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Results 451 - 500 of 846
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Baker C H - - 1988
The mechanisms underlying the vascular responses of superficial fibular nerve stimulation (SFNS) have not been defined. Right hindpaws of anesthetized heparinized dogs were vascularly and neurally isolated, enclosed in a volume recorder, and perfused with controlled pressure. Vascular volume (VV) (131I-labeled albumin) and rate of tissue volume changes (VT) (plethysmography) ...
Smith L - - 1988
A thoracic duct lymph fistula in combination with a lung lymph fistula in the awake sheep was used to evaluate effects of thoracic lymph diversion during a septic insult and to monitor systemic and local changes in the lung and gastrointestinal tract. Live Escherichia coli 10(9) kg-1 b.w. were infused ...
Dabney J M - - 1988
Regulation of lymphatics by sympathetic nerves or hormones seems probable. To elucidate this, we perfused a lymphatic vessel in the paw of the anesthetized dog while measuring lymphatic perfusion pressure. We studied the effects of norepinephrine, epinephrine, hemorrhage, and carotid occlusion on lymphatic pressure. Blood was pumped to the forelimb ...
Allen S J - - 1988
The effect of superior vena caval pressure (SVCP) elevation on the formation of pleural effusions (PE) was studied in sheep. Through a right thoracotomy, a Silastic cuff was placed around the superior vena cava. Catheters for monitoring SVCP and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) were also placed. After a 1- to ...
Royer F - - 1988
Changes in pulmonary capillary filtration induced by hyperoxia were investigated in 15 dogs. After 12 h of normobaric hyperoxic exposure, animals were anesthetized and artificially ventilated with 100% O2. A pulmonary lymphatic vessel was cannulated, and lymph flow and protein content were measured together with pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics. An ...
Atkins C E - - 1988
Respiratory decompression sickness (RDCS, "the chokes") is a potentially lethal consequence of ambient pressure reduction. Lack of a clearly suitable animal model has impeded understanding of this condition. RDCS, unaccompanied by central nervous system signs, occurred in 17 of 18 unanesthetized sheep exposed to compressed air at 230 kPa (2.27 ...
Seekamp A - - 1988
We determined the effect of H2O2 on both the physiological and biochemical lung changes seen in the adult sheep after endotoxin. Fourteen unanesthetized adult sheep with chronic lung lymph fistula were given Escherichia coli endotoxin (1 microgram/kg) over 30 min. Seven sheep were given catalase (32,500 U/kg body wt) as ...
Kimura R - - 1988
Inhalation injury was produced in sheep that were chronically prepared for study. The injury was induced by insufflating them with smoke from burning cotton cloth. One group of animals was treated with the oxygen-free radical scavenger dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and heparin. Another group received heparin treatment alone, and a third was ...
Toyofuku T - - 1988
It has been suggested that coronary ischemia increases extravascular lung water. To determine whether pulmonary microvascular permeability is increased by coronary ischemia, we measured pulmonary hemodynamics, lung lymph flow (QL), and lymph-to-plasma protein concentration ratio (L/P) in 12 sheep with chronic lung lymph fistulas. Studies were done in 3 groups: ...
Demling R H - - 1988
The cardiopulmonary effects of a third-degree scald burn involving the anterolateral chest wall was compared with a burn of equal size (30% of total body surface) to the flanks in anesthetized sheep with lung lymph fistulas. The chest-burn group was characterized by immediate decreases in cardiac output (6.5 to 3.0 ...
Wisner D - - 1988
Manipulation of arachidonic acid metabolism may be important in the prevention and treatment of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. This study evaluated a thromboxane receptor blocker, BM 13.177, in a sheep endotoxin model. Sheep with chronic lung lymph fistulas were pretreated with the blocker before being given endotoxin. The blocker ...
DePaulis R - - 1988
Neutralization of heparin by protamine is a common procedure following extracorporeal circulation (cardiopulmonary bypass) of blood. Protamine administration has been shown to cause serious hemodynamic derangement in some patients. Obstruction of the pulmonary vascular bed following protamine administration has been suggested to be the primary cause of hemodynamic changes. The ...
