Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 2478
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Chambers I R - - 2006
The principal strategy for managing head injury is to reduce the frequency and severity of secondary brain insults from intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and hence improve outcome. Precise critical threshold levels have not been determined in head injured children. To create a novel pressure-time index (PTI) ...
Agren-Wilsson A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The symptoms in idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome (IAHS) are consistent with pathology involving the periventricular white matter, presumably reflecting ischaemia and CSF hydrodynamic disturbance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a change in intracranial pressure (ICP) can affect energy metabolism in deep white matter. METHODS: A microdialysis catheter, a brain tissue ...
Helling Eric - - 2005
Head and neck injuries are not uncommon in combat environments and may be increasing due to survivable injuries from the use of kevlar helmets and body armor. With the current capability of rapid evacuation from the battlefield, acutely injured patients with frontal sinus injuries may undergo further barometric challenges. Proper ...
Jalan Rajiv - - 2005
In acute liver failure (ALF) patients that have raised increased intracranial pressure (ICP), mortality remains unacceptably high. There has been an explosion in the knowledge about the pathophysiological basis of raised ICP but treatment modalities are limited. Current therapy is aimed at reducing the circulating ammonia levels and attempts to ...
Clausen F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: In traumatic brain injury research, the fluid percussion injury (FPI) model in the rat is widely used. The injury is graded based on indirect criteria, such as the extracranial pressure wave and/or physiological responses to the injury. We designed this study to investigate if the extracranially monitored pressure in ...
Seppelt, Ian
Traumatic brain injury is a devastating problem with both high mortality and high subsequent morbidity. Injury to the brain occurs both at the time of the initial trauma (the primary injury) and subsequently due to ongoing cerebral ischaemia (the secondary injury). Hypotension and hypoxaemia are well recognized causes of this ...
Vincent Jean-Louis - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To review the current understanding of the medical management of severe brain injury. DATA SOURCE: The MEDLINE database, bibliographies of selected articles, and current English-language texts on the subject. STUDY SELECTION: Studies related to management of intracranial hypertension, traumatic brain injury, and brain edema. DATA EXTRACTION: All studies relevant ...
Portella G - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Cerebral compliance expresses the capability to buffer an intracranial volume increase while avoiding a rise in intracranial pressure (ICP). The autoregulatory response to Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP) variation influences cerebral blood volume which is an important determinant of compliance. The direction of compliance change in relation to CPP variation ...
Elf Kristin - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence of secondary insults using a computerized monitoring data collecting system and to investigate their relationship to outcome when the neurointensive care was dedicated to avoiding secondary insults. METHODS: Patients 16 to 79 years old admitted to the neurointensive care unit between August 1998 and December ...
Eide Per Kristian - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Intracranial compliance may be more reliably predicted by the pulsatile component (pulse pressure) than the steady (mean pressure) component of intracranial pressure (ICP). A new method of processing continuous ICP signals assessing both components of ICP is described and applied to the ICP recordings of 6 pediatric cases. METHOD: ...
Smith Michelle J - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine a) whether packed red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) increases local brain tissue oxygen partial pressure (Pbto2) in a neurocritical care population; and b) what (if any) demographic, clinical, or physiologic variables mediate the assumed change. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: A neurosurgical intensive care unit at a ...
Krave Ulrika - - 2005
A rotational acceleration impulse to a head, as occurs at traffic accidents, sport injuries, assaults and falls, induces a diffuse brain damage that eventually could result in persistent neuropsychiatric deficits and neurodegeneration. Emphasis has been concentrated on the relative motion of the brain inside the skull during head impact, whereas ...
Bourgoin Aurélie - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The manual injection of a bolus of opioid in patients with brain injury induces an increase in intracranial pressure related to a decrease in mean arterial pressure. Such an effect has not been observed with the use of ketamine. The use of target-controlled infusion would minimize or suppress this ...
Kongstad L L Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, University and University Hospital of Lund, SE-221 85 Lund, - - 2005
Lumbar dural puncture may reduce intracranial pressure (ICP) due to a hydrostatic pressure gradient created by distal opening of the spinal fluid column towards the atmosphere. The magnitude of the reduction in hydrostatic force on the brain should depend on the vertical distance between the brain and the dural opening, ...
Panerai Ronney B - - 2005
Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) describes the transient response of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to rapid changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP). We tested the hypothesis that the efficiency of dynamic CA is increased by brain activation paradigms designed to induce hemispheric lateralization. CBF velocity [CBFV; bilateral, middle cerebral artery (MCA)], ...
Voorhees Jennifer R - - 2005
At the end of the 19th century, the early evolution of the specialty of neurological surgery was restricted by complications related to infection, increased intracranial pressure, and excessive intraoperative blood loss. These complications often caused mortality rates of 30 to 50%. An improved understanding of pathophysiological factors involved in increased ...
Kalmar A F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: During an endoscopic neurosurgical procedure a sudden increase in intracranial pressure may occur at any time. We present a prospective study of haemodynamic changes during such procedures. METHODS: Physiological data were recorded during the whole operative procedure in 17 consecutive patients who underwent an endoscopic neurosurgical procedure under general ...
