Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 2462
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Chacón Max M Informatics Engineering Department of Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Av. Ecuador 3659, Est. Central, Chile. - - 2010
Intracranial Pressure (ICP) measurements are of great importance for the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of many vascular brain disturbances. The standard measurement of the ICP is performed invasively by the perforation of the cranial scalp in the presence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Measuring the ICP in a noninvasive way ...
Carrera Emmanuel - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Hyperventilation has been shown to be associated with cerebral vasoconstriction and increased risk of infarction. Our aim was to determine whether spontaneous reduction in end-tidal CO(2) (EtCO(2)) was associated with an increased in brain tissue hypoxia (BTH). METHOD: We studied 21 consecutive patients (mean age 50+/-16 years; 15 women) ...
Wilkes Byron N - - 2009
A 16-year-old woman complaining of headache and declining vision in both eyes had papilledema, normal brain imaging, and a lumbar puncture showing a moderately high opening pressure (35 cm H2O) and normal cerebrospinal fluid constituents. For a diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), she was treated with acetazolamide and methylprednisolone, ...
Willems Peter W A - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: This is the first report of an aggressive dural arteriovenous fistula presenting with rhinorrhea. It demonstrates the importance of recognizing increased intracranial pressure, and its underlying cause, as the predisposing factor to a spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak because this carries implications for management. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Ten years after minor ...
Sala F - - 2009
Childhood meningitis is associated with high mortality and morbidity. In selected cases, the prompt institution of invasive intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and therapy may improve survival but few studies have evaluated the indications for ICP monitoring in this specific neurological disease. This article examines the case of a five-year-old child ...
Rockswold Gaylan L - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Hypertonic saline is emerging as a potentially effective single osmotic agent for control of acute elevations in intracranial pressure (ICP) caused by severe traumatic brain injury. This study examines its effect on ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2). METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive patients with severe ...
Moretti Riccardo - - 2009
The aim of our study is to confirm the reliability of optic nerve ultrasound as a method to detect intracranial hypertension in patients with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, to assess the reproducibility of the measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), and to verify that ONSD changes concurrently with intracranial ...
Roustan Jean-Paul - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In patients with serious head trauma, a moderate (20-25 mm Hg) mean level of intracranial pressure (ICP) may fail to distinguish patients with a real deteriorated intracranial status from those who are stable or improving. Because of these limitations, we analyzed the ICP curve in search of other relevant ...
Brady Ken M KM Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Department of aAnesthesiology and Critical Care, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. - - 2009
We hypothesized that pressure reactivity index (PRx) values indicating preserved cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation would be associated with survival in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This hypothesis was tested in a prospective, blinded, observational, pilot study. Twenty-one children admitted between May 2006 and September 2008 with severe TBI necessitating invasive ...
Radolovich Danila K DK Academic Neurosurgical Unit, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK. - - 2010
The relative merits of the mechanisms for the maintenance of brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO(2)) have been much debated. There is a wealth of studies regarding various factors that may determine the absolute value and changes in PbtO(2). However, only a few of them analyzed fast (few minutes) and transient behavior ...
Al-Rawi Pippa G PG University Department of Neurosurgery, Box 167, Level 4, A-Block, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB20QQ, UK. - - 2010
Delayed cerebral ischemia and infarction due to reduced CBF remains the leading cause of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hypertonic saline (HS) is associated with an increase in CBF. This study explores whether CBF enhancement with HS in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with improved cerebral tissue ...
Peterson Eric - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The management of severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) patients with and without intact cerebral pressure autoregulation (CPA) varies markedly. Recent studies, analyzing beat-to-beat interactions between intracranial pressure (ICP) and systolic blood pressure, or transcranial Doppler velocity changes during a rapid drop in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), suggest that CPA ...
Ursino Mauro - - 2009
This work investigates the complex relationships between cerebrovascular dynamics, intracranial pressure (ICP), Cushing response, and short-term systemic regulation via an original mathematical model. The model has been used to analyze the effects of Cushing response on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular quantities during constant ICP elevation and during the occurrence of ICP ...
