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Walters Rebecca - - 2006
STUDY DESIGN: An ovine model of discitis was used to determine the efficacy of the antibiotic cephazolin for prophylactic use in spinal surgery. OBJECTIVES: To determine in juvenile and adult sheep spines if 2-g cephazolin given at intervals over a 4-hour period would prevent iatrogenic discitis, and determine the concentration ...
Gashev Anatoliy A AA Department of Medical Physiology, College of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute Division of Lymphatic Biology, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, 336 Reynolds Medical Bldg., College Station, TX 77843-1114, USA. - - 2006
During spaceflight the normal head-to-foot hydrostatic pressure gradients are eliminated and body fluids shift toward the head, resulting in a diminished fluid volume in the legs and an increased fluid volume in the head, neck, and upper extremities. Lymphatic function is important in the maintenance of normal tissue fluid volume, ...
Stewart Randolph H - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Air embolization of the pulmonary vascular tree increases pulmonary microvascular filtration and induces pulmonary edema formation. Flow from cannulated pulmonary lymphatic vessels increases significantly following air embolization. However, in the intact animal, lymph flows into the venous system and the magnitude of lymph flow is directly affected by systemic ...
Kim Min-ho - - 2005
The present study addresses the effect of a sustained change in pressure on microvascular permeability assessed by hydraulic conductivity (Lp) measurements from microvessels of the rat mesentery. With a microperfusion technique, transvascular filtration (normalized to surface area; Jv/S) and Lp were measured in small arterioles (baseline Lp= 0.26 x 10(-7) ...
Moore-Olufemi Stacey D - - 2005
Intra-abdominal hypertension leading to abdominal compartment syndrome complicates trauma resuscitation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of primary (1 degrees) and secondary (2 degrees) intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) on hemodynamics, intestinal fluid balance, and mesenteric lymph flow. Anesthetized dogs were instrumented with vascular catheters, intra-abdominal manometer, and ...
Hillman Stanley S - - 2005
Compliance of the subcutaneous lymph sacs of the hindlimbs increases from distal to proximal, as does limb segment mass (and presumably rate of lymph formation), for the semiaquatic bullfrog Rana catesbeiana and the cane toad Bufo marinus but not the aquatic clawed toad Xenopus laevis. Subcutaneous lymph-sac compliances vary interspecifically. ...
Whitworth J M - - 2005
AIM: To test the hypothesis that the Stabident intraosseous injection is a potentially high-pressure technique, which carries serious risks of anaesthetic cartridge failure. METHODOLOGY: A standard Astra dental syringe was modified to measure the internal pressure of local anaesthetic cartridges during injection. Intra-cartridge pressures were measured at 1 s intervals ...
Moriondo Andrea - - 2005
The role played by the mechanical tissue stress in supporting lymph formation and propulsion in thoracic tissues was studied in deeply anesthetized rats (n = 13) during spontaneous breathing or mechanical ventilation. After arterial and venous catheterization and insertion of an intratracheal cannula, fluorescent dextrans were injected intrapleurally to serve ...
Yagci Gokhan - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as intra-abdominal hypertension associated with organ dysfunction. Subsequently, increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) adversely affects the pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, musculoskeletal/integumentary and central nervous systems. Bacterial translocation (BT), which is defined as the movement of viable enteric bacteria to the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and ...
van Eijk Lucas T G J - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Septic shock is associated with increased microvascular permeability. As a model for study of the pathophysiology of sepsis, endotoxin administration to humans has facilitated research into inflammation, coagulation and cardiovascular effects. The present study was undertaken to determine whether endotoxin administration to human volunteers can be used as a ...
Maybauer Marc O - - 2005
Smoke inhalation injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in thermally injured individuals. There is evidence of increased oxygen free radical activity, e.g., superoxide, in association with smoke inhalation injury. Because superoxide dismutase converts the reactive superoxide radical to peroxide, we hypothesized that nebulization of manganese superoxide dismutase ...
Weiss Jeffrey A - - 2006
This study quantified the apparent and intrinsic hydraulic permeability of human medial collateral ligament (MCL) under direct permeation transverse to the collagen fiber direction. A custom permeation device was built to apply flow across cylindrical samples of ligament while monitoring the resulting pressure gradient. MCLs from 5 unpaired human knees ...