Klausner J M - - 1988
This study tests whether activated complement leads to a selective entrapment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's) in the lungs. Awake sheep were infused for 5 min with zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP, 2.5 mg/ml) at a rate of 5 ml/min into the superior vena cava (IV, n = 4) or intra-arterially into the ...
Austin J L - - 1988
Pancreatic secretion during pancreatic duct obstruction results in increased duct pressure. The normally impermeable pancreatic duct becomes permeable to macromolecules the size of pancreatic enzymes after secretion against obstruction. Permeability and morphologic changes may be related to increased secretory pressure during obstruction. We obstructed the main pancreatic duct of cats ...
Godsoe A - - 1988
Chronic sepsis was induced by administering endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide--LPS) at 12-hr intervals to sheep. The animals (n = 7) responded to the first dose of LPS with increased pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), systemic vascular resistance, plasma and lymph thromboxane B2 (TxB2) concentrations, and lung lymph flow rate concurrent with a reduction ...
Hauptman J G - - 1988
Antithrombin III (AT III) is a major modulator of the clotting cascade and is decreased in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). AT III was given as a pretreatment to dogs with endotoxin-induced DIC. Significant improvement in clotting parameters (prothrombin time, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products) was noted. There was no effect on ...
Dobbins D E - - 1988
Xanthines have been employed clinically to treat asthma and related pulmonary conditions because of their bronchodilator properties. In addition, xanthines have been reported to block and/or attenuate the increase in microvascular permeability to macromolecules produced by some putative inflammatory mediators. In order to more completely assess the anti-inflammatory capabilities of ...
Dobbins D E - - 1988
Leukotrienes, lypoxygenase metabolites of arachadonic acid, have been reported to be potent vasoconstrictors in some organs. This study was undertaken to delineate the actions of leukotrienes on both vascular and lymphatic vessels in the canine forelimb. Bolus intra-arterial injections of 1 microgram and 10 micrograms of leukotriene B4, C4, and ...
Bradley J D - - 1988
We analyzed the effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin infusion on pulmonary microvessels in sheep by using a two-pore mathematical model of the microvascular barrier. Five sheep were prepared with lung lymph fistulas and instrumented to measure pulmonary arterial and left atrial pressures. Multiple indicator-dilution curves (with 125I-labeled albumin, 51Cr-labeled erythrocytes, ...
McClure D E - - 1988
Efferent lymph collected from the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMN) in the sheep lung lymph fistula model has been reported to represent free pulmonary interstitial fluid. Studies that utilize this model assume that nodal transit does not alter the composition of lymph. We collected afferent lymph from the tracheobronchial node ...
Anner H - - 1988
Lower torso ischemia and reperfusion has been shown to stimulate the generation of thromboxane (Tx)A2, leading to transient pulmonary hypertension and later to polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulations in the lungs. This study investigated whether hind limb ischemia leads to increased pulmonary microvascular permeability. Anesthetized sheep (n = 6) previously prepared with ...
Traber D L - - 1988
The cardiopulmonary response to continuous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied in chronically instrumented sheep. LPS was administered in doses of 0 (sham), 6, 9, 12, and 24 ng.kg-1.h-1 for 24 h. No significant changes in the measured variables occurred in the sham group and in the 6 ng.kg-1.h-1-LPS group. ...
Elk J R - - 1988
The liver lymphatic system plays an important role in removing excess fluid from the hepatic tissue. A complete analysis of the liver lymphatic system would be difficult. However, we used a simple circuit-analysis technique to represent the intrahepatic portion of the lymph system as a single pressure source (PL) pushing ...
Glauser F L - - 1988
The systemic administration of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) is used for the treatment of patients with far advanced cancer. However, treatment may be limited by a so-called "third space" syndrome. Whether these side effects are due to the total dose used or the method of administration is unclear. To define whether ...
Leng W - - 1988
The role of leukotrienes and other mediators of vascular changes in anaphylaxis were studied in rats sensitized with monoclonal anti-DNP IgE and challenged with DNP-BSA. Microvascular changes in the mesentery were followed by intravital fluorescent microscopy and in the skin by exudation of Evans blue dye. Administration of Ag i.v. ...
