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Sakurai Hiroyuki - - 2009
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-8 (K2.2) on the microvascular fluid flux after combined injury by burn and smoke inhalation. METHODS: Fourteen sheep were prepared surgically by placing a lung lymph catheter and a flank lymph catheter to examine the microvascular fluid flux. After a ...
Chen Lung-Tai - - 2009
A novel plastic packaging of a piezoresistive pressure sensor using a patterned ultra-thick photoresist is experimentally and theoretically investigated. Two pressure sensor packages of the sacrifice-replacement and dam-ring type were used in this study. The characteristics of the packaged pressure sensors were investigated by using a finite-element (FE) model and ...
Paulus Basil M - - 2008
The causes of systemic venous hypertension (SVHT) include cardiac- and circulatory-related factors, whereas its consequences include the congestion of hepatic, splanchnic, and peripheral circulations, which contribute significantly to the clinical congestive heart failure syndrome. Based on a disequilibrium in hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, the increased filtration and formation of interstitial ...
Davis Michael J - - 2009
Phasic contractile activity in rat portal vein is more sensitive to the rate of change in length than to absolute length and this response is widely assumed to be a general characteristic of myogenic behaviour for vascular smooth muscle. Previously, we found that rat lymphatic vessels exhibit phasic contractile behaviour ...
Rivers William Evan - - 2008
CONTEXT: Research into the physiologic effects of osteopathic lymphatic techniques has been somewhat limited. OBJECTIVE: To assess the short-term hematologic and hemodynamic effects of a comprehensive lymphatic treatment protocol. METHODS: Randomized crossover design that included 10-minute lymphatic treatment and rest (control) protocols delivered 1 week apart for a small pilot ...
Uhl Wolfgang - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between blood pressure changes following infusion of antidotal doses of hydroxocobalamin and plasma concentrations of total and free cobalamins-(III). METHODS: Independent groups of healthy volunteers received single intravenous doses of 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 g hydroxocobalamin over 7.5 to 30 minutes. RESULTS: In the ...
Enkhbaatar Perenlei - - 2008
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-related pneumonia and/or sepsis are a frequent serious menace. The aim of the study was to establish a standardized and reproducible model of MRSA-induced septic pneumonia to evaluate new therapies. Sheep were operatively prepared for chronic study. After 5 days' recovery, tracheostomy was performed under anesthesia, and ...
Cox Charles S CS - - 2008
Crystalloid-based resuscitation of severely injured trauma patients leads to intestinal edema. A potential mechanism of intestinal edema-induced ileus is a reduction of myosin light chain phosphorylation in intestinal smooth muscle. We sought to determine if the onset of edema initiated a measurable, early mechanotransductive signal and if hypertonic saline (HS) ...
Lange Matthias - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the time changes and mechanism of pulmonary and peripheral vascular permeability in sheep with acute lung injury and sepsis. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled, randomized trial. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: A total of 21 chronically instrumented, adult female sheep. INTERVENTIONS: Sheep were instrumented with lung and prefemoral lymph ...
Nagai Takashi - - 2008
In some lymph nodes, water and water-soluble substances of smaller molecular weight are known to be absorbed into blood vessels, and consequently the protein concentration of lymph within the nodes increases. In this study, we examined pressure-flow relationships of lymph nodes in situ and exchange properties of water and water-soluble ...
Quick Christopher M - - 2008
To return lymph to the great veins of the neck, it must be actively pumped against a pressure gradient. Mean lymph flow in a portion of a lymphatic network has been characterized by an empirical relationship (P(in) - P(out) = -P(p) + R(L)Q(L)), where P(in) - P(out) is the axial ...
Hedenstierna Göran - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lymph flow will be discussed as part of the drainage and fluid balance of lung tissue and abdomen as well as a qualitative analysis of inflammatory processes. RECENT FINDINGS: Measurement of lung lymph is still a technical challenge. Mechanical ventilation and positive end-expiratory pressure impede lung lymph ...
Lunt Sarah Jane - - 2008
BACKGROUND: High tumour interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) has been adversely linked to poor drug uptake in patients, and to treatment response following radiotherapy in cervix cancer patients. In this study we measured IFP values in a selection of murine and xenograft models, spontaneously arising or transplanted either intramuscularly (i/m) or ...
