Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 2488
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Stocchetti N - - 2008
Following traumatic brain injury, uncontrollable intracranial hypertension remains the most frequent cause of death. Despite general agreement on the deleterious effects of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), however, the evidence supporting the use of ICP monitoring has recently been questioned. The aim of this review was to evaluate the pros and ...
Ogoh Shigehiko - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effect of antihypertensive drugs on autonomic neural control of the cerebral circulation remains unclear. This study was designed to compare middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity responses to acute hypotension with and without alpha(1)-adrenoreceptor blockade (Prazosin) in young, healthy humans. METHODS: Acute hypotension was induced nonpharmacologically ...
Rangel-Castilla Leonardo L Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, - - 2008
Effective management of intracranial hypertension involves meticulous avoidance of factors that precipitate or aggravate increased intracranial pressure. When intracranial pressure becomes elevated, it is important to rule out new mass lesions that should be surgically evacuated. Medical management of increased intracranial pressure should include sedation, drainage of cerebrospinal fluid, and ...
Stevens Robert D - - 2008
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is fundamental to the resuscitation of brain injured patients, facilitating tissue oxygen delivery, helping to modulate cerebral vascular reactivity, and ensuring protection of the airway. These benefits come at a cost, which includes a significantly increased risk of pneumonia, delirium, and the complications of sedation and of ...
Tsai Shih-Jei - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Disturbance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is frequently encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we examined changes in systemic and cerebral hemodynamics during the cold pressor test (CPT) to determine whether cerebrovascular reactivity, controlled by the sympathetic nervous system, is intact or impaired in ...
Belli A A Division of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. - - 2008
Cerebral microdialysis (MD) is able to detect markers of tissue damage and cerebral ischaemia and can be used to monitor the biochemical changes subsequent to head injury. In this prospective, observational study we analysed the correlation between microdialysis markers of metabolic impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) and investigated whether changes ...
Bekar Ahmet - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore the possibilities of an early warning system by measuring intracranial pressure differences in order to prevent secondary insults to the injured brain. METHODS: Fifty-five cases with a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score 8 or below who presented with intracranial hypertension due ...
Koseoglu Selim T - - 2009
MPS VI (mucopolysaccharidosis VI, known as Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) is a multi-systemic inherited disease, resulting from a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase, causing accumulation of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) dermatan sulfate in all tissues. It is one of almost 50 lysosomal storage disorders. Ocular pathology is common in patients with MPS VI, with complications ...
Iencean St M - - 2008
Intracranial hypertension (ICH) was systematized in four categories according to its aetiology and pathogenic mechanisms: parenchymatous ICH with an intrinsic cerebral cause; vascular ICH, which has its actiology in disorders of cerebral blood circulation: ICH caused by disorders of cerebro-spinal fluid dynamics and idiopathic ICH. The increase of intracranial pressure ...
Leal-Noval Santiago Ramón - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Prolonged erythrocyte storage time might reduce the efficacy of transfusion. In this study, the effects of transfusion of erythrocytes with four different storage periods (<10 days, n = 18; 10-14 days, n = 15; 15-19 days, n = 17; and >19 days, n = 16 patients) on brain tissue ...
Spiotta Alejandro M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Hyperthermia can exacerbate outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we examined the relationship between brain temperature (BT) and core body temperature and the relationship between BT and brain tissue oxygen (BtO2) to determine whether hyperthermia adversely affects BtO2. METHODS: Seventy-two patients (mean age, 41 +/- 19 ...
Lescot Thomas - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review provides key points and recent advances regarding the treatments of intracranial hypertension as a consequence of traumatic brain injury. The review is based on the pathophysiology of brain edema and draws on the current literature as well as clinical bedside experience. RECENT FINDINGS: The review ...
Si Z - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is responsible for causing most nervous system diseases to progress seriously, till death. Recently, volume-targeted therapeutic strategy against increased ICP, which works by releasing excessive intracranial liquid especially from the venous compartment, attracted a great deal of attention. Previous research by us found a structurally ...
