac output in chronic heart failure (CHF) evokes renal NaCl and water retention, and, therefore, activates mechanisms promoting natriuresis. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is one such factor. We hypothesized that another NaCl sensitive endogenous natriuretic factor, i.e., marinobufagenin (MBG), a specific ligand of the alpha-1 subunit of ...
Brunner-La Rocca Hans Peter - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Since the pathophysiology of natriuretic peptides in chronic heart failure (HF) is not uniform, we hypothesized that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) may also have differential effects in acute HF. Our aim was to compare the haemodynamic actions of ANP with BNP, using a classical ...
Zullo Michael A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that peripheral venous levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) are elevated during ventricular pacing as a result of asynchrony of atrial and ventricular contraction. However, the pattern by which ANF rises following institution of ventricular pacing has not been fully established and its physiologic consequences ...
Johnson Wendy - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether therapy with vasodilators and diuretics, designed to normalize loading conditions in decompensated heart failure (HF), reduces neurohormonal activation in the short term. BACKGROUND; Elevated vasoactive neurohormone levels in chronic HF have adverse prognostic impact and may be targeted by specific therapies. METHODS: ...
Holtwick Rita - - 2002
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is an important regulator of arterial blood pressure. The mechanisms mediating its hypotensive effects are complex and involve the inhibition of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) systems, increased diuresis/natriuresis, vasodilation, and enhanced vascular permeability. In particular, the contribution of the direct vasodilating effect of ANP to ...
Charles C J - - 2002
The physiological role of adrenomedullin (ADM) in volume and pressure homeostasis remains unclear. Accordingly, we assessed possible modulatory actions of ADM infusions on the neurohumoral response to acute volume loading with dextran in normal conscious sheep. Dextran (15 ml/kg), given with concurrent ADM (5.5 pmol/kg per min--raising plasma ADM from ...
Schreiner George F - - 2002
Since their discovery 20 years ago, the natriuretic peptides have emerged as an important endocrine response to excessive increases in intravascular volume. In a cGMP-dependent fashion, the natriuretic peptides induce a balanced vasodilation, decreasing preload and afterload in states of cardiac impairment and stimulating the excretion of salt and water ...
Schoonderwoerd Bas A - - 2002
It is well known that atrial tachycardia causes atrial electrical remodeling, characterized by shortening of atrial effective refractory periods (AERPs) and loss of physiological adaptation of AERP to rate. However, the nature and time course of changes in ventricular effective refractory periods (VERP) caused by rapid rates are to be ...
Mills Roger M - - 2002
Nesiritide (Natrecor), a synthetic formulation of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), is the first new parenteral agent to be approved for treating heart failure in more than a decade. In patients hospitalized with decompensated congestive heart failure, nesiritide promptly reduces pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, right atrial pressure, and ...
Zarse Markus - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: Atrial dilation associated with increasing atrial pressure plays an apparent role in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). We characterized a new model of separate and biatrial dilation in the Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart. The aim of this study was to examine if sustained AF in this model (1) would ...
Yoshikawa Yasushi - - 2002
Surgical specimens of the atrial wall were microscopically investigated 7 years after total cavopulmonary connection. The intima of the morphologically right atrium was thicker in the part used for the high-pressured venous channel than in the other portion placed for the low-pressured atrial cavity supporting the systemic circulation. The number ...
Giddins Niels G - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether chronic, rapid right atrial pacing in newborn neonatal piglets has any effects on cardiac hemodynamics, and whether these changes are associated with intrinsic alterations in cardiac contractile potential as shown by cardiac myofibrillar calcium ATPase activity. BACKGROUND: Although many studies have examined aspects of heart function ...
Petersson Maria - - 2002
The well known effects of oxytocin on uterine contraction and milk ejection were found as early as the beginning of the 20th century. Since then many other effects of oxytocin have been found and among them a great number of effects on the cardiovascular system. Oxytocin is released from the ...
Tuppurainen T - - 2002
BACKGROUND: About 27% of the population is known to have a patent foramen ovale. It can be opened if the left atrial pressure is less than the right atrial pressure. This pressure reversal has been reported during gynecologic laparoscopic surgery. The present paper describes with help of transesophageal echocardiography the ...
Kozelj Mirta - - 2002
Rapid regular atrial pacing (RAP) produces changes in atrial function similar to those caused by atrial fibrillation in animal models. Left atrial appendage (LAA) function represents regional atrial function. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of RAP on left atrial regional function and to evaluate the ...
Willems Rik - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: Atrial electrical remodeling, shortening of the atrial effective refractory period (AERP) underlying atrial fibrillation (AF) has been described in different animal models. However, there remains some controversy regarding the time course of this electrical remodeling and the need for secondary factors in the development of AF. We investigated the ...