Samuelsson Carolina - - 2009
OBJECT: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between hemodynamics (intracranial and systemic) and brain tissue energy metabolism, and between hemodynamics and glutamate (Glt)-glutamine (Gln) cycle activity. METHODS: Brain interstitial levels of lactate, pyruvate, Glt, and Gln were prospectively monitored in the neurointensive care unit for more ...
Zhang Jiangyue - - 2009
This study was conducted to quantify intracranial biomechanical responses and external blast overpressures using physical head model to understand the biomechanics of blast traumatic brain injury and to provide experimental data for computer simulation of blast-induced brain trauma. Ellipsoidal-shaped physical head models, made from 3-mm polycarbonate shell filled with Sylgard ...
Figaji Anthony A - - 2009
OBJECT: Cerebral pressure autoregulation is an important neuroprotective mechanism that stabilizes cerebral blood flow when blood pressure (BP) changes. In this study the authors examined the association between autoregulation and clinical factors, BP, intracranial pressure (ICP), brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO(2)), and outcome after pediatric severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). ...
Dmello Dayton - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature and present data on the safety and efficacy of induced moderate hypothermia combined with ICP monitoring in critically ill patients with acute liver failure. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective observational search of MEDLINE database using both OVID and PubMed with the following MeSH terms, ...
Reinhard Matthias M Department of Neurology, Neurocenter, University of Freiburg, Breisacherstr. 64, 79106 Freiburg, Germany. - - 2010
Blood pressure management in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) relies on functioning cerebral autoregulation. The time course of autoregulation in acute ICH and its relation with clinical outcome are not known. Twenty-six patients with spontaneous ICH were studied on days 1, 3 and 5 after ictus. Autoregulation was noninvasively measured from ...
Crawford A - - 2010
We report a 63-year-old man who developed transient acute on chronic hearing loss after a lumbar puncture performed to investigate raised intracranial pressure. He was subsequently found to have stenosis of the distal left transverse sinus, which was treated with stenting.
Mahfoud Felix - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: During short-term postural changes, the factors determining the amplitude of intracranial pulse pressure (ICPPA) remain constant, except for cerebrovascular resistance (CVR). Therefore, it may be possible to draw conclusions from the ICPPA onto the cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) and thus the relative change in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). METHODS: Age, ...
Zaidat Osama O - - 2009
Clinical outcome in endovascular therapy of intracranial atherosclerosis with stenting and angioplasty or angioplasty alone is dependent on multiple other factors beside the procedure itself. Preprocedure combined antiplatelet administration of aspirin and clopidogrel and its duration is critical. Preferably, this should be administered 5-7 days prior to the intended procedure ...
Balaratnasingam Chandrakumar - - 2009
The paucity of suitable experimental models has made it difficult to isolate the pathogenic role of mitochondria in central nervous system diseases associated with absolute pressure elevation and increased pressure gradients. Experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hydrocephalus have been useful for examining the mitochondrial response following pressure ...
Ferns S P - - 2010
Hemodynamics is thought to play a role in the growth and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. In 4 patients, we obtained local pressure and BFV by using a dual-sensor pressure and Doppler velocity wire within and in vessels surrounding unruptured aneurysms. Local BFVs can serve as boundary conditions for computational fluid ...
Strandvik G F - - 2009
Hypertonic saline has been in clinical use for many decades. Its osmotic and volume-expanding properties make it theoretically useful for a number of indications in critical care. This literature review evaluates the use of hypertonic saline in critical care. The putative mechanism of action is presented, followed by a narrative ...
Zweifel Christian C Academic Neurosurgical Unit, University of Cambridge Clinical School, Cambridge, UK. - - 2010
We compared autoregulation monitored with cortical laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and autoregulation monitored with transcranial Doppler (TCD) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) to verify the hypothesis that, following brain trauma, cortical vessel autoregulation to intracranial hypertension is different than assessed in the MCA. Data collected from 29 head injured ...