Gashev Anatoliy A - - 2008
This chapter discusses the current status of knowledge on basic pressure/stretch- and flow/shear-dependent regulatory reactions of contracting lymphangions in lymphatic vessels. The balance of passive and active lymph pumps is discussed; the data on pressure measurements in different lymphatic nets of several species are provided. The characteristics of typical changes ...
Selvadurai A P S - - 2008
The evolution of permeability hysterisis in Indiana Limestone during application of isotropic confining pressures up to 60 MPa was measured by conducting one-dimensional constant flow rate tests. These tests were carried out either during monotonic application of the confining pressure or during loading-partial unloading cycles. Irreversible permeability changes occurred during ...
Olszewski Waldemar L - - 2008
In healthy human leg, lymphatics contract spontaneously, rhythmically propelling lymph. The pressures generated by lymphatic contractions constitute the main force for lymph flow. This mechanism is of utmost importance during night rest, anesthesia, and immobilization, as well as in those with damaged peripheral motor neurons. Under physiological conditions, limb muscular ...
Hedrick Michael S - - 2007
Anurans (frogs and toads) generate lymphatic fluid at 10 times the rate in mammals, largely as a consequence of their very 'leaky' vasculature and high interstitial compliance. Lymph is ultimately pumped into the venous system by paired, dorsally located lymph hearts. At present, it is unclear how lymphatic fluid that ...
Zavorsky Gerald S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: High-pressure treatment of whey protein may increase digestibility and bioavailability of cysteine. The purpose of the study was to determine whether total lymphocyte glutathione (gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine [GSH]) levels (oxidized+reduced) can be augmented from three different doses of pressurized whey protein supplements in a dose-dependent manner over a 2-week period. METHODS: ...
Knipfer Thorsten - - 2007
The effects of unstirred layers (USLs) at the endodermis of roots of young maize plants (Zea mays L.) were quantified, when measuring the water permeability of roots using a root pressure probe (RPP) in the pressure relaxation (PR) and pressure clamp (PC) modes. Different from PRs, PCs were performed by ...
van Eijk Lucas T - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine gender differences in the innate immune response and vascular reactivity during human endotoxemia. DESIGN: Clinical experimental study. SETTING: University medical center intensive care research unit. SUBJECTS: Fifteen female and 15 male volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: Intravenous injection of 2 ng/kg Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: C-reactive protein, ...
Bollinger A - - 2007
Fluorescence microlymphography (FML) is an almost atraumatic technique used to visualize the superficial skin network of initial lymphatics through the intact skin of man. Visualization was performed with an incident light fluorescence microscope following subepidermal injection of minute amounts of FITC-dextran 150,000 using microneedles. Emanating from the bright dye depot, ...
Feliciani Annalisa - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Improvement in the uraemic toxicity profile obtained with the application of convective and mixed dialysis techniques has stimulated the development of more efficient strategies. Our study was a prospective randomized evaluation of the clinical and technical characteristics of two new haemodiafiltration (HDF) strategies, mixed HDF and mid-dilution HDF, which ...
Abed Janan M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and radial pressure wave therapy (RPWT) on immunohistochemical staining for substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the skin and periosteum of sheep. ANIMALS: 36 sheep. PROCEDURES: All 4 limbs of 36 sheep were treated with ESWT, ...
Moriondo Andrea - - 2007
The specific role of the diaphragmatic tendinous and muscular tissues in sustaining lymph formation and propulsion in the diaphragm was studied in 24 anaesthetized spontaneously breathing supine rats. Three experimental protocols were used: (a) control; (b) peritoneal ascitis, induced through an intraperitoneal injection of 100 ml kg(-1) of iso-oncotic saline; ...
Pedrini Luciano A - - 2007
Mixed-dilution hemodiafiltration (mixed HDF) controlled by the transmembrane pressure (TMP) feedback, improves the depurative capacity of the more traditional HDF techniques by fully exploiting the convective mechanism of small- and middle-molecular-weight solute removal. The feedback allows the TMP to be set and profiled from patient and operational parameters recorded online ...