Modi Stephanie - - 2005
The view that breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a simple, direct mechanical result of axillary lymphatic obstruction ('stopcock' mechanism) appears incomplete, because parts of the swollen limb (e.g., hand) can remain nonswollen. The lymph drainage rate constant (k) falls in the swollen forearm but not in the spared hand, indicating ...
Glatzle Jörg - - 2004
Gastrointestinal motility is strongly inhibited during peritonitis or sepsis and proinflammatory cytokines released into mesenteric lymph during an acute gastrointestinal insult mediate systemic responses. We investigated whether mesenteric lymph collected during peritonitis or sepsis inhibits gastric motility and gastric emptying. Mesenteric lymph was collected for 12 hours from three experimental ...
Gashev Anatoliy A AA Department of Medical Physiology, College of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute Division of Lymphatic Biology, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, College Station, Texas, USA. - - 2004
To evaluate lymphatic contractile activity in different regions of the lymphatic system in a single animal model (the rat thoracic duct, mesenteric, cervical, and femoral lymphatics) in response to changes in lymph pressure and flow. The systolic and diastolic diameters of isolated, cannulated, and pressurized lymphatic vessels were measured. Contraction ...
Koizumi Tomonobu - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on acute lung injury remains controversial. The current study was designed to examine effects of a newly synthesized and selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, ONO1714, on endotoxin-induced lung injury in unanesthetized sheep. METHODS: Thirteen unanesthetized sheep chronically instrumented with a lung ...
Bauer Andreas - - 2004
There is always rapid volume restitution of the accumulated interstitial fluid after a VCP (venous congestion plethysmography) protocol. It has been suggested that backward extrapolation of the relationship between applied hydrostatic pressure and fluid filtration may give a measure of tissue J (vL) (lymph flow); if so, this could be ...
Hillman Stanley S - - 2004
Amphibians are a vertebrate group transitional between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Consequently, both increases and decreases in blood volume are a natural biological stress associated with aquatic and terrestrial environments. In comparison with other vertebrate classes, anuran amphibians have the most rapid compensation and greatest capacity to compensate for changes ...
Masakane Ikuto - - 2004
Post- and pre-dilution methods equally have advantages and disadvantages, therefore we should choose the more favorable one for clinical use. However, it still remains controversial which technique is better in on-line HDF. In post-dilution, the clearances of small molecular uremic toxins increase as well as low molecular proteins, however the ...
Negrini Daniela - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of initial lymphatic filling and the role of cardiogenic tissue motion in promoting lymph formation and propulsion are at present still controversial issues, in particular when considering interstitial tissues whose fluid pressure is well below atmospheric. To elucidate these aspects, the micropuncture technique was used to record ...
Santoro Antonio - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The albumin serum level is one of the most important nutritional indices and is directly correlated to the uremic patient's hemodialysis outcome. One of the factors that can interfere with protein metabolism is the possible loss of albumin through the dialysis membrane that can contribute to keeping levels chronically ...
Venugopal A M AM Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, - - 2004
Lymphatic vessels transport excess interstitial fluid from the low-pressure tissues to the higher pressure veins. The basic structural unit of lymphatic vessels is the lymphangion, a segment of the vessel separated by two unidirectional valves. Lymphangions cyclically contract like ventricles and can actively pump lymph. Lymphangions, as conduit vessels, also ...
Healy Anne M - - 2003
One hundred twenty-nine sheep with scrapie were identified from 20 flocks in which scrapie previously had been confirmed. Physical and neurologic examinations were performed on all animals. Videotape recordings were made and reviewed to assess gait. These procedures were repeated in 46 sheep at 2- to 3-week intervals until recumbency ...
Sabaratnam S - - 2003
Synovial fluid hyaluronan (HA) profoundly buffers fluid loss from joints. This is attributed to the osmotic pressure of HA reflected by the joint lining. The aims were to quantify HA sieving during fluid drainage from joint to lymphatics and to compare the contributions of the synovial lining and lymphatic endothelium ...
