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Results 301 - 350 of 2486
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Ziai Wendy C - - 2009
Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is an important marker of neurological deterioration. The occurrence and significance of elevated ICP and low cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in aggressively treated spontaneous intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are not defined. We performed a secondary longitudinal exploratory data analysis of a randomized multicenter trial of urokinase (UK) ...
Radolovich Danila K DK Academic Neurosurgical Unit, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, P.O. Box 167, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ, UK. - - 2009
It has been reported recently that correlation between brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) may serve as an indicator of cerebral autoregulation after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We aimed to compare similar indices describing interaction between changes in intracranial pressure (ICP), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and brain tissue oxygen ...
Calisto A A Department of Matter Physics and Electronic Engineering, University of Messina, Italy. - - 2009
The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a ...
Hamilton Robert R Neural Systems and Dynamics Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. - - 2009
Management of intracranial pressure (ICP) following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an essential aspect of minimizing such secondary brain injuries as intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoxia. Currently, ICU management of ICP elevations is reactive in nature; we propose a quantitative method to predict potentially harmful elevations in ICP. Continuous ...
Fagenholz Peter J - - 2009
Increased intracranial pressure is suspected in the pathogenesis of acute mountain sickness (AMS), but no studies have correlated it with the presence or severity of AMS. We sought to determine whether increased optic nerve sheath diameter, a surrogate measure of intracranial pressure, is associated with the presence and severity of ...
Ramakrishna Rohan - - 2008
OBJECT: Poor outcome is common after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Clinical studies suggest that cerebral hypoxia after traumatic brain injury is associated with poor outcome. In this study we examined the relationship between brain oxygen tension (PbtO(2)) and death after aneurysmal SAH. METHODS: Forty-six patients, including 34 women and 12 ...
Elf Kristin - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence of spontaneous hyper- and hypothermia in patients with traumatic brain injury using a computerized data collecting system, to show how temperature correlates with other secondary insults, to describe how temperature affects outcome and to show how barbiturate treatment influences those analyses. METHODS: Patients with > ...
Stewart Jonathan T - - 2008
Intracranial space-occupying lesions are felt to be a relative contraindication to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), although there have been several reports of safely treating patients with a variety of intracranial vascular malformations. We report a patient with a parietal cavernous hemangioma (CH), whose ECT proceeded without incident. We elected to mitigate ...
Giannessi Massimo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We developed a comprehensive cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure model to simulate and study the complex interactions in cerebrovascular dynamics caused by multiple simultaneous alterations, including normal and abnormal functional states of autoregulation of the brain. METHODS: Individual published equations (derived from prior animal and human studies) were ...
Kocaeli Hasan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate intracranial pressure (ICP) changes during early versus late bedside percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) in a neuro-intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: This study included 30 patients admitted to our NICU for head trauma, subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haematoma or brain tumour with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) less ...
Bershad Eric M - - 2008
Intracranial hypertension implies profoundly disturbed intracranial physiology. Although a shared manifestation of myriad neurological disorders of patients admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU), the pathways leading to intracranial hypertension vary by etiology. Acute elevation of the intracranial pressure is an emergency and may rapidly lead to brain death or ...
Fan Jun-Yu - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Intracranial hypertension due to primary and secondary injuries is a prime concern when providing care to patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Increases in intracranial pressure vary depending on compensatory processes within the craniospinal space, also referred to as intracranial adaptive capacity. In patients with traumatic brain injury and ...
Chen H Isaac - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Barbiturate-induced coma can be used in patients to treat intractable intracranial hypertension when other therapies, such as osmotic therapy and sedation, have failed. Despite control of intracranial pressure, cerebral infarction may still occur in some patients, and the effect of barbiturates on outcome remains uncertain. In this study, we ...
Eide Per K - - 2008
OBJECT: Data from intracranial pressure (ICP) recordings in patients with hydrocephalus were reviewed to determine whether intracranial pulsatility within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of cerebral ventricles (ICP(LV)) may differ from that within the brain parenchyma (ICP(PAR)), and whether pulsatility may differ between noncommunicating ventricles. METHODS: The authors retrieved data from ...
Eide Per Kristian - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that the intracranial pulse pressure amplitudes were elevated in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) patients responding to shunt surgery. Whether or not shunt implantation or adjustment of the shunt valve opening pressure modifies the intracranial pulse pressure amplitudes in NPH patients remains to be established. ...
Larsen Fin Stolze - - 2008
1. Intracranial pressure is the pressure exerted by the cranial contents on the dural envelope and consists of the partial pressures of the brain, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. 2. Severe cases of acute liver failure are frequently complicated by brain edema (due to cytotoxic edema) and an increase in cerebral ...
Soukup Jens - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Mild hyperventilation remains a key element in the management of elevated intracranial pressure. However, a harmful effect of hyperventilation on the development or deterioration of ischemic lesions has been shown in patients after severe head trauma. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical feasibility and reliability ...
Ogawa Yojiro - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine, which is often used in intensive care units in patients with compromised circulation, might induce further severe decreases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) with temporal decreases in arterial pressure induced by various stimuli if dynamic cerebral autoregulation is not improved. Therefore, the authors hypothesized that dexmedetomidine strengthens dynamic ...