Graetz Daniela - - 2010
There is a rising debate about the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) such as intracranial hypertension (intracranial pressure, ICP >20 mmHg). This study aimed to analyse the origin of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in respect to ICP and cerebral metabolism in SAH patients. Prospectively, ...
Morgan Stuart Robert - - 2011
We report the case of a young woman with delayed cerebral infarction and intracranial hypertension following subarachnoid hemorrhage requiring hemicraniectomy, who underwent multimodality neuromonitoring of the contralateral hemisphere before and after craniectomy. Intracranial hypertension was preceded by signs of ischemia and impaired brain metabolism diagnosed through cerebral microdialysis and PbtO2 ...
Olivecrona M M Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neurosciences, Division of Neurosurgery, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden. - - 2009
To prospectively study S-100B and neuron specific enolase (NSE) levels in subjects treated for severe head injury (sTBI), and investigate the prognostic value of these biomarkers. Subjects included in a prospective double blind randomised study for sTBI. Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) <or=8, age 15-70 years, first recorded cerebral perfusion pressure ...
Han W-R - - 2009
Knowledge of the time course of penile erection is very important to understanding erection physiology. The changes in the intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and the different phases of an erection are pivotal to the ability to produce and maintain a rigid penile erection. This study investigated an objective and low-invasiveness method ...
Bar-Joseph Gad - - 2009
OBJECT: Deepening sedation is often needed in patients with intracranial hypertension. All widely used sedative and anesthetic agents (opioids, benzodiazepines, propofol, and barbiturates) decrease blood pressure and may therefore decrease cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Ketamine is a potent, safe, rapid-onset anesthetic agent that does not decrease blood pressure. However, ketamine's ...
Latorre Julius Gene S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Patients with acute brain injury from various etiologies commonly develop increased intracranial pressure. Acute intracranial hypertension resulting from elevation of intracranial pressure is a medical emergency requiring prompt diagnosis and management. Appropriate and timely management strategies result in better patient outcome in an otherwise severely debilitating or fatal disease ...
Nujaimin U - - 2009
This was a prospective cohort study, carried out in the Neuro Intensive Care Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian Kelantan. The study was approved by the local ethics committee and was conducted between November 2005 and September 2007 with a total of 30 patients included in ...
Milewska Agata - - 2009
Various electrocardiographic changes are found in patients with increased intracranial pressure. The most common findings are sinus bradycardia, QT prolongation, ST-segment changes, and T- or U-wave abnormalities. The presence of J wave is reported rarely. We describe 3 patients with increased intracranial pressure caused by different cerebral pathologies accompanied by ...
Barklin Anne - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Development of coagulopathy is a serious complication arising from isolated traumatic brain injury, and it predicts poor outcome. The underlying mechanism has not yet been established, although coagulopathy arising from brain tissue injury and the release of tissue factor may represent the pathophysiology. The authors investigated dynamic whole-blood clot ...
Castillo Luis B - - 2009
Osmotically active solutions, particularly mannitol, havebeen used for more than 30 years in the treatment ofintracranial hypertension. Recently hypertonic saline hasemerged as an alternative to mannitol. Both solutions areused worldwide, and their indications and long-term sideeffects are well known. More recently, knowledge abouttheir effects has increased, both limiting and expandingtheir ...
Manley Geoffrey T - - 2009
Elevated intracranial pressure is one of the most common causes of death and disability following severe traumatic brain injury and ischemic stroke. Unfortunately, there have been no new medical treatments for cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure in more than 80 years. Decompressive craniectomy may be an appropriate surgical option ...
Enye Stephen - - 2009
A 36-year-old primigravida with a history of temporal lobe epilepsy presented at 25 weeks of pregnancy with generalized tonic clonic seizures. The clinical picture was confused with eclampsia because of rising blood pressure and proteinuria. Clinical investigations, which included a lumbar puncture, were carried out to rule out an infective ...