Malbrain M L N G - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Patients with sepsis often receive large amounts of fluids and the presence of capillary leak, trauma or bleeding results in ongoing fluid resuscitation. This increases interstitial and intestinal edema and finally leads to intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), which in turn impedes lymphatic drainage. Patients with IAH often develop secondary respiratory ...
Gashev Anatoliy A - - 2007
The functional characteristics of the bovine mesenteric postnodal lymphatics are well-described. However there are no reports of pumping characteristics of the bovine mesenteric prenodal lymphatics. We propose that the prenodal lymphatics have adapted to the local conditions of lymph flow and are functioning differently than the postnodal vessels. To evaluate ...
Koh Lena - - 2007
Previous studies suggested that a major portion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is absorbed by extracranial lymphatics located in the olfactory turbinates. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) on downstream cervical lymphatic pressures in the rat. Pressures were measured in the deep ...
Zhang Rong-Zhen - - 2007
The passive and active length-tension relationships of isolated rat mesenteric lymphatics ( approximately 150 microm ID), and adjacent small arteries ( approximately 240 microm) and veins ( approximately 275 microm) were compared under isometric conditions using a wire myograph. About 60% of the lymphatic vessels developed spontaneous contractions in physiological ...
Markov Angel K - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) is reported to have a salutary effect in endotoxin shock and sepsis. This investigation describes the effect of FDP on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics, lung lymph protein clearance, and leukocyte count in sheep infused with Escherichia coli endotoxin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anesthetized sheep (n = 18), some ...
Quick Christopher M - - 2007
Lymphangions, segments of lymphatic vessels bounded by valves, have characteristics of both ventricles and arteries. They can act primarily like pumps when actively transporting lymph against a pressure gradient. They also can act as conduit vessels when passively transporting lymph down a pressure gradient. This duality has implications for clinical ...
Lattuada Marco - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Lymph flow from the abdomen was investigated in a sepsis model. We also compared the effect on thoracic duct lymph flow of mechanical ventilation with different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and spontaneous breathing with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Research laboratory in a ...
Husmann M J - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to investigate lymphatic clearance of the human skin in patients with acute deep thrombosis of the femoral vein. In 13 patients with deep vein thrombosis and no other cause for swelling of the limbs, lymphatic clearance of the skin at the foot was measured. ...
Mahmood Aftab - - 2006
M-proteins are monoclonal immunoglobulins or immunoglobulin fragments that aberrantly accumulate in the plasma. Hemodialysis (HD) patients with M-proteins may, under certain circumstances, also need therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). We employed a protocol for tandem TPE/HD in patients with M-protein disorders. We followed the urea reduction ratio (URR), a measure of ...
Wu Theresa F - - 2006
The ability of the lymphatic system to actively remove fluid from the interstitium is critical to the resolution of edema. The response of the lymphatics to inflammatory situations is poorly studied, so we examined mesenteric lymphatic contractile activity in the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of guinea pig ileitis, a well-accepted ...
Supinski Gerald S - - 2006
RATIONALE: Sepsis produces significant mitochondrial and contractile dysfunction in the heart, but the role of superoxide-derived free radicals in the genesis of these abnormalities is not completely understood. OBJECTIVES: The study was designed to test the hypothesis that superoxide scavenger administration prevents endotoxin-induced cardiac mitochondrial and contractile dysfunction. METHODS: Four ...
Eschelbach John W - - 2006
The effect that elevated pressure used in ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) has on protein recovery was investigated. Specifically, protein carryover ("ghosting") and recovery were examined. Four model proteins (ribonuclease A, ovalbumin, myoglobin, BSA) were separated by gradient RPLC at both conventional (160 bar) and ultrahigh pressures (>1500 bar). A custom ...
Walters Rebecca - - 2006
STUDY DESIGN: An ovine model of discitis was used to determine the efficacy of the antibiotic cephazolin for prophylactic use in spinal surgery. OBJECTIVES: To determine in juvenile and adult sheep spines if 2-g cephazolin given at intervals over a 4-hour period would prevent iatrogenic discitis, and determine the concentration ...
