Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2466
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Steiner Luzius A LA Department of Anaesthesia, University Hospital Basel, CH-4031, Basel, Switzerland. - - 2009
To study the correlation between a dynamic index of cerebral autoregulation assessed with blood flow velocity (FV) using transcranial Doppler, and a tissue oxygenation index (TOI) recorded with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-three patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock were monitored daily on up to four consecutive days. FV, ...
Waldenberger Peter - - 2009
Three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) is useful for detecting, classifying and planning treatment for intracranial aneurysms. Prolonged contrast material (CM) injection, required for 3DRA, might cause blood pressure changes in the selectively catheterized artery. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent and clinical relevance of haemodynamic changes in ...
Weber Jochen - - 2008
The intentional deformation of human skulls in the living being was one of the most curious rituals performed in historical and ancient times. It is thought that these practices cause chronic elevated intracranial pressure and subsequent symptoms of cognitive impairment. In this report, we examine such an artificially deformed skull ...
Tisdall Martin M - - 2008
OBJECT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with depressed aerobic metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction. Normobaric hyperoxia (NBH) has been suggested as a treatment for TBI, but studies in humans have produced equivocal results. In this study the authors used brain tissue O(2) tension measurement, cerebral microdialysis, and near-infrared spectroscopy to ...
Lin Hung-Shih - - 2008
A 29-year-old woman who was pregnant for 12 weeks presented with headache for one week and drowsiness for two days. Computed tomography of the brain revealed multifocal hematomas with mass effect. Decompressive craniectomy was done to relieve the increased intracranial pressure. Magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography were subsequently performed, ...
Bozza F - - 2008
Tension pneumocephalus is a rare form of pneumocephalus in which the air is under pressure; it is generally due to communication between the atmosphere and the intracranial cavity, and is an infrequent (0.88%) complication of cranial trauma. Tension pneumocephalus causes an increase in intracranial pressure with deterioration of the neurological ...
Narayanan Nithya N Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152-6574, United - - 2009
A method to assess continuous changes of cerebrovascular resistance based on a biomechanical model of cerebrovascular pressure transmission is developed. Such a method provides an end-point measure to assess new and/or existing management strategies during intensive-care management of patients with brain injury. Changes of both pial arteriolar resistance and cerebrovascular ...
Bentsen Gunnar - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: A bolus infusion of 7.2% saline in 6% hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 (HS) attenuates static intracranial pressure (mean ICP) in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. This study addressed how HS affects intracranial pulsatility, which is more indicative of intracranial compliance than static ICP. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Intensive ...
Watanabe Arata - - 2008
OBJECT: The subarachnoid space around the optic nerve in the orbit can be visualized using T2-weighted MR imaging with the fat-saturation pulse sequence. The optic nerve sheath (ONS) diameter can be estimated by measuring the outer diameter of the subarachnoid space. Dilated ONS is associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and ...
Brady Ken M KM Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe St, Blalock 904, Baltimore MD 21287, USA. - - 2008
Clinical application of continuous autoregulation monitoring would benefit from a comparison of curves generated by online monitoring with standard autoregulation curves in animal models. We characterized the accuracy of 3 continuous monitors of autoregulation in a piglet model of hypotension. Piglets 5 to10 days old with intracranial pressure (ICP) at ...
Maxeiner H - - 2008
In a series of 93 unselected forensic autopsies of adults the following volumes were measured: skull volume by filling a sac of synthetic material with water, placed intracranially, after removal of the brain and brain volume by its water displacement. Objective was to demonstrate if generally is there a relation ...
Schulter Günter - - 2008
The goal of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between established measures of body and brain asymmetries and individual differences in paranormal beliefs. In addition to behavioural measures of cerebral laterality, measures of facial features and finger length were taken to calculate body asymmetry scores and indicators of ...
Herbowski Leszek - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are only a few studies in the literature regarding the influence of atmospheric pressure on intracranial homeostasis and the mechanism of the relation has not been clarified. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature on parameters of ...
Zou Rui - - 2008
OBJECT: The relationship between the waveform of intracranial pressure (ICP) and arterial blood pressure can be quantitatively characterized using a newly developed technique in systems analysis, the time-varying transfer function. This technique considers the arterial blood pressure as an input signal composed of multiple frequencies represented in the output ICP ...
McKinlay J - - 2008
A young man sustained traumatic lung, head and abdominal injuries. Despite mechanical ventilation, deteriorating respiratory function resulted in severe hypoxia and hypercapnia, with high P(a)co(2) compounding an already raised intracranial pressure (ICP). The Novalung was pre-emptively used without anticoagulation, prior to laparotomy, to remove carbon dioxide and to allow for ...
Tobias Joseph D - - 2008
During pentobarbital coma, electroencephalographic monitoring is used to document burst suppression (3-5 episodes of electrical activity/min). The current study evaluates the association of the bispectral index number and suppression ratio with a burst suppression pattern on electroencephalograph. The records of 7 patients (aged 2.9-14 years) who received pentobarbital for elevated ...
Aggarwal Shushma - - 2008
Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) leads to loss of cerebral perfusion, cerebral herniation, and irreversible brain damage in patients with acute liver failure (ALF). Conventional techniques for monitoring ICP can be complicated by hemorrhage and infection. Transcranial doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is a noninvasive device which can continuously measure cerebral blood flow ...
Aufdenblatten Christoph Alexander - - 2008
In the management of severe head injuries, the use of intraventricular catheters for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and the option of cerebrospinal fluid drainage is gold standard. In children and adolescents, the insertion of a cannula in a compressed ventricle in case of elevated intracranial pressure is difficult; therefore, a ...
Solheim O - - 2008
In a patient with no prior history of seizures we were able to record static (mean) intracranial pressure (ICP) and pulsatile ICP (mean ICP wave amplitude) continuously during a first-time generalized epileptic seizure. The patient experienced episodic headache five months after a subarachnoid haemorrhage. In order to rule out low-pressure ...
Williams Brice J - - 2008
A 15-year-old girl presented to our emergency department with dizziness, anorexia, nausea, and malaise. Clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging studies showed characteristic features of multiple sclerosis. Surprisingly, a diagnostic lumbar puncture showed significant intracranial hypertension in addition to numerous oligoclonal bands, elevated immunoglobulin G index and immunoglobulin G/albumin ratio ...
Rath Girija P - - 2008
PURPOSE: Subcutaneous tunneling for ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion is the most painful step of this surgery. It is associated with intense hemodynamic response, may influence the intracranial pressure, and thus may worsen the existing intracranial pathology. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the commonly used opioid fentanyl, along with ...
Bekar Ahmet - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore the possibilities of an early warning system by measuring intracranial pressure differences in order to prevent secondary insults to the injured brain. METHODS: Fifty-five cases with a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score 8 or below who presented with intracranial hypertension due ...
Wirth Benedikt - - 2008
This work provides a model that links the commonly used inverse power relationship between cerebral compliance and intracranial pressure to some mechanical properties of distal cerebral veins. The underlying model of the compliance is based on a mechanism whereby the distal cerebral blood vessels are assumed to be the main ...
Darwish Ribal S - - 2008
This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in arterial blood pressure management during hypervolemia/hypertension/ hemodilution therapy in patients with vasospasm from subarachnoid hemorrhage and correlate this data with neurologic outcome. The study included 18 adult patients, Hunt and Hess grades III-IV. Complete neurologic assessment was ...
de Mol Amerik C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the frequency and total volume of intravascular volume administration and the development of intracranial hemorrhage during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. METHODS: In a retrospective, matched, case-control study, 24 newborns who developed an intracranial hemorrhage during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane ...
Stevens Robert D - - 2008
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is fundamental to the resuscitation of brain injured patients, facilitating tissue oxygen delivery, helping to modulate cerebral vascular reactivity, and ensuring protection of the airway. These benefits come at a cost, which includes a significantly increased risk of pneumonia, delirium, and the complications of sedation and of ...
Vegar-Brozovic V - - 2008
Intra-abdominal hypertension causes many physiologic changes, primarily by reducing thoracic compliance and secondarily causing organ failure, which is the body's normal response to trauma or acute inflammatory response. Compartment syndrome as a cause of abdominal hypertension has adverse effects on the circulation, threatening the function and viability of tissues. Intra-abdominal ...
Ogoh Shigehiko - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effect of antihypertensive drugs on autonomic neural control of the cerebral circulation remains unclear. This study was designed to compare middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity responses to acute hypotension with and without alpha(1)-adrenoreceptor blockade (Prazosin) in young, healthy humans. METHODS: Acute hypotension was induced nonpharmacologically ...
Arai Tadashi - - 2008
Although protection of the kidneys by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is well known, differences in renal protection and the characteristics of RAS inhibitors have not been fully investigated. We randomly allocated 80 patients with hypertension complicated by type 2 diabetes and accompanied by microalbuminuria to 4 groups for treatment with ...
Stocchetti N - - 2008
Following traumatic brain injury, uncontrollable intracranial hypertension remains the most frequent cause of death. Despite general agreement on the deleterious effects of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), however, the evidence supporting the use of ICP monitoring has recently been questioned. The aim of this review was to evaluate the pros and ...
Frinkley Kristin - - 2008
Objective: To quantify localized disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in a murine model using focused, diagnostic ultrasound (at higher frequencies than previously studied) and contrast agent and to explore the optimal parameters for opening without causing irreversible damage. Methods: Definity (US contrast) and Magnevist (MR contrast) were injected before ...
Rangel-Castilla Leonardo L Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, - - 2008
Effective management of intracranial hypertension involves meticulous avoidance of factors that precipitate or aggravate increased intracranial pressure. When intracranial pressure becomes elevated, it is important to rule out new mass lesions that should be surgically evacuated. Medical management of increased intracranial pressure should include sedation, drainage of cerebrospinal fluid, and ...
Tsai Shih-Jei - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Disturbance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is frequently encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we examined changes in systemic and cerebral hemodynamics during the cold pressor test (CPT) to determine whether cerebrovascular reactivity, controlled by the sympathetic nervous system, is intact or impaired in ...