DeMaio Lucas - - 2004
A sudden increase in the transmural pressure gradient across endothelial monolayers reduces hydraulic conductivity (L(p)), a phenomenon known as the sealing effect. To further characterize this endothelial adaptive response, we measured bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) permeability to albumin and 70-kDa dextran, L(p), and the solvent-drag reflection coefficients (sigma) during ...
Enkhbaatar Perenlei - - 2003
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS treatment is frequently complicated by significant extrapulmonary comorbidity. This study was designed to clarify the role of iNOS in mediating extrapulmonary comorbidity in sheep after combined burn and smoke inhalation injuries using a ...
Aebli Nikolaus - - 2003
STUDY DESIGN: An experimental study of cardiovascular complications arising during vertebroplasty (VP) of multiple levels. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cardiovascular changes during multiple VP and whether a vent-hole has a preventive effect. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: An experimental study and clinical reports showed that fat embolism (FE) and acute hypotension ...
Aebli Nikolaus - - 2003
STUDY DESIGN: An experimental study of cardiovascular complications arising during vertebroplasty (VP) of multiple levels in sheep. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of pressurizing vertebral bodies during VP using different materials in the development of fat embolism (FE) and any associated cardiovascular changes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is ...
Mendoza Ernesto - - 2003
Recent experimental evidence indicates that lymphatics have two valve systems, a set of primary valves in the wall of the endothelial cells of initial lymphatics and a secondary valve system in the lumen of the lymphatics. While the intralymphatic secondary valves are well described, no analysis of the primary valves ...
Hosaka Kayoko - - 2003
To evaluate whether or not Rho-Rho kinase pathway is involved in the regulation of mechanical activity of lymph vessels, effects of Y-27632 and okadaic acid on lymph pump activity and myogenic, pressure- and agonist-induced tone were examined in isolated rat lymph vessels. Y-27632 caused a significant dilation with a cessation ...
Schraufnagel Dean E - - 2003
In a past study of hyperoxia-induced lung injury, the extensive lymphatic filling could have resulted from lymphatic proliferation or simple lymphatic recruitment. This study sought to determine whether brief lung injury could produce similar changes, to show which lymphatic compartments fill with edema, and to compare their three-dimensional structure. Tracheostomized ...
Amann-Vesti Beatrice R - - 2003
In patients with lymphedema, reduced lymph drainage capacity results in an overloaded superficial microlymphatic network and microlymphatic hypertension. In in vitro experiments, it has been shown that 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF) induced contractions in human lymphatics. Since lymphatic contractility plays a crucial role in the regulation and generation of lymph ...
Tomoyasu M - - 2002
We investigated the short-term effects of a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor (Olprinone) on hemodynamics and thoracic duct lymph flow in anesthetized open-chest sheep with heart failure induced by endothelin-1 (cardiogenic shock). Ultrasound transit-time flow probes were attached to the thoracic duct, the ascending aorta and the renal artery. Arterial, pulmonary and ...
Olszewski Waldemar L - - 2002
Human leg lymphatics contract spontaneously, rhythmically propelling lymph. This intrinsic property regulates the fluid environment in the intercellular space in skin, connective tissue, and perivascular spaces. The pressures generated by lymphatic contractions constitute the main force for lymph flow. This mechanism is of utmost importance during night rest, anesthesia, and ...
Zocchi L - - 2002
Tight control of the volume and composition of the pleural liquid is necessary to ensure an efficient mechanical coupling between lung and chest wall. Liquid enters the pleural space through the parietal pleura down a net filtering pressure gradient. Liquid removal is provided by an absorptive pressure gradient through the ...
Yao Hai - - 2002
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of swelling pressure and hydraulic permeability on the dynamic behavior of intervertebral disk tissue in confined compression. Normal (served as a control) and trypsin-treated, axial annulus fibrosus (AF) specimens from the porcine lumbar disks were tested and their swelling strain, ...
Ochia Ruth S - - 2002
Hydraulic resistance (HR) was measured for ten intact human lumbar vertebrae to further understand the mechanisms of fluid flow through porous bone. Oil was forced through the vertebral bodies under various volumetric flow rates and the resultant pressure was measured The pressure-flow relationship for each specimen was linear. Therefore, HR ...
