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Results 201 - 250 of 837
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Brinker T - - 1997
To study the dynamics of the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the cervical lymphatic system, X-ray contrast medium or Indian ink was infused into the cisterna magna of rats at moderately increased intracranial pressure (40-50 mmHg). In the first series of experiments, while the contrast medium was being infused, ...
Germann P - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) on oxygenation, hemodynamics, and lymphatic drainage in an oleic acid lung injury model in sheep. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. ANIMALS: Thirty female sheep, weighing 35 to 40 kg. INTERVENTIONS: Acute lung ...
Diebel L N - - 1997
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Major trauma or abdominal injury may lead to the development of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and the onset of the abdominal compartment syndrome. Although the effect of raised IAP on systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics have been described, the consequences of the resultant gut hypoperfusion in this setting ...
Dörffler-Melly J - - 1997
The variability of pressure in the cutaneous lymph capillaries on the forefoot was determined in 2 groups of healthy volunteers. In group A, including 12 healthy subjects (8 men, 4 women; mean age 28 years, range 22 to 37 years), measurements were performed in the morning and late afternoon of ...
Hao Q - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of burn lymph on pulmonary hemodynamic variables. METHODS: A balloon-tipped catheter was fluoroscopically passed from a jugular vein into the right lower lobe (RLL) pulmonary artery of rats, its distal lumen used to measure pulmonary artery pressure. Inflation allowed measurement of RLL wedge pressure, which ...
Onizuka M - - 1997
1. To study the lymph flow dynamics in the intact thoracic duct, we applied an ultrasound transit-time flow probe in seven anaesthetized and four unanaesthetized adult sheep (approximately 60 kg). In unanaesthetized non-fasting animals we found that lymph flow in the thoracic duct was always regular pulsatile (pulsation frequency, 5.2 ...
Sainte-Marie G - - 1997
This paper describes a morphologically unusual feature occurring in lymph nodes of some aged euthymic animals but mostly athymic animals. It initially consists of small alveole-like excrescences of the cortical wall of the subcapsular sinus. With dilatation, an excrescence becomes an ectasia which expands into the cortex. Observations suggest that ...
Franzeck U K - - 1997
The treatment of patients with lymphedema is still controversial. Combined physical therapy with manual lymph drainage and compression therapy is most frequently used to reduce lymphatic leg swelling. However, objective evidence is rare that this empirical form of treatment has a scientific basis. In a prospective study fluorescence microlymphography and ...
Wallin C J - - 1997
Increased pulmonary microvascular pressure (Pmv), in combination with other factors, may cause pulmonary interstitial oedema. Whether increased Pmv alone induces alveolar oedema is questionable. In the present study we used the heavy water-indocyanine green dilution method to measure lung water during a rapid intravascular volume expansion in the sheep. Eight ...
Jones J M - - 1997
Flow from the posterior lymph hearts of Bufo marinus was measured using Doppler flow probes. These probes were placed on the posterior vertebral vein and recorded flow as lymph was ejected from the heart. In resting, hydrated toads, mean lymph flow from one of the paired posterior lymph hearts was ...
Drake R E - - 1997
Increases in systemic venous pressure (Pv) associated with heart failure cause an increase in microvascular fluid filtration into the tissue spaces. By removing this excess filtrate from the tissues, lymphatic vessels help to prevent edema. However, the lymphatics drain into systemic veins and an increase in Pv may interfere with ...
Affanni J M - - 1997
A simple technique for recording the EKG of the posterior lymphatic hearts of the toad Bufo arenarum (Hensel) in free moving unanesthetized specimens is described. This technique permits long term chronic recordings in varied physiological and behavioral conditions whereas it overcomes some of the technical difficulties encountered in obtaining reliable ...
Odiit A - - 1997
A cross sectional study was carried out to determine Selective Protein Index (SPI) and relate it to some clinical features that might be useful in deciding on the treatment of children with the nephrotic syndrome in four hospitals in Kampala, Uganda. Radial immunodiffusion technique in commercially prepared plates was used ...