Womack W A - - 1988
Villous contraction frequency, lymph flow, blood flow, and arteriovenous oxygen difference were measured in dog jejunum. Venous pressure elevation and plasma dilution were used to increase capillary fluid filtration. Both perturbations produced concomitant increases in villous contraction frequency and lymph flow. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.83, p less ...
Lebel L - - 1988
The effects of increased hydrostatic pressure on the concentrations of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) in lung lymph and serum were investigated in awake sheep with a cannula in the efferent vessel from the caudal mediastinal lymph node. Lung lymph was sampled at base line [left atrial pressure (LAP) 6.5 +/- 1.7 ...
Allen D D - - 1988
A pump-perfused extracorporeal digital preparation was used to evaluate blood flow, arterial pressure, venous pressure, isogravimetric capillary filtration coefficient, capillary pressure, and vascular compliance in six normal horses. From these data, pre- and postcapillary resistances and pre- and postcapillary resistance ratios were determined. Vascular and tissue oncotic pressures were estimated ...
Hjertkvist M - - 1988
Adult, unilaterally cryptorchid rats were given a single subcutaneous injection of hCG. HCG treatment of 100 I.U. (but not 10 I.U.) resulted in a marked increase in intratesticular pressure (approximately 40 mm Hg) in the abdominal testis that was maximal 24 hours after treatment. This increase in pressure is caused ...
McGeown J G - - 1988
1. Lymphatics draining the region distal to the fetlock were cannulated in anaesthetized sheep. A pneumatic cuff was used to intermittently compress the drainage area. 2. Intermittent inflation of the cuff accelerated lymph flow. This effect increased dramatically as the frequency of inflation was increased. 3. With a constant inflation ...
Clark E S - - 1988
Experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of the specific dopamine-1-receptor agonist, fenoldopam, on the feline intestinal microcirculation. Cranial mesenteric arterial pressure, cranial mesenteric vein pressure, cranial mesenteric vein blood flow, venous occlusion capillary pressure, pre- and postcapillary resistances, total mesenteric vascular resistance, lymph flow, lymph and plasma protein concentrations, ...
Lubbesmeyer H J - - 1988
Fluid resuscitation is complicated in hypotensive septic patients by their susceptibility to pulmonary edema. This problem was evaluated in the ovine model of endotoxemia with a chronic lung lymph fistula. Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, 1.5 micrograms/kg) was given intravenously over 30 minutes. Group M (n = 9) continued to receive ...
Raj J U - - 1988
To determine the effect of left atrial hypertension on the vascular response to hypoxia in the newborn lung, we measured pulmonary artery and left atrial pressures, lung blood flow and lymph flow, and concentrations of protein in lymph and plasma of 13 lambs that spontaneously breathed air for 2-6 h ...
Glauser F L - - 1988
The systemic administration of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) with or without lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells, a new treatment for patients with advanced cancer, is associated with a presumed "third-space" syndrome. To further define the extent and time course of this toxicity, we established a chronic sheep model and monitored changes in ...
Flick M R - - 1988
We studied the effects of bovine catalase on increased lung vascular permeability to fluid and protein during air emboli in unanesthetized sheep. Pulmonary arterial and left atrial pressures, cardiac output, lung lymph flow, lymph and plasma protein concentrations, arterial PO2, and numbers of arterial leukocytes were measured in paired experiments ...
Kühl P G - - 1988
The role of thromboxane A2 in sheep endotoxemia, an animal model of the adult respiratory distress syndrome, was investigated by a combined biochemical and pharmacological approach. Endogenous thromboxane biosynthesis was assessed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of urinary (thromboxane B2, 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2) and plasma (11-dehydrothromboxane B2) metabolites that demonstrated a ...
Milligan S A - - 1988
Administration of endotoxin intravenously to unanesthetized sheep causes an acute lung injury characterized by increased microvascular barrier permeability and subsequent pulmonary edema. Endotoxin-induced sheep lung injury can be attenuated by leukocyte depletion, and may be mediated by toxic metabolites of oxygen. We studied effects of administering catalase, which catalyzes conversion ...
Miserocchi G - - 1988
We studied the vertical movement of 2 mg technetium-labeled albumin injected intrapleurally in 0.5 ml saline (15% of pleural liquid volume) in eight spontaneously breathing anesthetized dogs subject to a sudden change in posture (prone to supine or vice versa). The albumin movements were evaluated through a large field gamma ...