Braunschweig F - - 2002
AIMS: Right heart pressure parameters can be recorded continuously with the help of an implanted haemodynamic monitor. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the device in adjusting diuretic medication in patients with chronic congestive heart failure, and to evaluate the response of right ventricular pressure ...
Kessler-Icekson Gania - - 2002
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), the principal member of the natriuretic factor family of peptides, primarily a product of the atria in the adult heart, is also expressed in the fetal ventricles. A minority of ventricular impulse-conducting cells and myocytes exposed to extreme tension retain the capacity to produce ANP in ...
Willems R - - 2001
INTRODUCTION: It is well established that rapid atrial rates, as in atrial fibrillation (AF), cause atrial electrical and structural remodeling leading to the maintenance of AF. The role of neurohumoral changes in this pathophysiologic vicious circle remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed the concentrations of angiotensin II (AT II) ...
Nakanishi K - - 2001
Experimental pulmonary hypertension induced in a hypobaric hypoxic environment (HHE) is characterized by structural remodeling of the heart and pulmonary arteries. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) both have diuretic, natriuretic, and hypotensive effects, and both are involved in cardiovascular homeostasis as cardiac hormones. To study the ...
Kjaer A - - 2001
The important neuroendocrine systems involved in heart failure are reviewed with special emphasis on their possible role in pathophysiology and their relation to prognostic and diagnostic information. Plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA), renin, vasopressin, endothelin-1, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are all ...
Rubattu S - - 2001
The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a component of the natriuretic peptide family, was discovered in 1981 when de Bold and his coworkers observed a natriuretic effect induced by infusion of atrial extracts in rats. Subsequently, an impressive amount of research has been carried out in order to identify the structure ...
Wilson S J - - 2001
In the denervated mammalian heart a change in right atrial pressure will still alter heart rate (intrinsic rate response, IRR). We have examined the IRR in isolated right atria of the guinea-pig maintained in oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C, to compare with and extend studies in other species, ...
Padillo J - - 2001
To investigate myocardial function in patients with obstructive jaundice before and after internal biliary drainage. Increased plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) have been found in patients with biliary obstruction. Thirteen patients with newly diagnosed obstructive jaundice and no previous heart, lung, or renal disease were studied using a ...
Mizuno O - - 2001
The benefits of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have been demonstrated. However, the myocardial actions of ANP remain unclear. Using relatively load-insensitive left ventricular pressure-volume analysis, the myocardial and load-altering actions of ANP in patients with moderate CHF were studied. After obtaining steady-state data ...
De Piccoli B - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Up to 57% of atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrences after cardioversion take place during the first 30 days following direct current shock (DCS) delivery. Previous echocardiographic studies on sinus rhythm (SR) maintenance after cardioversion have focused mainly on parameters recorded before DCS, while other studies have reported on the indices ...
Wiedemann R - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels during inhalation of iloprost in severe primary (PPH) and nonprimary pulmonary hypertension (NPPH). BACKGROUND: The ANP system is activated in pulmonary hypertension and may help protect from right ventricular (RV) decompensation. It is unknown if ANP ...
van Eickels M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in men and in women. Epidemiological studies indicate that estrogen replacement therapy is cardioprotective; the mechanisms involved in this process, however, are poorly understood. We therefore studied the effect of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) on the development of pressure-overload ...
Gare M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The effects of volatile anesthetics on left atrial function in vivo have not been described. The authors tested the hypothesis that desflurane, sevoflurane, and isoflurane alter left atrial mechanics evaluated with invasively derived pressure-volume relations. METHODS: Barbiturate-anesthetized dogs (n = 24) were instrumented for measurement of aortic, left atrial, ...
Frölich M A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the concept of prophylactic volume expansion to prevent hypotension caused by spinal anesthesia has been challenged. Investigators have reevaluated the concept of prehydration in the obstetric patient and the physiologic mechanisms involved. This article addresses whether the hypotensive effects attributed to the atrial natriuretic factor are ...
Pfleger S - - 2001
AIMS: Persistent foramen ovale (PFO) is found in 9.2--32% of echocardiographic examinations. The gold standard for the detection of a PFO is transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and the mostly used provocation test is the Valsalva manoeuvre. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Valsalva manoeuvre compared ...
Sultanian R - - 2001
The spleen is an important site of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)-induced fluid extravasation into the systemic lymphatic system. The mechanism underlying this process was studied in a blood-perfused (1 ml min(-1)) rat spleen using the double occlusion technique. To ensure that our observations were spleen specific, a similar protocol was ...
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