Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 852
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Pou N A - - 1993
Changes in lung fluid volumes and hyaluronan clearance were measured in six awake sheep during increased microvascular permeability induced by pulmonary air embolism (AE). After a 1- to 2-h baseline, filtered room air was infused through a proximal port of a Swan-Ganz catheter for 2 h at a rate sufficient ...
Eisenhoffer J - - 1993
The objective of this study was to determine how lymphatic vessels responded to outflow pressure changes in vitro. Bovine mesenteric lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with both inflow and outflow ends cannulated. Input to the duct was provided from a reservoir filled with Krebs solution. To initiate ...
Dehring D J - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To determine if thermal injury impairs pulmonary intravascular clearance of bacteria and therefore leads to exaggerated cardiopulmonary dysfunction in sheep, since endotoxin infusion has been previously shown to induce more severe pulmonary injury after thermal injury. DESIGN: Prospective, unblinded, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Laboratory at a large university medical ...
Han Y - - 1993
In six open-thorax-anaesthetized dogs with paced hearts and a retrogradely cannulated epicardial lymph vessel, the sensitivity of myocardial lymph pressure to left ventricular pressure during systole and during diastole was determined. The lymph vessels were cannulated using PE-90 tubing, and lymph pressure was measured by connecting the cannula to a ...
Han Y - - 1993
We measured epicardial lymph pressure (Plymph) in the anesthetized goat (n = 5 goats). To study the transmission of systolic left ventricular pressure (PLV) to Plymph, the effect of an increase in PLV caused by clamping of the descending aorta on Plymph was evaluated. Peak systolic PLV was 131 +/- ...
Reed R K - - 1993
The blood-to-tissue clearance of radioactive albumin and a lymphatic flux analysis were used to evaluate the transport properties of albumin in the canine hindpaw. A prenodal lymphatic was cannulated, and lymph was collected for a 2-h control period. Thereafter venous pressure was elevated between 7 and 31 mmHg. After 2 ...
Ehrhart I C - - 1993
Average microvascular filtration pressure and vascular permeability measures were obtained in 100-microns glass bead-embolized dog lung lobes randomly assigned to groups in which isolated perfusion was designed to produce weight gain (edema groups) or no weight gain (isogravimetric groups). The solvent drag reflection coefficient (sigma), an index of vascular permeability, ...
Baldwin A L - - 1993
To determine the relative importance of the lymphatic system and transcapillary reabsorption in maintaining water distribution between blood and lymph in Rana pipiens, the hematocrit (HCT) was measured (12 frogs) when each frog was: 1) under tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) anesthesia, which inactivates the lymph hearts, 2) conscious at rest (control), ...
Reddy H K - - 1993
Vascular permeability of the coronary and mesenteric circulation is increased in association with the arterial hypertension that accompanies either endogenous activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) or exogenous administration of angiotensin II (AII). Whether this occurs as a result of increased intravascular pressure or of elevations in plasma concentrations of ...
Wang C Z - - 1993
Noncardiogenic edema fluid often contains high levels of plasma proteins, which may inhibit the function of the lung surfactant complex and thus decrease interstitial hydrostatic pressures. We questioned whether, in the awake and standing animal, displacement of the alveolar surface lining would alter the permeability of the thin and sparsely ...
Suzuki S - - 1993
The purpose of this study is to determine if stimulation of pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) increase microvascular permeability in sheep. We infused latex microbeads, 1 micron in diameter, for 1 hr continuously and analysed lung hemodynamic and lymph-dynamic changes. More than 70% of latex microbeads in the lung were assigned ...
Thornbury K D - - 1993
The main mesenteric lymph duct was cannulated in halothane-anesthetized sheep, and continuous recordings were made of lymph flow, lymphatic pressure fluctuations, and arterial pressure. Stimulation of the left greater splanchnic nerve at frequencies of 1, 4, and 10 Hz caused lymph flow to increase by 30 +/- 9, 74 +/- ...
Burhop K E - - 1993
We studied the cardiopulmonary, hematologic, and inflammatory response to hemodialysis with seven different membranes in sheep. We also compared acetate dialysate with bicarbonate dialysate and evaluated the role of thromboxane in mediating these responses to dialysis with Cuprophan membranes (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Renal Division, Deerfield, Ill.) in sheep. The data ...