Zweifel Christian C Academic Neurosurgical Unit, University of Cambridge Clinical School, Cambridge, United - - 2008
Cerebrovascular pressure reactivity is the ability of cerebral vessels to respond to changes in transmural pressure. A cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index (PRx) can be determined as the moving correlation coefficient between mean intracranial pressure (ICP) and mean arterial blood pressure. The authors analyzed a database consisting of 398 patients with ...
Marucci Damian D DD Craniofacial Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, United - - 2008
Raised intracranial pressure is a well-known complication of Apert syndrome. The current policy in the authors' unit is to monitor these patients and only perform surgery when raised intracranial pressure has been diagnosed. The authors present their experience with this protocol, as it allows a more accurate picture of the ...
Steiner Luzius A LA Department of Anaesthesia, University Hospital Basel, CH-4031, Basel, Switzerland. - - 2009
To study the correlation between a dynamic index of cerebral autoregulation assessed with blood flow velocity (FV) using transcranial Doppler, and a tissue oxygenation index (TOI) recorded with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-three patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock were monitored daily on up to four consecutive days. FV, ...
Waldenberger Peter - - 2009
Three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) is useful for detecting, classifying and planning treatment for intracranial aneurysms. Prolonged contrast material (CM) injection, required for 3DRA, might cause blood pressure changes in the selectively catheterized artery. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent and clinical relevance of haemodynamic changes in ...
Weber Jochen - - 2008
The intentional deformation of human skulls in the living being was one of the most curious rituals performed in historical and ancient times. It is thought that these practices cause chronic elevated intracranial pressure and subsequent symptoms of cognitive impairment. In this report, we examine such an artificially deformed skull ...
Tisdall Martin M - - 2008
OBJECT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with depressed aerobic metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction. Normobaric hyperoxia (NBH) has been suggested as a treatment for TBI, but studies in humans have produced equivocal results. In this study the authors used brain tissue O(2) tension measurement, cerebral microdialysis, and near-infrared spectroscopy to ...
Lin Hung-Shih - - 2008
A 29-year-old woman who was pregnant for 12 weeks presented with headache for one week and drowsiness for two days. Computed tomography of the brain revealed multifocal hematomas with mass effect. Decompressive craniectomy was done to relieve the increased intracranial pressure. Magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography were subsequently performed, ...
Bozza F - - 2008
Tension pneumocephalus is a rare form of pneumocephalus in which the air is under pressure; it is generally due to communication between the atmosphere and the intracranial cavity, and is an infrequent (0.88%) complication of cranial trauma. Tension pneumocephalus causes an increase in intracranial pressure with deterioration of the neurological ...
Narayanan Nithya N Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152-6574, United - - 2009
A method to assess continuous changes of cerebrovascular resistance based on a biomechanical model of cerebrovascular pressure transmission is developed. Such a method provides an end-point measure to assess new and/or existing management strategies during intensive-care management of patients with brain injury. Changes of both pial arteriolar resistance and cerebrovascular ...
Bentsen Gunnar - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: A bolus infusion of 7.2% saline in 6% hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 (HS) attenuates static intracranial pressure (mean ICP) in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. This study addressed how HS affects intracranial pulsatility, which is more indicative of intracranial compliance than static ICP. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Intensive ...
Watanabe Arata - - 2008
OBJECT: The subarachnoid space around the optic nerve in the orbit can be visualized using T2-weighted MR imaging with the fat-saturation pulse sequence. The optic nerve sheath (ONS) diameter can be estimated by measuring the outer diameter of the subarachnoid space. Dilated ONS is associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and ...
Brady Ken M KM Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe St, Blalock 904, Baltimore MD 21287, USA. - - 2008
Clinical application of continuous autoregulation monitoring would benefit from a comparison of curves generated by online monitoring with standard autoregulation curves in animal models. We characterized the accuracy of 3 continuous monitors of autoregulation in a piglet model of hypotension. Piglets 5 to10 days old with intracranial pressure (ICP) at ...
Maxeiner H - - 2008
In a series of 93 unselected forensic autopsies of adults the following volumes were measured: skull volume by filling a sac of synthetic material with water, placed intracranially, after removal of the brain and brain volume by its water displacement. Objective was to demonstrate if generally is there a relation ...
Schulter Günter - - 2008
The goal of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between established measures of body and brain asymmetries and individual differences in paranormal beliefs. In addition to behavioural measures of cerebral laterality, measures of facial features and finger length were taken to calculate body asymmetry scores and indicators of ...
Herbowski Leszek - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are only a few studies in the literature regarding the influence of atmospheric pressure on intracranial homeostasis and the mechanism of the relation has not been clarified. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature on parameters of ...
Zou Rui - - 2008
OBJECT: The relationship between the waveform of intracranial pressure (ICP) and arterial blood pressure can be quantitatively characterized using a newly developed technique in systems analysis, the time-varying transfer function. This technique considers the arterial blood pressure as an input signal composed of multiple frequencies represented in the output ICP ...
