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Results 401 - 450 of 850
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Brace R A - - 1990
Studies have shown that lymph flow rate from several tissues depends on the pressure at the outflow end of the lymphatics. The left thoracic lymph duct is the largest lymphatic vessel and it transports a majority of the body's lymph. We varied outflow pressure for the left thoracic lymph duct ...
Sugi K - - 1990
With the inhalation of smoke, there are both cardiopulmonary changes and elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO). We hypothesize that these changes in cardiopulmonary function are the result of a histotoxic hypoxia associated with CO poisoning. This hypothesis was tested in chronically instrumented sheep (n = 19). Piezoelectric crystals were ...
Lavoie J P - - 1990
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of experimentally induced sublethal endotoxaemia in equine neonates. Four foals, between two and five days of age, were infused intravenously with 0.5 microgram/kg bodyweight of Salmonella typhimurium endotoxin (LPS) over a 5 h period. A four-day-old and a five-day-old foal, ...
Benoit J N - - 1989
The contractile properties of the mesenteric collecting lymphatics of the rat were analyzed under control conditions and during periods of enhanced lymph formation using in vivo microscopic techniques. Pressure and diameter were simultaneously monitored in microscopic collecting lymphatics, and lymphatic pump function was analyzed in accordance with basic principles of ...
Pippard C J - - 1989
1. Lymph flow and pressure were measured via cannulae inserted into afferent lymphatics draining the feet of anaesthetized sheep. 2. When the cannula outlet was at limb level, local exposure of the limb to graded decreases in ambient pressure caused graded increases in lymph flow with pressure values down to ...
Sjöberg T - - 1989
Subcutaneous lymphatics in the lower leg were catheterized in the retrograde direction in 6 healthy male subjects. The catheter was connected to a pressure transducer, and pressure was measured during three stages of exercise including standing, tip-toeing, and running in place. Before the third stage, indomethacin (50mg) was given i.v. ...
Valenzuela G J - - 1989
The balance of fluid across capillaries is given by the Starling equation. Because the plasma protein concentration (one of its components) is decreased in pregnancy, we decided to explore the question as to whether hypoproteinemia with intact protein mass (produced by blood volume expansion) or hypoproteinemia with decreased total protein ...
Valenzuela G J - - 1989
Physiologic alterations of pH in vitro produce alterations of the oncotic pressure of both plasma and interstitial proteins, the effect being more marked in the latter. Therefore we postulated that by changing an animal's pH we could produce alterations in fluid distribution and affect the whole-body lymph flow rate. To ...
Butler B D - - 1989
Lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-Pc) is a lysophospholipid normally found in low concentrations in the lung. At high concentrations lyso-Pc, instilled into the airways, causes pulmonary edema. We tested the hypothesis that the edema caused by lyso-Pc was due to an increase in pulmonary microvascular membrane permeability. In 11 anesthetized dogs we continuously ...
Berner M E - - 1989
To study the effects of furosemide on the neonatal pulmonary circulation in the presence of lung injury, we measured pulmonary arterial and left atrial pressures, cardiac output, lung lymph flow, and concentrations of protein in lymph and plasma of nine lambs that received furosemide, 2 mg/kg iv, during a continuous ...
Michel C C - - 1989
Microvascular permeability to fluid and hydrophilic solutes is restricted to channels between the endothelial cells and through the fenestrations when these are present. The channels have a molecular filter which appears to be a lattice of fibrous molecules reinforced by plasma proteins. The quantitative description of blood-tissue fluid movements is ...
Wright P E - - 1989
The mechanism of sustained alterations in pulmonary hemodynamics and lung mechanics after endotoxin infusion in sheep remains unclear. We examined the effects of metaproterenol, propranolol, atropine, and ibuprofen on pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa), dynamic compliance (Cdyn), resistance to airflow across the lungs (RL), specific airway conductance (SGaw), and alveolar-arterial oxygen ...
Hancock B J - - 1989
We used the stepwise pressure elevation technique to study the relationship between rate of constant weight gain (Qf) and microvascular pressure (Pc) in eight isolated canine left lower lobes. The slope of this relationship, which is assumed to represent lobar conductance to filtration (Kf) was 0.0022 +/- 0.003 ml.min-1.cmH2O-1.g dry ...