Hu Xiao X Neural Systems and Dynamics Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2008
Intracranial pressure (ICP) latency is defined as the time interval between the peak of the QRS complex of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the corresponding onset of intracranial pressure (ICP) pulse. Due to its inherent relationship with arterial pulse wave velocity, ICP latency may allow continuous monitoring of pathophysiological changes in ...
Agrawal Amit - - 2008
Cushing reflex' is characterized by the occurrence of hypertension, bradycardia and apnoea secondary to raised increased intracranial pressure (ICP), leading to pressure on and or stretch, or both, of the brainstem. With the wide availability of monitoring facilities and advancements in investigation techniques, observation of increased intracranial pressure resulting in ...
Pascual Jose L - - 2008
Hypertonic saline (HTS) may decrease intracranial pressure (ICP) in severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) and effectively resuscitates hypotensive patients. No data exist on institutional standardization of HTS for hypotensive patients with STBI. It remains unclear how HTS affects brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2) in STBI. We hypothesized HTS could be safely ...
Keuskamp Janine - - 2008
OBJECT: Because oral calcium channel blockers appear to reduce the severity of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), interest in their application intraarterially has emerged for cases in which noninvasive means of alleviating vasospasm are unsuccessful. Studies to date have been limited to the administration of low intraarterial doses ...
Francony Gilles - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of equimolar doses of 20% mannitol solution and of 7.45% hypertonic saline solution (HSS) in the treatment of patients with sustained elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). DESIGN: Parallel, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Two intensive care units in a university hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 20 stable ...
Lin Kao-Chang KC Department of Neurology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, - - 2008
Mannitol was used in traumatic brain injury but controversy about the onset and duration. Clinical observational study. Fourteen traumatic brain injured patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score < or = 8 were enrolled. Group I patients (n = 8) with intracranial pressure (ICP) < 20 mmHg, and group ...
Chai Chung Liang - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify the precise time of occurrence of irreversible coma from brain stem dysfunction that precedes brain death. Sympathetic storm, which is a cardiovascular hyperdynamic state manifested by brain stem ischemia, is known to be related to brain stem failure in animal models. ...
Rourke Thomas - - 2008
With obscure etiology, confusing terminology, and controversial management, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), most commonly known as benign intracranial hypertension, remains a common and challenging clinical problem of the general and neurological practice. The authors present a case of a patient who was diagnosed with IIH and treated with serial lumbar ...
Koenig M A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of 23.4% saline in the management of transtentorial herniation (TTH) in patients with supratentorial lesions. METHODS: Consecutive patients with clinically defined TTH treated with 23.4% saline (30 to 60 mL) were included in a retrospective cohort. Factors associated with successful reversal of TTH were determined. ...
Westhout Franklin D - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The measurement and treatment of ICP within the management of TBI generally focuses on keeping the mean ICP to less than 20 mm Hg. More sophisticated analysis of the intracranial pressure waveform has yielded important relationships, but those methods have not gained widespread use. Prior analysis of the slope ...
Shetty Rakshay - - 2008
This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of cerebral perfusion pressure-targeted therapy in children with raised intracranial pressure caused by central nervous system infection. A prospective observational pilot study was conducted in the pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Twenty children (ages 6 months to ...
Kimberly Heidi Harbison - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Measurements of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) using bedside ultrasound (US) have been shown to correlate with clinical and radiologic signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). OBJECTIVES: Previous literature has identified 5 mm as the ONSD measurement above which patients exhibit either clinical or radiologic signs ...
Gelb Adrian W - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Hyperventilation has been an integral, but poorly validated part of neuroanesthetic practice. We conducted a two-period, crossover, randomized trial to evaluate surgeon-assessed brain bulk and measured intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients undergoing craniotomy for removal of supratentorial brain tumors during moderate hypocapnia or normocapnia. METHODS: Two-hundred and seventy-five adult ...