McKinlay J - - 2008
A young man sustained traumatic lung, head and abdominal injuries. Despite mechanical ventilation, deteriorating respiratory function resulted in severe hypoxia and hypercapnia, with high P(a)co(2) compounding an already raised intracranial pressure (ICP). The Novalung was pre-emptively used without anticoagulation, prior to laparotomy, to remove carbon dioxide and to allow for ...
Tobias Joseph D - - 2008
During pentobarbital coma, electroencephalographic monitoring is used to document burst suppression (3-5 episodes of electrical activity/min). The current study evaluates the association of the bispectral index number and suppression ratio with a burst suppression pattern on electroencephalograph. The records of 7 patients (aged 2.9-14 years) who received pentobarbital for elevated ...
Aggarwal Shushma - - 2008
Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) leads to loss of cerebral perfusion, cerebral herniation, and irreversible brain damage in patients with acute liver failure (ALF). Conventional techniques for monitoring ICP can be complicated by hemorrhage and infection. Transcranial doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is a noninvasive device which can continuously measure cerebral blood flow ...
Aufdenblatten Christoph Alexander - - 2008
In the management of severe head injuries, the use of intraventricular catheters for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and the option of cerebrospinal fluid drainage is gold standard. In children and adolescents, the insertion of a cannula in a compressed ventricle in case of elevated intracranial pressure is difficult; therefore, a ...
Solheim O O Department of Neurosurgery, St. Olav University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. - - 2008
In a patient with no prior history of seizures we were able to record static (mean) intracranial pressure (ICP) and pulsatile ICP (mean ICP wave amplitude) continuously during a first-time generalized epileptic seizure. The patient experienced episodic headache five months after a subarachnoid haemorrhage. In order to rule out low-pressure ...
Williams Brice J - - 2008
A 15-year-old girl presented to our emergency department with dizziness, anorexia, nausea, and malaise. Clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging studies showed characteristic features of multiple sclerosis. Surprisingly, a diagnostic lumbar puncture showed significant intracranial hypertension in addition to numerous oligoclonal bands, elevated immunoglobulin G index and immunoglobulin G/albumin ratio ...
Bekar Ahmet - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore the possibilities of an early warning system by measuring intracranial pressure differences in order to prevent secondary insults to the injured brain. METHODS: Fifty-five cases with a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score 8 or below who presented with intracranial hypertension due ...
Rath Girija P GP Department of Neuroanesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, - - 2008
Subcutaneous tunneling for ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion is the most painful step of this surgery. It is associated with intense hemodynamic response, may influence the intracranial pressure, and thus may worsen the existing intracranial pathology. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the commonly used opioid fentanyl, along with butorphanol, ...
Wirth Benedikt - - 2008
This work provides a model that links the commonly used inverse power relationship between cerebral compliance and intracranial pressure to some mechanical properties of distal cerebral veins. The underlying model of the compliance is based on a mechanism whereby the distal cerebral blood vessels are assumed to be the main ...
Darwish Ribal S - - 2008
This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in arterial blood pressure management during hypervolemia/hypertension/ hemodilution therapy in patients with vasospasm from subarachnoid hemorrhage and correlate this data with neurologic outcome. The study included 18 adult patients, Hunt and Hess grades III-IV. Complete neurologic assessment was ...
de Mol Amerik C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the frequency and total volume of intravascular volume administration and the development of intracranial hemorrhage during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. METHODS: In a retrospective, matched, case-control study, 24 newborns who developed an intracranial hemorrhage during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane ...
Stevens Robert D - - 2008
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is fundamental to the resuscitation of brain injured patients, facilitating tissue oxygen delivery, helping to modulate cerebral vascular reactivity, and ensuring protection of the airway. These benefits come at a cost, which includes a significantly increased risk of pneumonia, delirium, and the complications of sedation and of ...
Vegar-Brozovic V - - 2008
Intra-abdominal hypertension causes many physiologic changes, primarily by reducing thoracic compliance and secondarily causing organ failure, which is the body's normal response to trauma or acute inflammatory response. Compartment syndrome as a cause of abdominal hypertension has adverse effects on the circulation, threatening the function and viability of tissues. Intra-abdominal ...
Ogoh Shigehiko - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effect of antihypertensive drugs on autonomic neural control of the cerebral circulation remains unclear. This study was designed to compare middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity responses to acute hypotension with and without alpha(1)-adrenoreceptor blockade (Prazosin) in young, healthy humans. METHODS: Acute hypotension was induced nonpharmacologically ...
Arai Tadashi - - 2008
Although protection of the kidneys by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is well known, differences in renal protection and the characteristics of RAS inhibitors have not been fully investigated. We randomly allocated 80 patients with hypertension complicated by type 2 diabetes and accompanied by microalbuminuria to 4 groups for treatment with ...
Stocchetti N - - 2008
Following traumatic brain injury, uncontrollable intracranial hypertension remains the most frequent cause of death. Despite general agreement on the deleterious effects of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), however, the evidence supporting the use of ICP monitoring has recently been questioned. The aim of this review was to evaluate the pros and ...
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