Ikomi E - - 1997
The mechanisms of pressure and flow generation in the initial lymphatic network remain undefined in many details. Active pump mechanisms by lymph smooth muscle contraction have been demonstrated in collecting lymph ducts while passive mechanisms by periodic lymph compression in noncontractile initial lymphatics have received relative little attention. The aim ...
Conhaim R L - - 1997
We tested the hypothesis that plasma oncotic pressure alone, not the plasma-to-lymph oncotic pressure difference, modulates pulmonary transvascular fluid filtration. To do this we measured lung lymph flow after raising left atrial pressure (by inflating a balloon) in sheep that were receiving a continuous (32 h) infusion of dextran 40. ...
VanTeeffelen J W - - 1997
The effect of increased fluid filtration on stopped-flow epicardial lymph pressure (P(lymph)), used as an indicator of myocardial interstitial volume, was investigated in the anesthetized open-chest dog. Histamine infusion resulted in an increased systolic peak in the P(lymph) signal together with an increase in diastolic P(lymph) in four of five ...
Turnage R H - - 1997
This study examines the hypothesis that intestinal reperfusion (IR)-induced pulmonary thromboxane A2 (TxA2) release increases local microvascular permeability and induces pulmonary vasoconstriction. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 120 min of intestinal ischemia and 60 min of IR. Sham-operated animals (Sham) served as controls. After IR or Sham, the pulmonary vessels were cannulated, ...
Mishima S - - 1997
Wistar rats were burned over 15% of their total body surface area and suffered hemorrhagic hypotension (mean blood pressure 80 mm Hg) 72 hours after the thermal injury (burn + hypotension group). Rats in other groups were treated in the same way except sham hypotension in burn group, sham burn ...
Snapper J R - - 1997
Endothelins have potent biological effect in vivo which may, in part, be mediated by stimulation of cyclooxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid. We administered endothelins (ETs) intravenously to chronically instrumented awake sheep with and without pretreatment with meclofenamate (n = 8). 30 micrograms doses of ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3 caused similar ...
Dillehay L E - - 1997
High interstitial pressure limits the uptake of systemically-administered macromolecular agents. Fast infusion, which has been found to spread by convection macromolecules in the brain, was examined in a xenograft tumor system. Subcutaneous human U251 glioblastoma tumors (0.3-1.3 cm3) were infused for up to 40 minutes starting at 20 microliters/minutes while ...
Stewart R H - - 1996
We hypothesized that myocardial microvascular filtration rate (Jv) could be manipulated by varying end-diastolic myocardial interstitial hydrostatic (P(int)) pressure. Dogs under general anesthesia were instrumented with intramyocardial capsules to measure P(int) and with prenodal myocardial lymphatic trunk cannulas and superior vena caval balloon-tipped catheters to manipulate myocardial lymph flow. Because, ...
Mehlhorn U - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that (1) acute arterial hypertension increases myocardial microvascular fluid filtration and (2) the combination of acute arterial hypertension and coronary sinus pressure elevation may increase myocardial microvascular filtration sufficiently to estimate the osmotic reflection coefficient of the myocardial exchange vessels. METHODS: In nine mechanically ventilated dogs we ...
Kikuchi Y - - 1996
We previously reported that smoke inhalation to the right lung will result in damage to the air-insufflated left lung. In this study we confirm these findings and determine whether this injury is associated with an elevation in lung lymph flow and pulmonary microvascular permeability to protein as indexed by changes ...
Miyahara T - - 1996
To investigate the role played by neutrophil-derived elastase in acute lung injury, this study examined the effects of treatment of ONO-5046, a competitive, reversible, and specific neutrophil elastase inhibitor, on lung dysfunction induced by air emboli in awake sheep. Sheep were prepared with chronic lung lymph fistula. In experiment 1, ...
Ikomi F - - 1996
Lymphatics serve to remove from the interstitium a range of materials, including plasma proteins, colloid materials, and cells. Lymph flow rates can be enhanced by periodic tissue compression or venous pressure elevation, but little is known to what degree enhancement of lymph flow affects material transport. The objective was to ...