Klausner J M - - 1989
Interleukin (IL)-2 administration leads to respiratory dysfunction due to increased vascular permeability. This study examines the role of thromboxane (Tx)A2 in IL-2 induced lung injury in sheep with chronic lung lymph fistulae. This preparation enables evaluation of permeability prior to the development of gross edema. IL-2, 10(5) units/kg (n = ...
Eliades D - - 1989
Intravenous administration of alpha-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) produces a decrease in arterial blood pressure due to a decrease in cardiac output. The mechanism of the decrease in cardiac output is unknown but has been suggested to result from transcapillary fluid efflux caused by venoconstriction and/or increased permeability of the microvascular ...
Maron M B - - 1989
Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) may develop in individuals with head trauma or seizures and is generally thought to have a hydrostatic basis in the severe degree of pulmonary hypertension that occurs. Recently, it has been suggested that vascular pressures may rise to levels that damage the vessels, leaving the patient ...
Klausner J M - - 1989
Lower torso ischemia and reperfusion lead to respiratory dysfunction characterized by pulmonary hypertension and increased lung microvascular permeability. This is associated with lung leukosequestration and thromboxane (TX) generation. This study tests the role of elevated TX levels following muscle ischemia in mediating remote lung injury. Anesthetized sheep prepared with chronic ...
Toyofuku T - - 1989
The role of charged sites on the permeability characteristics of the pulmonary microvascular barrier were investigated using chronically instrumented unanesthetized sheep. In one series of experiments we studied the effects of the cationic amphiphile, dodecyl trimethylamine (DTA; 297 mol wt), and the anionic amphiphile, SDS (288 mol wt), on lung ...
Lebel L - - 1989
The effect of septicemia on the elimination of hyaluronan (HA) from the lung interstitium was investigated in awake sheep with chronic lung lymph and thoracic duct fistulas. The result was compared with that after elevation of left atrial pressure (LAP). Lymph was sampled before and after a 20-min infusion of ...
Bryla P - - 1989
The effect of acute venous hypertension on the extravasation of plasma proteins, erythrocytes, and leukocytes into regional lymph was studied in the dog hindlimb. Although the lymph protein transport sharply rose with hindlimb phlebohypertension, capillary permeability was unchanged with retention in draining lymph of a normal proportion of large to ...
Beach R E - - 1989
Recent studies have supported the possibility that mechanisms other than alterations in transcapillary oncotic pressure may contribute to edema formation in nephrotic syndrome. In a patient with a discrete, partial obstruction to lymphatic flow in the left upper extremity, the authors determined the transcapillary oncotic pressure differential in the obstructed, ...
McHale N G - - 1989
Lymphatic pumping activity was examined in halothane-anesthetized sheep. A doubly cannulated preparation of the mesenteric lymph duct was "isolated" from lymph input, other than that from a constant pressure reservoir of artificial lymph attached to its inflow cannula, but had its blood supply and innervation intact. A cerebral ischemic response, ...
Smith L - - 1989
Changes in pulmonary microvascular permeability in sheep, after oleic acid injection, were studied using estimations of the osmotic reflection coefficient (sigma d) for total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins (Ig) G and M and calculation of the equivalent small and large pores of the microvessels. A chronic lung fistula was prepared in ...
LaLonde C - - 1989
Thromboxane A2 production is increased early after burn. We studied the effect of inhibiting thromboxane synthetase, using dazmegrel, on postburn hemodynamic stability and edema formation, the latter monitored by burn tissue lymph flow. Dazmegrel (3.4 mg/kg) was given to six anesthetized sheep, and a 40% of total-body-surface third-degree burn was ...
Nieman G F - - 1989
The effect of wood smoke inhalation (SI) on pulmonary vascular permeability was studied in open-chested, anesthetized dogs. Animals were divided into two groups. A prenodal lymphatic vessel was cannulated in group I (n = 7), and baseline (BL) lung lymph flow (QL) and lymph (CL) and plasma (CP) protein concentrations ...
Klausner J M - - 1989
Reperfusion after limb ischemia leads to sequestration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the lungs and to leukocyte- (WBC) and thromboxane- (Tx) dependent respiratory dysfunction. This study examines the intermediary role of the chemoattractants leukotriene (LT)B4 and complement (C) fragments. Anesthetized sheep with chronic lung lymph fistulae underwent 2 hours of ...
