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Sgouros Spyros - - 2005
Since its first description by Virchow, the principle of abnormal skull growth due to restriction of skull growth at the fused sutures, and the realisation by Moss that the sutures at the skull base are equally affected, have been the main intellectual driving forces behind the majority of cranial expansion ...
Gotoh Taro M - - 2005
There has been recent interest in the concept of connecting a computer to the brain to control brain functions. However, there are challenges that must be overcome in developing such a computer-brain interface, including a selection of nucleus that is stimulated, and an implantable electrode and electrical stimulator. Another important ...
Yannopoulos Demetris - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Recent data suggest that generation of negative intrathoracic pressure during the decompression phase of CPR improves hemodynamics, organ perfusion and survival. HYPOTHESIS: Incomplete chest wall recoil during the decompression phase of standard CPR increases intrathoracic pressure and right atrial pressure, impedes venous return, decreases compression-induced aortic pressures and results ...
Czosnyka Marek - - 2005
OBJECT: The object of this study was to investigate whether a failure of cerebrovascular autoregulation contributes to the relationship between age and outcome in patients following head injury. METHODS: Data obtained from continuous bedside monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP = ABP ...
Feen Eliahu S - - 2005
Raised intracranial pressure is a relatively common problem facing the clinician treating neurocritically ill patients. It is a leading cause of death in patients with intracranial pathology. There is a lack of controlled clinical trials evaluating most of the therapies currently available for raised intracranial pressure. The basic pathophysiologic and ...
Nebel K - - 2005
Cervical pain is a prominent symptom in both acute whiplash injury and late whiplash syndrome. However, no systematic analysis of post-traumatic pain development covering several weeks has yet been performed in whiplash patients. It was the aim of the present study to analyse the duration and course of post-traumatic muscle ...
Umegaki Masao - - 2005
Spreading depression-like peri-infarct depolarizations not only characterize but also worsen penumbra conditions in cortical border zones of experimental focal ischemia. We intended to investigate the relevance of ischemic depolarization in subcortical regions of ischemic territories. Calomel electrodes measured DC potentials simultaneously in the lateral and medial portions of the caudate ...
Voulgaris Spyridon G - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The early posttraumatic period is critical in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) because of the increased risk of secondary ischemic injuries to the injured brain. For these patients, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) monitoring is recommended. This, however, requires an invasive device to measure intracranial pressure (ICP). Transcranial Doppler ...
Fountas Kostas N - - 2005
BACKGROUND: An increasing body of evidence supports the concept that intracranial pressure (ICP) slow B waves represent the auto-regulatory response of spontaneous fluctuations of cerebral perfusion pressure. A relationship between cerebral auto-regulation and clinical outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury has also been established. The objective of our prospective ...
Al-Mufarrej Faisal - - 2005
Until recently, the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) was considered an absolute contraindication to laparoscopy. In some cases, intraabdominal insufflation causes a rapid, sustained increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). Such intracranial hypertension may result in hindbrain herniation. To prevent this, the use of lower abdominal pressures, intraoperative ICP monitoring, ...
David M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: This study observed adverse events of rescue treatment with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in head-injured patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Data of five male patients with ARDS and traumatic brain injury, median age 28 years, who failed to respond to conventional pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) were analyzed ...
Tsung James W - - 2005
Managing pediatric head trauma with elevated intracranial pressure in the acute setting can be challenging. Bedside ocular ultrasound for measuring optic nerve sheath diameters has been recently proposed as a portable noninvasive method to rapidly detect increased intracranial pressure in emergency department patients with head trauma. Prior study data agree ...
Wang Ning-Lu - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Shengmai San (SMS), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on heatstroke-induced circulatory shock and oxidative damage in the brain in rats. Anesthetized rats were exposed to a high ambient temperature (43 degrees C) to induce heatstroke. After the onset of ...
Bozeman William P - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Controversy and speculation exist regarding intracranial pressure (ICP) changes produced by various combinations of rapid sequence intubation (RSI) agents. In this pilot study, we sought to develop a swine model to investigate these changes in classic RSI. METHODS: Eight adult swine were instrumented with arterial and intracranial pressure monitors. ...