Maunder R J - - 1988
Neutrophils have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury associated with clinical and experimental sepsis. Data from in vitro systems and experimental animals have suggested that neutrophil-derived oxidants, particularly H2O2, may be primarily responsible for endothelial damage, vasoconstriction, and lung edema. With the use of endotoxin infusion as ...
Partsch H - - 1988
Based on a prospective study of 92 patients with DVT initiated in 1979, including a follow-up every year, the following investigations were performed: phlebography, Doppler-ultrasound, plethysmography (strain gauge and PPG) and foot-volumetry. In ulcer-patients skin blood flow was measured by Laser-Doppler and local oxygen supply by measurement of transcutaneous oxygen. ...
Unthank J L - - 1988
The spontaneous contractions of the initial lymphatics of the bat's wing were observed to be modulated by changes in local blood flow. Lymphatic pressure and frequency of contraction were measured with the servo-null technique during the occlusion of the ulnar artery or vein. Lymphatic contractile activity was decreased during arterial ...
Hirai K - - 1988
Effects of hypobaria on lung fluid balance were studied in five awake sheep with chronic lung lymph fistulas using a decompression chamber. Each sheep was exposed to three conditions of 6,600-m-simulated high altitude in random order as follows: 1) 6,600-m-simulated hypoxic hypobaria (barometric pressure 326 Torr, 21% inspired O2 fraction), ...
Johnston M G - - 1987
An important functional property of lymphatic vessels is their ability to pump fluid. To quantitate this activity in vivo, sheep mesenteric lymphatic segments were isolated from all lymph input and provided with lymph plasma or saline from a reservoir. Lymphatic pumping was controlled by transmural pressure with increases in pressure ...
Pippard C - - 1987
In the anesthetized sheep, pressure pulses generated in the feet are transmitted downstream in the veins but not in the lymphatics at normal intralymphatic pressure. When the sheep is tilted on a tilt table, gravitational changes occur in venous pressure but not in the pressure in adjacent lymphatics. These results ...
Teague W G WG - - 1987
Numerous reports have shown that intravascular lipid infusion may cause pulmonary dysfunction in a variety of species, including humans. To determine the effects of parenteral lipid on neonatal pulmonary hemodynamics, lung fluid filtration, and respiratory gas exchange, we measured pulmonary arterial and left atrial pressures, cardiac output, lung lymph flow, ...
Elias R M - - 1987
The effects of endotoxin on the ability of lymphatic vessels to pump fluid in vivo have been assessed with the use of a sheep model system that permits analysis of lymph pumping in sheep without the complication of variable lymph inputs. This involved the isolation of intestinal lymphatic vessels from ...
Olson N C - - 1987
We hypothesized that toxic O2 radicals might be important mediators of endotoxin-induced acute respiratory failure in pigs. As a relatively specific scavenger of .OH, we infused dimethylthiourea (DMTU, 1 g/kg) before endotoxemia. Escherichia coli endotoxin (055-B5) was infused intravenously into anesthetized 10- to 14-wk-old pigs at 5 micrograms/kg the 1st ...
Olson N C - - 1987
We hypothesized that superoxide anion (O2-.) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) might be important mediators of endotoxin-induced acute respiratory failure (ARF) in pigs. As specific scavengers of O2-. and H2O2, we infused polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD; 2,000 IU/kg) and PEG-catalase (CAT; 15,000 IU/kg), respectively. Escherichia coli endotoxin (055-B5) was infused intravenously ...
Castenholz A - - 1987
The luminal and outer wall morphology of the initial lymphatics in the rat tongue were demonstrated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after tissue perfusion with pressures up to 300 torr, topical heat and histamine administration. The findings emphasize the structural and functional importance of the reticular fiber network of the ...
Lelcuk S - - 1987
OKY 046, a specific thromboxane synthase inhibitor, was used to investigate whether large pulmonary emboli, like microemboli, cause an increase in thromboxane A2 and an associated increase in vascular permeability in sheep. Nineteen sheep were anaesthetised and had cannulas inserted into the afferent lymphatic of the caudal mediastinal lymph node ...
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