Tuettenberg Jochen - - 2009
OBJECT: Several approaches have been established for the treatment of intracranial hypertension; however, a considerable number of patients remain unresponsive to even aggressive therapeutic strategies. Lumbar CSF drainage has been contraindicated in the setting of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) because of possible cerebral herniation. The authors of this study investigated ...
Kitzberger Reinhard - - 2009
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ionized ammonia (NH(3)) and partial pressure of the gaseous ammonia (pNH(3)) are associated with hepatic encephalopathy and intracranial hypertension in patients with acute liver failure; NH(3) is also believed to contribute to extrahepatic organ failure. We investigated whether the severity of organ failure was associated with intracranial ...
Kirkness Catherine J - - 2009
Care of brain-injured patients in intensive care units has focused on maintaining arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure within prescribed ranges. Research suggests, however, that the dynamic variability of these pressure signals provides additional information about physiological functioning and may reflect adaptive capacity. To see if long-term outcomes can be ...
Singhi Sunit C - - 2009
Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is a life threatening condition that is common to many neurological and non-neurological illnesses. Unless recognized and treated early it may cause secondary brain injury due to reduced cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and progress to brain herniation and death. Management of raised ICP includes care of ...
Chen Liang - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cause of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula, focusing on the role of angiogenic factors and local chronic brain hypoperfusion. METHODS: One hundred twenty rats were assigned to 4 groups: group A (n = 35), the venous hypertension group; group B (n = 35), the venous hypertension and ...
Wagshul Mark E - - 2009
OBJECT: The intracranial pulse pressure is often increased when neuropathology is present, particularly in cases of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) such as occurs in hydrocephalus. This pulse pressure is assumed to originate from arterial blood pressure oscillations entering the cranium; the fact that there is a coupling between the arterial ...
Chaiwat Onuma - - 2009
Little is known regarding the cerebral autoregulation in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). We examined the relationship between cerebral hemodynamic predictors, including cerebral autoregulation, and long-term outcome after severe pediatric TBI. After Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data (May 2002 to October 2007) for ...
Hickey Joanne V - - 2009
Cerebral compliance is a measure of cerebral adaptability to increases in volume within the intracranial space and an indicator of risk for neurological deterioration. However, no direct measurement of compliance exists in clinical practice to guide nursing care or treatment decisions. Current use of mean intracranial pressure (MICP) and gross ...
Kumar Gyanendra - - 2009
There is paucity of data evaluating intracranial pressure (ICP) rise and its management in acute viral encephalitis (AVE). Noteworthy is the current prevalence of unselective and broad utilization of ICP lowering therapies in clinical practice. Trends in current management of ICP in AVE emanate from data extrapolated from results of ...
Geeraerts Thomas - - 2009
Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is a frequent condition in many medical and surgical situations and is often difficult to detect. Noninvasive estimates of raised ICP are of interest to allow rapid detection of significant intracranial hypertension. In the anterior part of the optic nerve, the sheath is distensible and can ...
Huschak Gerald - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The study presented evaluated the first clinical use of a new multiparameter catheter measuring intracranial pressure (ICP), partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen (ptiO2), and brain temperature (TBr) (Neurovent PTO). To assess the validity of measured ptiO2 a second probe, which represents the current golden standard of ptiO2 measurement, ...
Lindner U - - 2009
In this article we report on two patients with arachnoid cysts previously treated by shunt implantation presenting with clinical signs of an increased intracranial pressure i. e., papilledema, headache and nausea. Repeated MRI scans showed no alteration of the cerebrospinal fluid circulation and no space-occupying effect of the cysts. Although ...
Kelly Stephen J - - 2009
Pseudotumor cerebri, also termed idiopathic intracranial hypertension, is defined by increased intracranial pressure in the setting of normal brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. It can often be associated with optic nerve head edema. Several medications have been associated with pseudotumor cerebri,(1) including the use of lithium carbonate in the ...
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