Tran L - - 1993
Lymphatic drainage of the peritoneal cavity may reduce ultrafiltration in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We assessed lymphatic drainage of the peritoneal cavity in sheep under dialysis conditions by cannulation of the relevant lymphatic vessels and compared lymphatic drainage in anesthetized and conscious animals. Lymph was collected from the caudal mediastinal ...
Stürmer K M - - 1993
1. During reaming of the medullary cavity prior to nailing, hydraulic pressure builds up in the cavity which far exceeds that of blood pressure. The peak values for 29 sheep clearly exceeds 2.5 bar. The highest values for individual reamers average 1.3 bar. The differences between the various reamers are ...
Wenda K - - 1993
For the clarification of pulmonary impairment after medullary nailing of femoral fractures, the intramedullary pressure in the femoral cavity during the operative procedure was investigated. In addition, an intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography was performed which revealed two phenomena occurring once the intramedullary pressure had increased: snow-flurry and configured emboli. An experimental ...
Abensur H - - 1993
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of hydrostatic intraperitoneal pressure (IPP) and cardiac function (CF) on the lymphatic absorption rate (LAR) in 9 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The LAR was measured by estimation of the intraperitoneal disappearance of dextran 70 added to 2 ...
Gest A L - - 1993
The intent of this study was to investigate thoracic duct lymph flow, as it is related to the development of hydrops fetalis during rapid atrial pacing. We studied 6 fetal sheep at 128 +/- 6 days of gestation who had chronically placed thoracic duct catheters, aortic and superior vena cava ...
Arroyo V - - 1993
Renal sodium and water retention and ascites associated with cirrhosis develop in the setting of severe sinusoidal portal hypertension, hyperdynamic circulation (characterized by arterial hypotension, hypervolaemia, high cardiac output and low peripheral vascular resistance), homeostatic activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system and antidiuretic hormone production (i.e. mechanisms designed ...
Koizumi T - - 1993
We examined the effects of continuous intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin (NTG) on lung dysfunction induced by endotoxemia in awake sheep chronically instrumented with lung lymph fistula. We measured the responses of hemodynamics, lung lymph balance, and thromboxane (Tx)B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG) F1 alpha levels in plasma and lung lymph to ...
Valenzuela G J - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: Daily the lymphatic system returns several liters of fluid to the systemic circulation. Unlike blood, lymph is pumped against a pressure gradient. Because vessels in the systemic circulation are hyporesponsive to vasoconstrictor hormones during pregnancy, we decided to assess whether lymphatic pumping ability was decreased during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: ...
Gbaanador G B - - 1992
The hemodynamic and lung lymph changes following near-drowning (ND) were studied in sheep. Experimental ND was by transtracheal aspiration of 10 ml/kg body weight of either seawater (SW) or freshwater (FW). Extravascular lung water and lung lymph protein flux were significantly increased, but cardiac index was depressed in both groups ...
Lalonde C - - 1992
We determined the lung and systemic response of a moderate smoke inhalation injury combined with a 15% total body surface third-degree burn compared with a burn alone and inhalation alone. Adult sheep were prepared with chronic lung and bilateral prefemoral soft tissue lymph fistula. The burn was confined to one ...
Valenzuela G J - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanisms responsible for edema seen during pregnancy, we tested whether lymph vessels are able to pump high volumes over long periods of time. STUDY DESIGN: In six chronically catheterized nonpregnant ewes, we examined left thoracic duct lymph flow rate and fluid balance responses to the administration ...
Gest A L - - 1992
Edema develops when lymph does not return to the venous circulation at a rate equal to the rate of capillary filtration. Fetal sheep develop edema as well as an increased central venous pressure while undergoing atrial pacing at 320 beats per min. We hypothesized that the increased central venous pressure ...
Zanaboni P B - - 1992
In a previous study, we demonstrated that phorbol myristate acetate-(PMA) induced injury in isolated blood-perfused rabbit lungs was characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and permeability to water as measured by fluid filtration coefficient (Kf). The Kf increase was prevented by pretreatment with three cyclooxygenase inhibitors, indomethacin, ibuprofen, and ...