Bauer A - - 2002
It has been suggested that venous congestion plethysmography (VCP) substantially underestimates microvascular permeability by activation of a veni-arteriolar constrictor mechanism, even when using small (< 25 mmHg) congestion pressure steps. We studied human lower limbs of 18 young healthy volunteers to test whether the congestion pressure step size of the ...
Allegra C - - 2002
Using fluorescent microlymphography, we examined the morphology andfunctional characteristics of the microlymph-vascular network in 36 subjects including 9 patients with "compressible" lymphedema (Group I), 14 with minimally compressible lymphedema (Group II), 9 with noncompressible lymphedema (Group III), and 4 healthy individuals. As lymphedema progressedfrom early to advanced stages (Group I-III), ...
Sambol Justin T - - 2002
Neither the source nor the cause of burn-induced myocardial dysfunction is known. Because scald burns have been shown to cause cardiac contractile dysfunction, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that gut-derived myocardial depressant factors were responsible for burn-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction. Male rats were subjected to ...
Sabaratnam S - - 2002
The coupling of periarticular lymph flow to transsynovial flow from a joint cavity, i.e., fluid load, is essential to avoid periarticular edema, which is associated with arthritic morning stiffness. To study coupling in swollen joints, a new method, "inside-out" cannulation, which eliminates dead space, resistance and cutout, was used to ...
Dimitrovova Zuzana - - 2002
In LCM processes of fiber-reinforced composite manufacturing, resin is injected into a closed mold with a preplaced stationary fiber preform. If these preforms are created from fiber tows, resin progression at the microlevel during infiltration is often non-uniform. Consequently, macroscopic description of the filling phase requires a theory of flow ...
Kaneki Toshimichi - - 2002
Synthetic starch solution, such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES), has been used clinically to restore cardiovascular volume in patients with hemorrhagic shock. Several HES solutions are available clinically, but each HES has a broad range of molecular mass fractions. We performed comparative studies of extremely low and high molecular HES to ...
Yamamoto Hiroshi - - 2002
This study evaluates the effect of direct hemoperfusion (DHP) using polymyxin B-immobilized fibers (PMX-F) as an extracorporeal blood filter on systemic hypotension and lung injury during endotoxemia Sheep were anesthetized, intubated, mechanically ventilated with 50% oxygen and connected to the DHP system between the right femoral artery and left jugular ...
Svedman Christer - - 2002
BACKGROUND: A standardised suction technique has been used to sample plasma proteins in dermal interstitial fluid (IF) serially for 5 to 6 days from a suction-induced skin mini-erosion. Increased protein concentrations ascribed to inflammation have been shown from day 1 onward. In this study, we assessed the effect of two ...
Brown M D - - 2001
This study investigated whether an increase in microvascular surface area as a result of endurance training, which increases human skeletal muscle capillarity, would translate to greater capacity for fluid filtration compared with strength training, which does not affect capillary supply. Values for filtration capacity, Kf, derived from the slope of ...
Marmanillo C G - - 2001
The aim of this study was to verify if dialysis solution volumes used in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) interfere with pulmonary function and if the pulmonary volumes interfere with the lymphatic absorption of the peritoneal cavity. We submitted 10 CAPD patients with a mean age of 48 ...
Carlsson O - - 2001
N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) has been claimed to markedly inhibit the transvascular passage of small proteins and albumin by interacting with the docking and fusion of plasmalemmal vesicles with their target membranes. To investigate the role of transcytosis in the transcapillary passage of albumin, we assessed the effects of NEM on (125)I-labeled ...
Aukland K - - 2001
A low concentration of hyaluronan (HA) in lymph compared with tissue suggests a large bound fraction. To investigate the distribution and mobility of HA and serum albumin (Alb), we eluted the rat tail tendon with a series of l5 successive centrifugations, each preceded by the addition of 0.15 M NaCl ...
Wu J - - 2001
The effects of posture on the lymphatic outflow pressure and lymphatic return of albumin were examined in 10 volunteers. Lymph flow was stimulated with a bolus infusion of isotonic saline (0.9%, 12.6 ml/kg body wt) under four separate conditions: upright rest (Up), upright rest with lower body positive pressure (LBPP), ...
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