Coburn Mark - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The "inert" gas xenon has been shown to be an effective neuroprotectant in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models of neuronal injury. We examined its neuroprotective properties in an in vitro model of traumatic brain injury. DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. SETTING: Academic research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Organotypic ...
Stevens Scott A - - 2008
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome of unknown cause characterized by elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). While imaging often reveals a stenosis of the transverse sinuses, the role of this feature in IIH has been in dispute. Many patients with chronic daily headache have been found to actually be suffering ...
Vandevord Pamela J - - 2008
Gurdjian et al. proposed decades ago that pressure gradients played a major factor in neuronal injury due to impact. In the late 1950s, their experiments on concussion demonstrated that the principal factor in the production of concussion in animals was the sudden increase of intracranial pressure accompanying head injury. They ...
Mitchell G - - 2008
Loss of consciousness caused by positional changes of the head results from reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). CBF is related to cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). CPP is the difference between mean arterial pressure (MAP) at the head and intracranial pressure (ICP). The positional change of the giraffe head between ground ...
Olzowy Bernhard - - 2008
The levels of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) change at frequencies between 0.75 and 1.5 kHz along with intracranial pressure (ICP) and DPOAEs are suggested for monitoring ICP changes. Elevated ICP plays a major role in high-altitude disease, but direct measurement is unlikely to be feasible at high altitudes. The ...
Sutherland A I - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), as a correlate of intracranial pressure (ICP), with acute mountain sickness (AMS). DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study of mountaineers from sea level to 6400 m. SETTING: Mount Everest (North side). PARTICIPANTS: 13 mountaineers (10 men, 3 women; aged 23-52 years) ...
Wan Wei Hwang - - 2008
Despite a century of work on the subject, controversy still exists as to the physiological relevance of the Cushing response (CR), a state of raised systemic blood pressure and bradycardia associated with raised intracranial pressure. The alternative that has been proposed to the classical belief of pre-terminal brainstem damage is ...
Smith Martin M National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London, UK. - - 2008
Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is an important cause of secondary brain injury, and ICP monitoring has become an established component of brain monitoring after traumatic brain injury. ICP cannot be reliably estimated from any specific clinical feature or computed tomography finding and must actually be measured. Different methods of monitoring ...
Sithinamsuwan Pasiri - - 2008
We compared cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressure measurements in the lumbar subarachnoid space between the flexed position (F-OP) and relaxed position (R-OP) in recumbent patients. We devised an equation for using F-OP to determine the existence of raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Patients (n = 83) underwent lumbar puncture while in ...
Lim Min Hee - - 2008
We report an adult end-stage renal disease patient with only cerebellum involvement of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS). A 37-year-old woman, diagnosed as chronic glomerulonephritis, was admitted to our hospital with progressive visual disturbance and severe headache. MRI revealed hyperintense signal intensity changes restricted in the cortex and subcortical white ...
Schmidt B B Department of Neurology, Medical Centre Chemnitz, Dresdner Str. 178, 09131 Chemnitz, Germany. - - 2008
In a formerly introduced mathematical model, intracranial pressure (ICP) could be non-invasively assessed using cerebral blood flow velocity (FV) and arterial blood pressure (ABP). The current study attempts to check whether the accuracy of the non-invasive ICP assessment (nICP) improves after an initial individual calibration by implanted ICP probes. Thirteen ...
Vargiami Euthymia - - 2008
We report on an 8-year-old girl with hemolytic anemia because of infection with parvovirus B19 and increased intracranial pressure. She presented acutely with headache, vomiting, and mild scleral and mucosal icterus. Upon evaluation, the patient exhibited profound hemolytic anemia, papilledema, and increased intracranial pressure. The patient was treated with intravenous ...
Smielewski P P Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Addenbrookes Hospital, Level 4, A Block, Cambridge CB0 2QQ, UK. - - 2008
ICM+ software encapsulates 20 years of our experience in brain monitoring gained in multiple neurosurgical and intensive care centres. It collects data from a variety of bedside monitors and produces on-line time trends of parameters defined using configurable signal processing formulas. The resulting data can be displayed in a variety ...