Espiritu R F - - 1992
A role for peptidergic nerves in the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was examined by radioimmunochemically quantifying neuropeptides in pulmonary edema (PE) fluids from seven patients with ARDS and six patients with PE from congestive heart failure (CHF). The PE fluid mean concentrations of substance P (SP) and gastrin-releasing peptide ...
Miller R F - - 1992
We studied the effects of two structurally unrelated sulfidopeptide leukotriene receptor antagonists on endotoxin-induced pulmonary dysfunction in chronically instrumented unanesthetized sheep. The agents employed were L-660,711 (MK-571) (Merck-Frosst, Canada) and SK&F 104,353 (Smith Kline and French, King of Prussia, PA). The efficacy and specificity of the agents were verified in ...
Gunther R A - - 1992
Recently, we have shown that exposure of intubated conscious sheep to 3 to 4 ppm ozone (O3) for 3 h increases bronchial blood flow (Qbr). The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential role of corticosteroids in modulating this increase. Six nasally intubated sheep were exposed to ...
Harshman S - - 1992
The in vivo responses to staphylococcal alpha toxin are reported for 15 chronically instrumented awake yearling sheep. The data obtained from a total of 30 experiments are grouped into four categories of response: no response, noted in seven experiments done on 5 sheep; pressor response, obtained seven times in 4 ...
Wallace J R - - 1992
The hypothesis that the albumin reflection coefficient is underestimated from measurements of lymph protein flux because of a prolonged interstitial washout was tested in the hindleg of anesthetized rabbits. In heel skin, the initial extravascular uptake for labeled albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) was compared with prenodal lymph flux for ...
Jones J M - - 1992
Posterior lymph heart pressure, rate and flow were measured in chronically cannulated Bufo marinus during normal hydrated and dehydrated conditions. A new surgical technique was developed which allowed direct and constant measurement of the functioning of the posterior lymph hearts with minimal disruption to normal lymph drainage. The mean intra-lymph-heart ...
Dobbins D E - - 1992
It has been proposed that catecholamines may regulate lymphatic function by altering lymphatic resistance. In this study we perfused lymphatics in the paw of the anesthetized dog, administering catecholamines intralymphatically before and during intra-arterial administration of adrenoreceptor antagonists. Epinephrine and norepinephrine both increased lymphatic perfusion pressure. When the infusions were ...
Gabel J C - - 1992
The lymph from most organs drains through the thoracic duct and into veins in the neck. We hypothesized that increases in neck vein pressure (Pnv) are reflected through the thoracic duct to the lung lymphatic-thoracic duct junction. To test this, we cannulated the lung lymphatics in the direction of flow ...
Conhaim R L - - 1992
We used a simplified two-pore filtration model to examine the effects of hypoproteinemia on lung and soft tissue lymph flux in awake sheep (n = 7). To induce hypoproteinemia, we subjected each animal to 3 days of batch plasmapheresis (6 units per day). Data were collected in near steady-state conditions, ...
Bosso F J - - 1992
We evaluated the ability of the canine in situ left lower lobe (LLL) vasculature to sieve endogenous plasma proteins of various molecular radii (34-124 A) after LLL arterial pressure had been transiently elevated to 23.8 +/- 0.9 (control group, n = 5) or 92.3 +/- 1.4 (SE) Torr (high-pressure group, ...
Dyess D L - - 1992
Administration of hyperosmolar fluids to burn patients has been proposed as a means of decreasing resuscitative fluid volume and, subsequently, wound edema accumulation. To test this hypothesis, canine hindpaw lymph flow (QL) and lymph (CL) and plasma (CP) total protein concentrations were measured, and capillary filtration coefficient (Kf) was calculated ...
Longhurst J C - - 1992
Mesenteric ischemia stimulates both A delta- and C-fiber afferents to reflexly activate the cardiovascular system. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) concentration is increased in intestinal mucosa following prolonged ischemia (3 h) followed by reperfusion. Because LTB4 sensitizes afferent nerve endings in the skin, we determined whether LTB4 is produced during brief mesenteric ...