Leng W - - 1989
The changes in vascular albumin permeation induced by systemic anaphylaxis were studied simultaneously in 21 different tissues of the same animal. Before Ag challenge sensitized rats were injected i.v. with 125I-albumin (test tracer), 51Cr-RBC (vascular space marker) and 57Co-EDTA (extravascular space marker). The index of vascular permeation used was the ...
McClure D E - - 1989
We prepared nine sheep with acute tracheobronchial afferent (TBN) and caudal mediastinal efferent (CMN) lymph fistulas. After a baseline period (B) in 3 sheep, we administered histamine (H) continuously for 4 h. In six sheep, we elevated left atrial pressure (PLA) and reestablished steady-state conditions prior to H administration. The ...
Gest A L - - 1989
The purpose of this project was to study the effects of increased plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on hemodynamics and lung fluid balance in lambs. We studied 16 unanesthetized newborn lambs during a base-line period and while infusing AVP into a hindlimb vein at 1.65 +/- 0.12 and 2.98 ...
Brace R A - - 1989
The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent fetal thoracic duct lymph flow may be reduced by increases in fetal venous pressure. In pregnant sheep the fetal left thoracic lymph duct was catheterized at the base of the neck and this catheter was connected to a jugular-vein ...
Traber D L - - 1989
We compared the cardiopulmonary responses to a single bolus (1.5 microgram/kg) vs. continuous infusion of endotoxin (LPS) (24 ng/kg/hr) in unanesthetized sheep. A single bolus produced an initial marked increase in pulmonary arterial pressure and plasma thromboxane levels and an elevated flow rate of lung lymph low in protein. Concomitantly, ...
Dobbins D E - - 1989
It has been previously reported that enprofylline (3-propyl xanthine) prevents histamine-mediated edema formation in the guinea pig lung. To further assess the potential anti-inflammatory effects of enprofylline, we infused it intra-arterially into the canine forelimb before and during a local intra-arterial infusion of histamine (4 micrograms/min) while monitoring forelimb skin ...
Klausner J M - - 1989
Lower torso ischemia leads during reperfusion to leukocyte (white blood cell)-dependent lung injury. This study tests the intermediary role of oxygen free radicals (OFRs) in mediating this event. Chronically instrumented anesthetized sheep underwent 2 hours of bilateral hindlimb ischemia. In untreated control animals (n = 7), 1 minute after tourniquet ...
Koike K - - 1989
The pathogenesis of reexpansion pulmonary edema has not been well studied. We tested the hypothesis that both long term collapse and subsequent reexpansion of the lungs cause reexpansion pulmonary edema by increasing pulmonary microvascular permeability. We investigated lymph dynamics in 15 experiments on collapsed lung and 10 experiments after lung ...
Hughes K R - - 1989
We have studied 9 patients with burns (20%-75%) who had inhalation injuries and compared their actual fluid requirements with their requirements calculated from the Muir and Barclay formula. All patients were resuscitated with plasma protein fraction at a rate sufficient to keep their physiological variables within the following range: heart ...
Krausz M M - - 1989
Pulmonary insufficiency is a major cause for mortality and morbidity following shock and sepsis. We studied the effect of hemorrhagic shock and retransfusion on endotoxin-induced lung dysfunction. Eighteen unanesthetized sheep with chronic lung lymph fistulae were divided into 3 groups. In Group I (n = 5) hemorrhagic shock of 50 ...
Holzheimer G - - 1989
In urethan-anesthetized rats the appearance rates of urea (U), antipyrine (A), and alpha-methyl-D-glucoside (MG) in the venous blood of perfused jejunal segment were measured in the undistended state and after elevation of the intraluminal pressure up to 10 cmH2O. Serosal and inner cylindrical surface area of the jejunal segment were ...
Xie Z L - - 1989
The effects of hypoxia and zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP) on lung hemodynamics and fluid exchange were studied in unanesthetized goats. Hypoxia produced a sustained increase in pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA), but had no effect on lung lymph flow and protein content. Following ZAP infusion there was an early phase of leukopenia ...