Howells Tim - - 2005
OBJECT: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different treatment protocols on physiological characteristics and outcome in patients with brain trauma. One protocol was primarily oriented toward reducing intracranial pressure (ICP), and the other primarily on maintaining cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). METHODS: A series of ...
Ca─čavi Ferda - - 2005
This study examines the intracranial pressure and temperature dispersion in a rabbit model after epidural balloon compression. Right and left supratentorial, intraventricular and infratentorial pressures and temperatures of the rabbits have been measured before epidural balloon was placed. Afterwards, the epidural balloon was placed in right parietal epidural area. The ...
Moody Michelle - - 2005
Cognitive and/or sensorimotor stimulations of the brain induce increases in cerebral blood flow that are usually associated with increased metabolic demand. We tested the hypothesis that changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and arterial Pco(2) also take place during brain activation protocols designed to induce hemispheric lateralization, leading to a ...
Hemphill J Claude JC - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Brain tissue oxygen (PbrO2) monitoring is an emerging technique for detection of secondary brain injury in neurocritical care. Although it has been extensively reported in traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, its use in nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been well described. We report complementary preliminary studies ...
Zou R - - 2005
We applied the concept of "phase synchronization" from nonlinear dynamics to the complex relationship between intracranial pressure (ICP) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals. This method is based on multiresolution wavelet transform (MRWT) in which the signals are divided into different frequency bands. We examined ICP and ABP signals from ...
Liu Z - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Explore the relationship between lumbar Epidural Pressure (LEDP) and CSFP through clinical studies and to determine whether LEDP can represent CSFP. METHODS: We selected 150 cases of cerebral diseases at random for this study. A special mini transducer was implanted into the lumbar epidural space between the third and ...
Poon W S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Ischaemic brain damage has been shown to be an important contributing factor causing head injury fatality. Maintenance of an adequate cerebral perfusion pressure is difficult in patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and deranged cerebral vasoreactivity. Thirty-five cases of ventilated moderate-to-severe head-injured patients were prospectively studied, correlating their cerebral ...
Schmidt B - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The authors previously introduced a method in which intracranial pressure (ICP) was estimated using parameters (TCD characteristics) derived from cerebral blood flow velocity (FV) and arterial blood pressure (ABP). Some results suggested that this model might be influenced by the patient's state of cerebral autoregulation and other clinical parameters. ...
Woiciechowsky C - - 2005
There is a bi-directional communication between the immune and central nervous system. In this context, it is known that patients with traumatic brain injury suffered from systemic immunodepression and an increased risk to develop infectious complications. We investigated the role of an increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and sympathetic activation on ...
Jones P A - - 2005
This paper describes and validates a new Cumulative Pressure-Time Index (CPT) which takes into account both duration and degree of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) derangement and determines critical thresholds for CPP, in a paediatric head injury dataset. Sixty-six head-injured children, with invasive minute-to-minute intracranial pressure (ICP) and blood pressure monitoring, ...
Czosnyka M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To propose a new coefficient, which contains information about both the absolute ICP and the position of the 'working point' on the pressure-volume curve. METHOD: ICP was monitored continuously in 187 sedated and ventilated patients. The RAP coefficient was calculated as the running (3 minutes) correlation coefficient between slow ...
Schmidt E A - - 2005
The Cushing response is a pre-terminal sympatho-adrenal systemic response to very high ICP. Animal studies have demonstrated that a moderate rise of ICP yields a reversible pressure-mediated systemic response. Infusion studies are routine procedures to investigate, by infusing CSF space with saline, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biophysics in patients suspected ...
Jaeger M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the perioperative and intraoperative changes of intracranial pressure (ICP) and partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen (PtiO2) after decompressive craniectomy in patients with diffuse brain oedema and space occupying infarction. METHODS: Ten patients suffering from medically intractable raised intracranial pressure (ICP) were included. The underlying diseases and ...
Ellis Tim - - 2005
We describe a new method to determine whether there is additional information contained in the intracranial pulse morphology that cannot be explained by covariation with the mean intracranial pressure (ICP) alone. