Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 2462
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Mourad Pierre D - - 2009
Pressure within the cranium (intracranial pressure, or "ICP") represents a vital clinical variable whose assessment-currently via invasive means-and integration into a clinical exam constitutes a necessary step for adequate medical care for those patients with injured brains. In the present work we sought to develop a non-invasive way of predicting ...
Brady Ken M KM Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, 600 North Wolfe St., Blalock 904, Baltimore MD 21287, USA. - - 2009
The cerebral perfusion pressure that denotes the lower limit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation (LLA) is generally considered to be equivalent for reductions in arterial blood pressure (ABP) or increases in intracranial pressure (ICP). However, the effect of decreasing ABP at different levels of ICP has not been well studied. ...
Jamal Nausheen - - 2009
To date, major works on tracheomalacia have assumed a structural etiology and have proposed therapies as such. We describe a possible neurologic etiology for tracheomalacia in a child with clinically significant tracheomalacia that resolved in synchrony with each treatment of his recurring hydrocephalus. Endoscopy confirms remarkable expansion of tracheal diameter ...
da Silva Joacil Carlos - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Medical management of brain edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is a crucial challenge in neurosurgical practice. Depending on the cause, the treatments for brain edema fall into three categories: stabilization of the blood-brain barrier, depletion of brain water and surgical decompression. Although mannitol is the mainstay of hyperosmolar ...
Li Chunyan - - 2009
A novel lab-on-a-tube integrated with spirally-rolled pressure, temperature, oxygen and glucose microsensors is described for multimodal neuromonitoring of patients with traumatic brain injury. In addition to measuring various crucial parameters in real-time continuous formats, the newly developed device also works as an intraventricular catheter to lower the elevated intracranial pressure ...
Granger Robert H - - 2009
A 14-year-old girl had a 3-month history of headache and blurred vision. Funduscopy showed bilateral optic disc edema. Findings on brain imaging were normal, and a diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension was confirmed after lumbar puncture showed an elevated opening pressure of 32 cm H(2)O. Optic nerve head drusen were ...
Olson DaiWai M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Treatment of brain injury is often focused on minimizing intracranial pressure, which, when elevated, can lead to secondary brain injury. Chest percussion is a common practice used to treat and prevent pneumonia. Conflicting and limited anecdotal evidence indicates that physical stimulation increases intracranial pressure and should be avoided in ...
Byard Roger W - - 2009
To study the speed of development of cerebral edema in an animal model, five 2-year-old male anesthetized Merino sheep were impacted in the left temporal region by a humane stunner. Following the induction of blunt craniocerebral trauma a highly significant increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) values occurred relative to control ...
López-Magaña Jorge A JA Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Neurosurgery Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2009
Critical closing pressure (CCP) is an arterial pressure threshold below which small arterial vessels collapse. Our aim was to compare different methods to estimate CCP in the cerebrovascular circulation using the relationships between transcranial Doppler flow velocity (FV), laser-Doppler flux (LDF), and arterial blood pressure (ABP). A total of 116 ...
Oddo M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The impact of osmotic therapies on brain oxygen has not been extensively studied in humans. We examined the effects on brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO(2)) of mannitol and hypertonic saline (HTS) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and refractory intracranial hypertension. METHODS: 12 consecutive patients with severe ...
Lee Jennifer K JK Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, - - 2009
The pressure reactivity index (PRx) describes cerebral vessel reactivity by correlation of slow waves of intracranial pressure (ICP) and arterial blood pressure. In theory, slow changes in the relative total hemoglobin (rTHb) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy are caused by the same blood volume changes that cause slow waves of ICP. ...
Tango Humberto K - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Brain injury is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in trauma patients, but controversy still exists over optimal fluid management for these patients. This study aimed to investigate the effects of acute hemodilution with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) or lactated Ringer's solution (LR) in intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion ...
Nedelmann Max - - 2009
The pathophysiology of elevated intracranial pressure in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is unclear. Cerebral venous outflow obstruction and elevated intracranial venous pressure may play an etiological role. We examined jugular valve insufficiency as a potential factor contributing to intracranial hypertension. Jugular venous valve function was assessed bilaterally by duplex sonography ...
Stone Michael B - - 2009
Bedside ultrasound has been used to identify intracranial hypertension through the measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter. This case report describes the sonographic detection of papilledema and a wide optic nerve sheath in a patient with pseudotumor cerebri who presented to the Emergency Department with headache and photophobia, and in ...
Jiang Ji-Yao - - 2009
Clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that mild hypothermia may improve the outcome of severe traumatic brain injured patients with intracranial hypertension when cooling is maintained for longer than 48 h. However, the results are not yet conclusive, and more RCTs are required. Mild hypothermia significantly decreases intracranial pressure (ICP) ...
Freitas Pedro - - 2009
We consider the model originally proposed by Shah and Humphrey (J Biomech 32:593-599, 1999) for a class of intracranial saccular aneurysms and show that for constant pressure the addition of the viscoelastic term corresponding to the presence of cerebral spinal fluid outside the membrane, no matter how small, does ensure ...
Imperiale Carmela - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is commonly required as part of the management of patients with severe brain damage. Percutaneous dilation tracheostomy is increasingly used in intensive care unit as an alternative to standard surgical tracheostomy. However, this procedure carries the risk of neurological complications, particularly in patients with intracranial hypertension. In this ...
Silasi Gergely - - 2009
Stroke and traumatic brain injuries often lead to cerebral edema and persistent elevations in intracranial pressure (ICP) that can be life threatening. Thus, rodent models would benefit from a simple and reliable method to measure ICP in awake, mobile animals. Up to now most techniques have been limited to anesthetized ...
Holm Sverre - - 2009
Time domain analysis of the intracranial pressure (ICP) waveform is critically dependent on the exact reproduction of the ICP waveform. This study explored how the sampling rate of the ICP signal affects the time domain analysis. It was also assessed through this study how upsampling (interpolation) improves the time domain ...
Le Audrey - - 2009
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We investigate the test performance of emergency physician-performed sonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter for diagnosis of increased intracranial pressure. METHODS: Children between the ages of 0 and 18 years with suspected increased intracranial pressure were prospectively recruited from the emergency department and ICU of an urban, ...
Anile C - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we re-propose the role of a hydraulic mechanism, acting where the bridging veins enter the dural sinuses in cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out an intraventricular infusion in ten albino rabbits and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) up to arterial blood pressure ...
Al-Tamimi Yahia Z - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Intraparenchymal monitoring devices play an important role in the daily management of head injury and other critically ill neurosurgical patients. Although zero drift data exist for the Camino system (Camino Laboratories, San Diego, CA), only in vitro data exist for the Codman system (Codman and Shurtleff, Inc., Raynham, MA). ...
Chang Jason J J - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Assess the prevalence of brain tissue hypoxia in patients with severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and to characterize the relationship between brain tissue hypoxia and functional outcome. DESIGN: Retrospective review of severe TBI patients. SETTING: Intensive care unit of a level I trauma center. PATIENTS: Twenty-seven patients with severe ...
Montiel Virginie - - 2009
Intraventricular hemorrhage during pregnancy is usually followed by a poor recovery. When caused by moyamoya disease, ischemic or hemorrhagic episodes may complicate the management of high intracranial pressure. A 26-year-old Caucasian woman presented with generalized seizures and a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 3 during the 36th week of pregnancy. ...
Ryska M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the influence of fractionated plasma separation and absorption (FPSA) on intracranial pressure (ICP) in acute liver failure (ALF). METHODS: A surgical model of ALF in pigs (35-40 kg) was used. We compared laboratory data and haemodynamic parameters from the ALF control ...
Lehrer Joel F - - 2009
Transcranial cerebral sonography (TCCS) is a noninvasive technique that allows the clinician to detect abnormal intracranial-inner-ear fluid interactions in terms of nanoliter tympanic membrane displacements. The displacements recorded in TCCS are evoked either by the acoustic stapedius reflex or spontaneous movements generated by intracranial cardiovascular or by respiratory pressure waves ...
Ono Koichi - - 2009
The present study was designed to examine effects of different mean airway pressure (MAP) settings during high-frequency oscillation (HFO) on oxygenation and inflammatory responses to acute lung injury (ALI) in rabbits. Anesthetized rabbits were mechanically ventilated with a conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) mode (tidal volume 6 ml/kg, inspired oxygen fraction ...
Ziai Wendy C - - 2009
Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is an important marker of neurological deterioration. The occurrence and significance of elevated ICP and low cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in aggressively treated spontaneous intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are not defined. We performed a secondary longitudinal exploratory data analysis of a randomized multicenter trial of urokinase (UK) ...
Radolovich Danila K DK Academic Neurosurgical Unit, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, P.O. Box 167, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ, UK. - - 2009
It has been reported recently that correlation between brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) may serve as an indicator of cerebral autoregulation after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We aimed to compare similar indices describing interaction between changes in intracranial pressure (ICP), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and brain tissue oxygen ...
Calisto A A Department of Matter Physics and Electronic Engineering, University of Messina, Italy. - - 2009
The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a ...
Hamilton Robert R Neural Systems and Dynamics Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. - - 2009
Management of intracranial pressure (ICP) following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an essential aspect of minimizing such secondary brain injuries as intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoxia. Currently, ICU management of ICP elevations is reactive in nature; we propose a quantitative method to predict potentially harmful elevations in ICP. Continuous ...
Fagenholz Peter J - - 2009
Increased intracranial pressure is suspected in the pathogenesis of acute mountain sickness (AMS), but no studies have correlated it with the presence or severity of AMS. We sought to determine whether increased optic nerve sheath diameter, a surrogate measure of intracranial pressure, is associated with the presence and severity of ...
Ramakrishna Rohan - - 2008
OBJECT: Poor outcome is common after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Clinical studies suggest that cerebral hypoxia after traumatic brain injury is associated with poor outcome. In this study we examined the relationship between brain oxygen tension (PbtO(2)) and death after aneurysmal SAH. METHODS: Forty-six patients, including 34 women and 12 ...
Elf Kristin - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence of spontaneous hyper- and hypothermia in patients with traumatic brain injury using a computerized data collecting system, to show how temperature correlates with other secondary insults, to describe how temperature affects outcome and to show how barbiturate treatment influences those analyses. METHODS: Patients with > ...
Stewart Jonathan T - - 2008
Intracranial space-occupying lesions are felt to be a relative contraindication to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), although there have been several reports of safely treating patients with a variety of intracranial vascular malformations. We report a patient with a parietal cavernous hemangioma (CH), whose ECT proceeded without incident. We elected to mitigate ...
Giannessi Massimo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We developed a comprehensive cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure model to simulate and study the complex interactions in cerebrovascular dynamics caused by multiple simultaneous alterations, including normal and abnormal functional states of autoregulation of the brain. METHODS: Individual published equations (derived from prior animal and human studies) were ...
Kocaeli Hasan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate intracranial pressure (ICP) changes during early versus late bedside percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) in a neuro-intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: This study included 30 patients admitted to our NICU for head trauma, subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haematoma or brain tumour with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) less ...
Bershad Eric M - - 2008
Intracranial hypertension implies profoundly disturbed intracranial physiology. Although a shared manifestation of myriad neurological disorders of patients admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU), the pathways leading to intracranial hypertension vary by etiology. Acute elevation of the intracranial pressure is an emergency and may rapidly lead to brain death or ...
Fan Jun-Yu - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Intracranial hypertension due to primary and secondary injuries is a prime concern when providing care to patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Increases in intracranial pressure vary depending on compensatory processes within the craniospinal space, also referred to as intracranial adaptive capacity. In patients with traumatic brain injury and ...
Chen H Isaac - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Barbiturate-induced coma can be used in patients to treat intractable intracranial hypertension when other therapies, such as osmotic therapy and sedation, have failed. Despite control of intracranial pressure, cerebral infarction may still occur in some patients, and the effect of barbiturates on outcome remains uncertain. In this study, we ...
Eide Per K - - 2008
OBJECT: Data from intracranial pressure (ICP) recordings in patients with hydrocephalus were reviewed to determine whether intracranial pulsatility within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of cerebral ventricles (ICP(LV)) may differ from that within the brain parenchyma (ICP(PAR)), and whether pulsatility may differ between noncommunicating ventricles. METHODS: The authors retrieved data from ...
Eide Per Kristian - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that the intracranial pulse pressure amplitudes were elevated in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) patients responding to shunt surgery. Whether or not shunt implantation or adjustment of the shunt valve opening pressure modifies the intracranial pulse pressure amplitudes in NPH patients remains to be established. ...
Larsen Fin Stolze - - 2008
1. Intracranial pressure is the pressure exerted by the cranial contents on the dural envelope and consists of the partial pressures of the brain, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. 2. Severe cases of acute liver failure are frequently complicated by brain edema (due to cytotoxic edema) and an increase in cerebral ...
Soukup Jens - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Mild hyperventilation remains a key element in the management of elevated intracranial pressure. However, a harmful effect of hyperventilation on the development or deterioration of ischemic lesions has been shown in patients after severe head trauma. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical feasibility and reliability ...
Ogawa Yojiro - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine, which is often used in intensive care units in patients with compromised circulation, might induce further severe decreases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) with temporal decreases in arterial pressure induced by various stimuli if dynamic cerebral autoregulation is not improved. Therefore, the authors hypothesized that dexmedetomidine strengthens dynamic ...
Marucci Damian D - - 2008
Raised intracranial pressure is a well-known complication of Apert syndrome. The current policy in the authors' unit is to monitor these patients and only perform surgery when raised intracranial pressure has been diagnosed. The authors present their experience with this protocol, as it allows a more accurate picture of the ...
Zweifel Christian C Academic Neurosurgical Unit, University of Cambridge Clinical School, Cambridge, United - - 2008
Cerebrovascular pressure reactivity is the ability of cerebral vessels to respond to changes in transmural pressure. A cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index (PRx) can be determined as the moving correlation coefficient between mean intracranial pressure (ICP) and mean arterial blood pressure. The authors analyzed a database consisting of 398 patients with ...
Steiner Luzius A LA Department of Anaesthesia, University Hospital Basel, CH-4031, Basel, Switzerland. - - 2009
To study the correlation between a dynamic index of cerebral autoregulation assessed with blood flow velocity (FV) using transcranial Doppler, and a tissue oxygenation index (TOI) recorded with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-three patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock were monitored daily on up to four consecutive days. FV, ...
Waldenberger Peter - - 2009
Three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) is useful for detecting, classifying and planning treatment for intracranial aneurysms. Prolonged contrast material (CM) injection, required for 3DRA, might cause blood pressure changes in the selectively catheterized artery. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent and clinical relevance of haemodynamic changes in ...
Weber Jochen - - 2008
The intentional deformation of human skulls in the living being was one of the most curious rituals performed in historical and ancient times. It is thought that these practices cause chronic elevated intracranial pressure and subsequent symptoms of cognitive impairment. In this report, we examine such an artificially deformed skull ...
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