Marcoux Kelly Keefe - - 2005
Increased intracranial pressure reflects the presence of mass effect in the brain and is associated with a poor outcome in children with acute neurological injury. If sustained, it has a negative effect on cerebral blood flow and cerebral perfusion pressure, can cause direct compression of vital cerebral structures, and can ...
Dahlbacka Sebastian - - 2005
BACKGROUND: There is some evidence of beneficial metabolic effects associated with the pH-stat than with alpha-stat perfusion strategy, but this is tempered by a likely increased risk of embolism to the brain, especially in adult patients. We investigated this possible adverse effect in an experimental model that combined hypothermic circulatory ...
Schmidt M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Xenon in low concentrations has been investigated in neuroradiology to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). Several reports have suggested that inhalation of Xenon might increase intracranial pressure (ICP) by increasing the cerebral blood flow and blood volume, raising concerns about using Xenon as an anesthetic in higher concentrations for ...
van Hulst Robert A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment after cerebral air embolism on intracranial pressure, brain oxygenation, brain glucose/lactate metabolism, and electroencephalograph. DESIGN: Prospective animal study. SETTING: Hyperbaric chamber. SUBJECTS: Eleven Landrace/Yorkshire pigs. INTERVENTIONS: In 11 anesthetized pigs, intracranial pressure and brain oxygenation were measured with microsensor technology, brain ...
Vaquero Javier - - 2005
Brain edema with intracranial hypertension is a major complication in patients with acute liver failure. Current therapies for this complication include a variety of pharmacologic and interventional measures, some of which are frequently associated with adverse effects or contraindications. Even though these measures usually allow the control of intracranial hypertension ...
Stevens Scott A - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: The effects of microgravity are often simulated by head-down tilt (HDT). While data exist for intracranial pressure (ICP) during short-term HDT, no corresponding data exist for long-term exposure to HDT or microgravity. A mathematical model was developed to predict these unknown long-term responses. Predicted pressures include those in the ...
Olsen K S - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The effect of alfentanil on intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with supratentorial cerebral tumors has only been sparsely examined and with somewhat contradictory results. METHODS: Thirty-one patients were anesthetized with propofol and fentanyl. After removal of the bone flap a bolus-dose of alfentanil 10 (group 1), 20 (group 2), ...
Shinoura Nobusada - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported changes in cerebrovascular reactivity during the interictal period of migraine. To characterize mechanisms of migraine, we compared changes in total haemoglobin (THbl) and regional oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) of the right and left frontal lobes in response to intracranial pressure changes during the interictal period of ...
Steiner L A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Hyperventilation may cause brain ischaemia after traumatic brain injury. However, moderate reductions in PaCO(2) are still an option in the management of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) under some circumstances. Being able to predict the ICP-response to such an intervention would be advantageous. We investigated the ability of pre-hyperventilation ICP ...
Sgouros Spyros - - 2005
Since its first description by Virchow, the principle of abnormal skull growth due to restriction of skull growth at the fused sutures, and the realisation by Moss that the sutures at the skull base are equally affected, have been the main intellectual driving forces behind the majority of cranial expansion ...
Gotoh Taro M - - 2005
There has been recent interest in the concept of connecting a computer to the brain to control brain functions. However, there are challenges that must be overcome in developing such a computer-brain interface, including a selection of nucleus that is stimulated, and an implantable electrode and electrical stimulator. Another important ...
Yannopoulos Demetris - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Recent data suggest that generation of negative intrathoracic pressure during the decompression phase of CPR improves hemodynamics, organ perfusion and survival. HYPOTHESIS: Incomplete chest wall recoil during the decompression phase of standard CPR increases intrathoracic pressure and right atrial pressure, impedes venous return, decreases compression-induced aortic pressures and results ...
Czosnyka Marek - - 2005
OBJECT: The object of this study was to investigate whether a failure of cerebrovascular autoregulation contributes to the relationship between age and outcome in patients following head injury. METHODS: Data obtained from continuous bedside monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP = ABP ...
Feen Eliahu S - - 2005
Raised intracranial pressure is a relatively common problem facing the clinician treating neurocritically ill patients. It is a leading cause of death in patients with intracranial pathology. There is a lack of controlled clinical trials evaluating most of the therapies currently available for raised intracranial pressure. The basic pathophysiologic and ...
Nebel K - - 2005
Cervical pain is a prominent symptom in both acute whiplash injury and late whiplash syndrome. However, no systematic analysis of post-traumatic pain development covering several weeks has yet been performed in whiplash patients. It was the aim of the present study to analyse the duration and course of post-traumatic muscle ...
Umegaki Masao - - 2005
Spreading depression-like peri-infarct depolarizations not only characterize but also worsen penumbra conditions in cortical border zones of experimental focal ischemia. We intended to investigate the relevance of ischemic depolarization in subcortical regions of ischemic territories. Calomel electrodes measured DC potentials simultaneously in the lateral and medial portions of the caudate ...