Pfister D - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: In sepsis the brain is frequently affected although there is no infection of the CNS (septic encephalopathy). One possible cause of septic encephalopathy is failure of the blood-brain barrier. Brain edema has been documented in animal models of sepsis. Aggressive fluid resuscitation in the early course of sepsis improves ...
Cremer O L - - 2008
Raised intracranial pressure and low cerebral perfusion pressure are associated with ischaemia and poor outcome after brain injury. Therefore, many management protocols target these variables. However, there are no randomized controlled trials that have demonstrated the effectiveness of intracranial pressure-guided care in severely head-injured patients. Observational studies of such therapy ...
Beattie Zachary T ZT Biomedical Engineering Department, Oregon Health&Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA. - - 2008
Pressure beat detection is an integral part of most analysis techniques for arterial blood pressure (ABP), intracranial pressure (ICP), and pulse oximetry (SpO(2)) signals. Beat detection has been used to estimate heart rate in the ABP signal, to classify ICP morphologies, and to estimate blood pressure using pulse oximeter waveforms. ...
Shahsavari Sima S Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. - - 2008
Considering cardiorespiratory interaction and heart rate variability, a new approach is proposed to decompose intracranial pressure and arterial blood pressure to their different harmonics. The method is based on tracking the amplitudes of the harmonics by a Kalman filter based tracking algorithm. The algorithm takes benefit of combined frequency estimation ...
Meier Regula - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Hyperglycaemia is detrimental, but maintaining low blood glucose levels within tight limits is controversial in patients with severe traumatic brain injury, because decreased blood glucose levels can induce and aggravate underlying brain injury. METHODS: In 228 propensity matched patients (age, sex and injury severity) treated in our intensive care ...
Minns R A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Useful information (both clinical and pathophysiological) which may be extracted from intracranial pressure (ICP) recordings include: (1) the mean level of ICP (and CPP), (2) cerebrovascular autoregulation status, (3) the intracranial pulse pressure (the pulse wave index, ICPpp/ICPm) or the pressure-volume compensatory reserve index (RAP) and (4) the presence ...
Rehman Tausif - - 2008
We report a case of mild to moderate traumatic brain injury in which ICP monitoring or quantitative cerebral perfusion data may have allowed earlier recognition of impending herniation, avoidance of a secondary insult, and ultimately resulted in a better outcome, even though the patient did not meet the standard guidelines ...
Timofeev Ivan I Academic Neurosurgery Unit, University of Cambridge/Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom. - - 2008
Decompressive craniectomy is an advanced treatment option for intracranial pressure (ICP) control in patients with traumatic brain injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of decompressive craniectomy on ICP and cerebrospinal compensation both within and beyond the first 24 hours of craniectomy. This study was a ...
Schuhmann Martin U MU Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Mich., USA. - - 2008
Exaggerated nocturnal intracranial pressure (ICP) dynamics are commonly observed in hydrocephalic children with a compromise of CSF compensatory reserve capacity. Successful shunting restores this cerebrospinal reserve. We used ICP overnight monitoring combined with positional maneuvers in complex hydrocephalic children with a suspected shunt malfunction for the assessment of shunt function. ...
Tanne Emanuel - - 2008
This report highlights a conference designed for patient education on elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. The conference centered on chronic intracranial hypertension (IH) including the latest research and clinical information. It was sponsored by the Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation and held at the University of Texas Medical School, Houston, on ...
Belfort Michael M - - 2008
To determine the cerebral hemodynamic effect of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in preeclampsia. Prospective observational study. Tertiary Care Medical Center. Preeclamptic patients (systolic < 160, diastolic < 110 mmHg). Transcranial Doppler (TCD) of the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) of 15 preeclamptics, before and after IV MgSO4. No vasoactive drugs other than ...
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