Drake R E - - 1992
Lymphatic vessels from the intestines drain into the thoracic duct, and the thoracic duct empties into veins in the neck. Thus increases in neck vein pressure (PNV) might slow intestinal lymph flow, provided the increased pressure is reflected upstream through the lymphatic vessels. To test the effect of increases in ...
Spiegel M - - 1992
The network of lymphatic capillaries of the human skin was depicted at the distal part of the tibial plateau by fluorescence microlymphography (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 150,000). Intralymphatic pressure was determined in 28 lymphatic capillaries of 21 healthy volunteers (mean diameter 56.0 +/- 10.0 microns) by a servo-nulling pressure system. It averaged ...
Reed R K - - 1992
Isolated and autoperfused ileal segments from pentobarbital-anesthetized cats were used to study turnover of hyaluronan in the intestine. A postnodal lymphatic was cannulated, and transcapillary and interstitial fluid fluxes were increased by raising venous pressure. Lymph hyaluronan concentration in control averaged 20.2 +/- 18.8 (SD) micrograms/ml (range 4.6-50) and increased ...
Carlton D P - - 1992
The purpose of this study was to determine whether an increase in pulmonary vascular filtration pressure affects net production of liquid within the lumen of the fetal lung. We studied 14 chronically catheterized fetal lambs [130 +/- 3 (SD) days gestation] before, during, and after a 4-h rapid (500 ml/h) ...
Hales C A - - 1992
The pulmonary edema of smoke inhalation is caused by the toxins of smoke and not the heat. We investigated the potential of smoke consisting of carbon in combination with either acrolein or formaldehyde (both common components of smoke) to cause pulmonary edema in anesthetized sheep. Seven animals received acrolein smoke, ...
Sawada K - - 1992
During membrane plasma fractionation therapy there are reported incidences of membrane plugging requiring the corrective actions of either filter replacement or backwashing (BW) in order to continue the treatment. In this preliminary study, a simple BW procedure to allow for on-line reuse of the filter (Asahi AP06M) during the treatment ...
Dobbins D E - - 1992
Neurokinin A and B are putative inflammatory mediators. We assessed their ability to alter prenodal lymphatic resistance. Intralymphatic neurokinin A (3.0 x 10(-6), 3.0 x 10(-5) and 3.0 x 10(-4) mol l(-1)) significantly constricted lymphatics at the two highest doses. Preliminary experiments suggested that neurokinin B might dilate lymphatics. To ...
Maron M B - - 1992
We determined whether the solvent drag reflection coefficient (sigma f) for total proteins of a canine perfused left lower lung lobe (LLL) preparation decreases at elevated venous pressures (Pv). We found that sigma f (estimated using the hematocrit-protein technique) remained constant at all Pv's (30-95 mm Hg) evaluated. These results ...
Tsay T T - - 1992
Isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic saline was infused in anesthetized rabbits in order to test the effects of osmolality in cerebral vessels on lymph flow. The jugular lymph trunk was cannulated by PE tubing in a headward direction. Either a hypo-(100 mosmol), iso-(310 mosmol), or hypertonic (605 mosmol) NaCl solution was ...
Heyeraas K J - - 1992
The initial vascular reactions during inflammation are vasodilation and increased vessel permeability. Both these basic reactions cause increased pulpal fluid volume. In the dental pulp the inflammatory vascular reactions take place in a rigid enclosed dentin chamber, which to some extent makes the pulp vulnerable. Due to this lack of ...
Ehrhart I C - - 1992
Simultaneous measures of vascular permeability to fluid (capillary filtration coefficient, Kf) and to plasma proteins (solvent drag reflection coefficient, sigma) were obtained over venous pressures (Pv) from 14 to 105 Torr in the isolated ventilated canine lung lobe (n = 70) pump perfused with autologous blood. The sigma was obtained ...
Chen H I - - 1991
Lymph flow transients were studied in a dog paw preparation when venous pressure was elevated by 15 and 25 mmHg. The lymph flow transients showed a very rapid initial increase which then declined to a steady-state value that was one-half the peak lymph flow response for both pressure changes. Lymph ...
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