Bekar Ahmet - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore the possibilities of an early warning system by measuring intracranial pressure differences in order to prevent secondary insults to the injured brain. METHODS: Fifty-five cases with a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score 8 or below who presented with intracranial hypertension due ...
Belli A A Division of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. - - 2008
Cerebral microdialysis (MD) is able to detect markers of tissue damage and cerebral ischaemia and can be used to monitor the biochemical changes subsequent to head injury. In this prospective, observational study we analysed the correlation between microdialysis markers of metabolic impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) and investigated whether changes ...
Koseoglu Selim T - - 2009
MPS VI (mucopolysaccharidosis VI, known as Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) is a multi-systemic inherited disease, resulting from a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase, causing accumulation of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) dermatan sulfate in all tissues. It is one of almost 50 lysosomal storage disorders. Ocular pathology is common in patients with MPS VI, with complications ...
Lescot Thomas - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review provides key points and recent advances regarding the treatments of intracranial hypertension as a consequence of traumatic brain injury. The review is based on the pathophysiology of brain edema and draws on the current literature as well as clinical bedside experience. RECENT FINDINGS: The review ...
Spiotta Alejandro M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Hyperthermia can exacerbate outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we examined the relationship between brain temperature (BT) and core body temperature and the relationship between BT and brain tissue oxygen (BtO2) to determine whether hyperthermia adversely affects BtO2. METHODS: Seventy-two patients (mean age, 41 +/- 19 ...
Leal-Noval Santiago Ramón - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Prolonged erythrocyte storage time might reduce the efficacy of transfusion. In this study, the effects of transfusion of erythrocytes with four different storage periods (<10 days, n = 18; 10-14 days, n = 15; 15-19 days, n = 17; and >19 days, n = 16 patients) on brain tissue ...
Iencean St M - - 2008
Intracranial hypertension (ICH) was systematized in four categories according to its aetiology and pathogenic mechanisms: parenchymatous ICH with an intrinsic cerebral cause; vascular ICH, which has its actiology in disorders of cerebral blood circulation: ICH caused by disorders of cerebro-spinal fluid dynamics and idiopathic ICH. The increase of intracranial pressure ...
Si Z - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is responsible for causing most nervous system diseases to progress seriously, till death. Recently, volume-targeted therapeutic strategy against increased ICP, which works by releasing excessive intracranial liquid especially from the venous compartment, attracted a great deal of attention. Previous research by us found a structurally ...
Hu Xiao X Neural Systems and Dynamics Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2008
Intracranial pressure (ICP) latency is defined as the time interval between the peak of the QRS complex of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the corresponding onset of intracranial pressure (ICP) pulse. Due to its inherent relationship with arterial pulse wave velocity, ICP latency may allow continuous monitoring of pathophysiological changes in ...
Agrawal Amit - - 2008
Cushing reflex' is characterized by the occurrence of hypertension, bradycardia and apnoea secondary to raised increased intracranial pressure (ICP), leading to pressure on and or stretch, or both, of the brainstem. With the wide availability of monitoring facilities and advancements in investigation techniques, observation of increased intracranial pressure resulting in ...
Chai Chung Liang - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify the precise time of occurrence of irreversible coma from brain stem dysfunction that precedes brain death. Sympathetic storm, which is a cardiovascular hyperdynamic state manifested by brain stem ischemia, is known to be related to brain stem failure in animal models. ...
Keuskamp Janine - - 2008
OBJECT: Because oral calcium channel blockers appear to reduce the severity of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), interest in their application intraarterially has emerged for cases in which noninvasive means of alleviating vasospasm are unsuccessful. Studies to date have been limited to the administration of low intraarterial doses ...
Francony Gilles - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of equimolar doses of 20% mannitol solution and of 7.45% hypertonic saline solution (HSS) in the treatment of patients with sustained elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). DESIGN: Parallel, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Two intensive care units in a university hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 20 stable ...
Pascual Jose L - - 2008
Hypertonic saline (HTS) may decrease intracranial pressure (ICP) in severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) and effectively resuscitates hypotensive patients. No data exist on institutional standardization of HTS for hypotensive patients with STBI. It remains unclear how HTS affects brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2) in STBI. We hypothesized HTS could be safely ...
Lin Kao-Chang KC Department of Neurology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, - - 2008
Mannitol was used in traumatic brain injury but controversy about the onset and duration. Clinical observational study. Fourteen traumatic brain injured patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score < or = 8 were enrolled. Group I patients (n = 8) with intracranial pressure (ICP) < 20 mmHg, and group ...
Rourke Thomas - - 2008
With obscure etiology, confusing terminology, and controversial management, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), most commonly known as benign intracranial hypertension, remains a common and challenging clinical problem of the general and neurological practice. The authors present a case of a patient who was diagnosed with IIH and treated with serial lumbar ...
Koenig M A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of 23.4% saline in the management of transtentorial herniation (TTH) in patients with supratentorial lesions. METHODS: Consecutive patients with clinically defined TTH treated with 23.4% saline (30 to 60 mL) were included in a retrospective cohort. Factors associated with successful reversal of TTH were determined. ...
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