Klausner J M - - 1989
The clinical use of interleukin-2 (IL-2) is limited by severe cardiopulmonary dysfunction. This study examines the mechanism of respiratory failure related to IL-2, using sheep with chronic lung lymph fistulae. Awake animals were infused with an intravenous (I.V.) bolus of IL-2 10(5) U/kg (n = 5) or its excipient (EXC) ...
Wareing T H - - 1989
Hydrostatic and oncotic pressures are the primary determinants of fluid movement across the pulmonary vascular membrane. The precise role of oncotic pressure in regulating transvascular fluid exchange especially when hydrostatic pressure is high is not known. Awake, adult sheep were instrumented for pressure monitoring and the collection of pulmonary lymph. ...
Teague W G - - 1988
To study the effect of pulmonary perfusion on fluid filtration in the newborn lung, we measured pulmonary vascular pressures, cardiac output, lung lymph flow, and concentrations of protein in lymph and plasma of nine healthy, awake lambs, 2-3 wk old, before and during sustained alterations in pulmonary blood flow. A ...
Klausner J M - - 1988
Lower torso ischemia leads on reperfusion to sequestration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the lungs and increased permeability. This study tests the role of circulating leukocytes (WBC) in mediating this lung injury. Anesthetized sheep prepared with chronic lung lymph fistulae underwent 2 hours of bilateral hind limb tourniquet ischemia. In ...
Krausz M M - - 1988
The effect of the leukotriene D4, leukotriene E4 (LTD4/E4) receptor antagonist LY-171883 was studied in endotoxemia. Eighteen awake sheep were divided into three groups. In Group (n = 4) 4 mg/kg LY-171883 was twice injected intravenously. In Group II (n = 9) 1 microgram/kg E. coli endotoxin was administered intravenously. ...
Sessler C N - - 1988
We investigated whether platelet-activating factor (PAF) mediates endotoxin-induced systemic and pulmonary vascular derangements by studying the effects of a selective PAF receptor antagonist, SRI 63-441, during endotoxemia in sheep. Endotoxin infusion (1.3 micrograms/kg over 0.5 h) caused a rapid, transient rise in pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) from 16 +/- 3 ...
Clark E S - - 1988
A yearling Hanoverian filly had intermittent colic for 6 weeks, chylous peritoneal effusion, and a firm mass palpable per rectum. Exploratory laparotomy revealed mesenteric lymphadenopathy, adhesion of the mesenteric root to the duodenum and jejunum, distention of the mesenteric veins and lymphatic vessels, and increased jejunal venous pressure. Lesions in ...
McGeown J G - - 1988
1. Lymph flow was measured by cannulating metatarsal lymphatics in the sheep hindlimb. The region was perfused with warmed, heparinized, oxygenated blood via the tibio-cranial artery cannulated just distal to the hock. Constant and pulsatile perfusion pressures were compared. A cuff was inflated over the metatarsals to maintain venous pressure ...
Grimbert F A - - 1988
We studied the effects of an increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF) on steady-state lung lymph flow (QL) and protein transport in anesthetized dogs (n = 7) to estimate the effect of vascular recruitment in zone 3 on transvascular filtration. At the end of each experiment, we increased left atrial ...
Townsley M I - - 1988
The effect of glass-bead microemboli (diameter 100 micron, range 77-125 micron) in the absence of fibrinolysis inhibition on pulmonary hemodynamics and microvascular permeability was determined in anesthetized, microfilaria-free dogs acutely prepared for the collection of lung lymph. Pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary capillary pressure (Pc), lymph flow (QL), and the ratio ...
Granger D N - - 1988
The forces and membrane coefficients governing transcapillary and lymphatic fluid fluxes were measured in the cat jejunum before and during perfusion of the gut lumen with oleic acid (5 mM) solubilized with taurocholic acid (10 mM). Net transmucosal fluid flux, lymph flow, capillary pressure (Pc), blood flow, capillary filtration coefficient ...
Loyd J E - - 1988
We sought to determine the effect of corticosteroid therapy in a new acute model of oxidant lung injury, thoracic irradiation in awake sheep. Sheep were irradiated with 1,500 rads to the whole chest except for blocking the heart and adjacent ventral lung. Seven experimental sheep were given methylprednisolone (1 g ...
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