Gashev Anatoliy A - - 2006
During spaceflight the normal head-to-foot hydrostatic pressure gradients are eliminated and body fluids shift toward the head, resulting in a diminished fluid volume in the legs and an increased fluid volume in the head, neck, and upper extremities. Lymphatic function is important in the maintenance of normal tissue fluid volume, ...
Stewart Randolph H - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Air embolization of the pulmonary vascular tree increases pulmonary microvascular filtration and induces pulmonary edema formation. Flow from cannulated pulmonary lymphatic vessels increases significantly following air embolization. However, in the intact animal, lymph flows into the venous system and the magnitude of lymph flow is directly affected by systemic ...
Kim Min-ho - - 2005
The present study addresses the effect of a sustained change in pressure on microvascular permeability assessed by hydraulic conductivity (Lp) measurements from microvessels of the rat mesentery. With a microperfusion technique, transvascular filtration (normalized to surface area; Jv/S) and Lp were measured in small arterioles (baseline Lp= 0.26 x 10(-7) ...
Moore-Olufemi Stacey D - - 2005
Intra-abdominal hypertension leading to abdominal compartment syndrome complicates trauma resuscitation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of primary (1 degrees) and secondary (2 degrees) intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) on hemodynamics, intestinal fluid balance, and mesenteric lymph flow. Anesthetized dogs were instrumented with vascular catheters, intra-abdominal manometer, and ...
Hillman Stanley S - - 2005
Compliance of the subcutaneous lymph sacs of the hindlimbs increases from distal to proximal, as does limb segment mass (and presumably rate of lymph formation), for the semiaquatic bullfrog Rana catesbeiana and the cane toad Bufo marinus but not the aquatic clawed toad Xenopus laevis. Subcutaneous lymph-sac compliances vary interspecifically. ...
Whitworth J M - - 2005
AIM: To test the hypothesis that the Stabident intraosseous injection is a potentially high-pressure technique, which carries serious risks of anaesthetic cartridge failure. METHODOLOGY: A standard Astra dental syringe was modified to measure the internal pressure of local anaesthetic cartridges during injection. Intra-cartridge pressures were measured at 1 s intervals ...
Moriondo Andrea - - 2005
The role played by the mechanical tissue stress in supporting lymph formation and propulsion in thoracic tissues was studied in deeply anesthetized rats (n = 13) during spontaneous breathing or mechanical ventilation. After arterial and venous catheterization and insertion of an intratracheal cannula, fluorescent dextrans were injected intrapleurally to serve ...
Yagci Gokhan - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as intra-abdominal hypertension associated with organ dysfunction. Subsequently, increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) adversely affects the pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, musculoskeletal/integumentary and central nervous systems. Bacterial translocation (BT), which is defined as the movement of viable enteric bacteria to the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and ...
van Eijk Lucas T G J - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Septic shock is associated with increased microvascular permeability. As a model for study of the pathophysiology of sepsis, endotoxin administration to humans has facilitated research into inflammation, coagulation and cardiovascular effects. The present study was undertaken to determine whether endotoxin administration to human volunteers can be used as a ...
Maybauer Marc O - - 2005
Smoke inhalation injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in thermally injured individuals. There is evidence of increased oxygen free radical activity, e.g., superoxide, in association with smoke inhalation injury. Because superoxide dismutase converts the reactive superoxide radical to peroxide, we hypothesized that nebulization of manganese superoxide dismutase ...
Weiss Jeffrey A - - 2006
This study quantified the apparent and intrinsic hydraulic permeability of human medial collateral ligament (MCL) under direct permeation transverse to the collagen fiber direction. A custom permeation device was built to apply flow across cylindrical samples of ligament while monitoring the resulting pressure gradient. MCLs from 5 unpaired human knees ...
Modi Stephanie - - 2005
The view that breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a simple, direct mechanical result of axillary lymphatic obstruction ('stopcock' mechanism) appears incomplete, because parts of the swollen limb (e.g., hand) can remain nonswollen. The lymph drainage rate constant (k) falls in the swollen forearm but not in the spared hand, indicating ...
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