McGrath A M - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary edema is a complication of critical care fluid management that may be restricted by the use of oncotically effective resuscitation fluids. Potentially beneficial oncotic properties of starch-based plasma volume expanders such as hetastarch (Het), pentafraction (Pen), and Dextran-70 (Dex) may be compromised by their broad range of molecular ...
Kato S - - 1996
We tested hypertonic saline solution (HS) to determine its effectiveness in surgical procedures for prostatic hypertrophy. We randomly selected 40 patients undergoing elective transurethral resection of the prostate for either infusion of HS (3% NaCl) at 4ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (HS group) or lactated Ringer's solution (LR) at 8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (LR group). Anesthesiologists ...
Franzeck U K - - 1996
1. The influence of postural changes on cutaneous lymphatic capillary pressure and venous pressure was measured at the dorsum of the foot in twelve healthy volunteers. Measurements were performed in the supine and sitting positions. 2. Lymphatic skin capillaries were visualized by fluorescence microlymphography with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-Dextran 150000. Subsequently ...
Allen G K - - 1996
Six, clinically healthy horses, of mixed age and sex, were infused via a jugular venous catheter with 100 ml of pyrogenfree sterile saline (PFSS; 0.9% NaCl). Animals were infused with Escherichia coli O55:B5 endotoxin (total dose = 50 ng/kg bwt), 24 (LPS-1) and 48 h (LPS-2) after PFSS infusion. Blood ...
Woodman G E - - 1996
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether acute ethanol (EtOH) intoxication could alter the systemic inflammatory response evoked by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). METHODS: Anesthetized (fentanyl) and mechanically ventilated mongrel pigs were administered 20% EtOH (3 gm/kg) or its vehicle (VEH) by means of gastric lavage. After 60 minutes of equilibration, blood levels ...
Rohn D A - - 1996
The renal lymphatic system plays an important role in removing excess fluid from the kidneys. Unfortunately, the factors influencing lymphatic flow are difficult to measure. We used a simple model to represent renal lymphatics as a single pressure source (PL) pushing lymph through a single resistance (RL). In anesthetized dogs, ...
Johnson S A - - 1996
We measured thoracic duct lymph flow rate versus outflow pressure in 7 chronically catheterized adult sheep and in 6 newborn lambs and compared our results to data previously obtained from 10 fetal sheep. In fetal sheep the thoracic duct lymph flow rate was 34.5 +/- 17.2 ml/hr or 11.7 +/- ...
Hiesmayr M - - 1996
Mean systemic filling pressure (Psf) is an indicator of the filling state of the systemic circulation. Cardiac output (Q') is related linearly to the difference between Psf and central venous pressure (Pcv), according to: Q' = (Psf - Pcv)/Rsf, where Rsf is the flow resistance downstream from the sites where ...
Atchison D J - - 1996
We investigated the hypothesis that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) attenuates lymph vessel pumping. In the present experiments, isolated bovine lymphatic vessels were cannulated at each end to create inflow and outlfow ports for the administration of Krebs' solution (vehicle) or ANP and for the measurement of fluid pumped by the ...
Conhaim R L - - 1996
Lung liquid conductance (Kf) is calculated as the quotient of lung lymph flow divided by net filtration pressure (Pnf), where Pnf is the balance of osmotic and hydrostatic pressures in the lung microcirculation. In protein depletion, lymph flow rises with little change in Pnf, suggesting that calculated Kf also rises. ...
Drake R E - - 1996
We determined the relationship between flow rate and inflow pressure for intestinal lymphatic vessels in six sheep. First we anesthetized the sheep and cannulated both ends of a 6- to 10-cm-long segment of intestinal lymphatic. We allowed the sheep to recover from the anesthesia for 2-24 h. To determine the ...
Scherer R U - - 1996
In a short-time model of endotoxin-induced (lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli, 120 micrograms kg-1 i.v.) hypercoagulability in rabbits, the therapeutic effects of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1I) substitution (bolus 400 U kg-1 i.v. followed by continuous infusion of 400 U kg-1 4 h-1 i.v.) were studied. When compared to endotoxin-challenged untreated animals, C1I ...