Voulgaris Spyridon G - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The early posttraumatic period is critical in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) because of the increased risk of secondary ischemic injuries to the injured brain. For these patients, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) monitoring is recommended. This, however, requires an invasive device to measure intracranial pressure (ICP). Transcranial Doppler ...
Fountas Kostas N - - 2005
BACKGROUND: An increasing body of evidence supports the concept that intracranial pressure (ICP) slow B waves represent the auto-regulatory response of spontaneous fluctuations of cerebral perfusion pressure. A relationship between cerebral auto-regulation and clinical outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury has also been established. The objective of our prospective ...
Al-Mufarrej Faisal - - 2005
Until recently, the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) was considered an absolute contraindication to laparoscopy. In some cases, intraabdominal insufflation causes a rapid, sustained increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). Such intracranial hypertension may result in hindbrain herniation. To prevent this, the use of lower abdominal pressures, intraoperative ICP monitoring, ...
Tsung James W - - 2005
Managing pediatric head trauma with elevated intracranial pressure in the acute setting can be challenging. Bedside ocular ultrasound for measuring optic nerve sheath diameters has been recently proposed as a portable noninvasive method to rapidly detect increased intracranial pressure in emergency department patients with head trauma. Prior study data agree ...
Wang Ning-Lu - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Shengmai San (SMS), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on heatstroke-induced circulatory shock and oxidative damage in the brain in rats. Anesthetized rats were exposed to a high ambient temperature (43 degrees C) to induce heatstroke. After the onset of ...
Bozeman William P - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Controversy and speculation exist regarding intracranial pressure (ICP) changes produced by various combinations of rapid sequence intubation (RSI) agents. In this pilot study, we sought to develop a swine model to investigate these changes in classic RSI. METHODS: Eight adult swine were instrumented with arterial and intracranial pressure monitors. ...
Howells Tim - - 2005
OBJECT: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different treatment protocols on physiological characteristics and outcome in patients with brain trauma. One protocol was primarily oriented toward reducing intracranial pressure (ICP), and the other primarily on maintaining cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). METHODS: A series of ...
David M M Department of Anaesthesiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany. - - 2005
This study observed adverse events of rescue treatment with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in head-injured patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Data of five male patients with ARDS and traumatic brain injury, median age 28 years, who failed to respond to conventional pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) were analyzed retrospectively during ...
Ca─čavi Ferda - - 2005
This study examines the intracranial pressure and temperature dispersion in a rabbit model after epidural balloon compression. Right and left supratentorial, intraventricular and infratentorial pressures and temperatures of the rabbits have been measured before epidural balloon was placed. Afterwards, the epidural balloon was placed in right parietal epidural area. The ...
Moody Michelle - - 2005
Cognitive and/or sensorimotor stimulations of the brain induce increases in cerebral blood flow that are usually associated with increased metabolic demand. We tested the hypothesis that changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and arterial Pco(2) also take place during brain activation protocols designed to induce hemispheric lateralization, leading to a ...
Hemphill J Claude JC - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Brain tissue oxygen (PbrO2) monitoring is an emerging technique for detection of secondary brain injury in neurocritical care. Although it has been extensively reported in traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, its use in nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been well described. We report complementary preliminary studies ...
Liu Z - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Explore the relationship between lumbar Epidural Pressure (LEDP) and CSFP through clinical studies and to determine whether LEDP can represent CSFP. METHODS: We selected 150 cases of cerebral diseases at random for this study. A special mini transducer was implanted into the lumbar epidural space between the third and ...
Poon W S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Ischaemic brain damage has been shown to be an important contributing factor causing head injury fatality. Maintenance of an adequate cerebral perfusion pressure is difficult in patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and deranged cerebral vasoreactivity. Thirty-five cases of ventilated moderate-to-severe head-injured patients were prospectively studied, correlating their cerebral ...
Schmidt B - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The authors previously introduced a method in which intracranial pressure (ICP) was estimated using parameters (TCD characteristics) derived from cerebral blood flow velocity (FV) and arterial blood pressure (ABP). Some results suggested that this model might be influenced by the patient's state of cerebral autoregulation and other clinical parameters. ...
Woiciechowsky C - - 2005
There is a bi-directional communication between the immune and central nervous system. In this context, it is known that patients with traumatic brain injury suffered from systemic immunodepression and an increased risk to develop infectious complications. We investigated the role of an increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and sympathetic activation on ...
Jones P A - - 2005
This paper describes and validates a new Cumulative Pressure-Time Index (CPT) which takes into account both duration and degree of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) derangement and determines critical thresholds for CPP, in a paediatric head injury dataset. Sixty-six head-injured children, with invasive minute-to-minute intracranial pressure (ICP) and blood pressure monitoring, ...
Czosnyka M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To propose a new coefficient, which contains information about both the absolute ICP and the position of the 'working point' on the pressure-volume curve. METHOD: ICP was monitored continuously in 187 sedated and ventilated patients. The RAP coefficient was calculated as the running (3 minutes) correlation coefficient between slow ...
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