Eleftheriadis E - - 1996
The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate whether the increased intraabdominal pressure due to gas insufflation creates intestinal ischemia leading to oxygen free radical production and bacterial translocation. A group of 88 rats were studied, 40 of which were subjected to a 15 mmHg pressure pneumoperitoneum for 60 ...
Swartz M A - - 1996
We present a novel integrative method for characterizing transport in the lymphatic capillaries in the tail of the anesthetized mouse, which is both sensitive and reproducible for quantifying uptake and flow. Interstitially injected, fluorescently labeled macromolecules were used to visualize and quantify these processes. Residence time distribution (RTD) theory was ...
Valenzuela G J - - 1996
Pregnancy is characterized by increases in both blood and interstitial volumes, but the mechanisms are unknown. To test the hypotheses that blood volume (BV) recovery after haemorrhage in pregnant (P) is faster than in nonpregnant (NP) rabbits, and that this can be explained by a higher capillary filtration, a 20% ...
Casley-Smith J R - - 1996
INTRODUCTION: This study arose because a number of patients volunteered that flying had triggered, or worsened, their lymphedema. The nature of lymphedema is discussed, including the pre-lymphedematous latent-phase. In this phase the limb is clinically normal, but lymphostatic. There are many of the alterations found in clinical lymphedema involving blood ...
Lien T C - - 1995
BACKGROUND: No study has focused on using refractometer to rapidly determine total protein ratio of edema fluid to blood concentration (TPe/TPb) and, to differentiate hydrostatic pulmonary edema (HPE) from adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: The reliability of refractometer was evaluated by correlating the protein concentration measured by refractometer with ...
Armstead V E - - 1995
Endotoxin stimulates synthesis of endothelin which can cause pulmonary and systemic vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction. Prolonged endotoxemia in sheep results in dramatic increases in pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances in nonsurvivors compared with survivors. Experiments were conducted in 12 conscious sheep (seven survivors, five nonsurvivors) to determine if synthesis of endothelin ...
Kikuchi Y - - 1995
We developed a chronic lung fistula that drains only the left lung, allowing for evaluation of injury in a single lung. To remove lymph drainage from the right lung into the caudal mediastinal lymph node, the right lower pulmonary ligament was severed. Pneumatic occluders were placed on the left pulmonary ...
Nishida K - - 1995
To determine whether the anti-inflammatory effects of phenytoin might reduce cardiopulmonary dysfunction we studied the effects of phenytoin treatment on acute lung injury induced by smoke inhalation. Twenty-one chronically instrumented sheep were observed for 24 h after smoke inhalation injury. Myocardial contractility was evaluated by left ventricular end-systolic pressure-diameter relationship ...
Parnham C S CS - - 1995
Protein recovery from a bacterial lysate was accomplished using microfiltration membranes in a flat crossflow filter and in a cylindrical rotary filter. Severe membrane fouling yielded relatively low long-term permeate flux values of 10(-4)-10(-3) cm/s (where I cm/s = 3.6 x 10(4) L/m(2) - h). The permeate flux was found ...
Abernathy V J - - 1995
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of increasing left atrial pressure on noninvasive measurements of radiolabeled albumin normalized slope index (NSI). Using portable gamma scintillation detectors, we monitored radioactivities of 131I-labeled albumin and 51Cr-labeled red blood cells in the blood and over the lung of six ...
Weidner W J - - 1995
This study examined the effects of acute administration of bleomycin (BLM) on lung liquid and protein exchange in anesthetized sheep prepared with caudal mediastinal lung lymph fistulas. Six sheep received BLM (15 U IV) after a baseline period, while seven others were given BLM after a steady state was obtained ...
Nguyen T T - - 1995
There is evidence of increased oxygen free radical activity after smoke inhalation with and without concomitant burn injury. We determined the effects of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) on lung fluid balance as measured by lung microvascular permeability coefficient (sigma), filtration coefficient (Kf), and lymph flow. Merino breed ewes (n ...
Siarakas S - - 1995
Recent studies have implicated various toxigenic bacteria and their toxins in the aetiology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Therefore the effect of six bacterial toxins on the cardiorespiratory system of the rabbit was studied as a model for SIDS. The toxins' effect on the heart rate, arterial blood pressure, ...
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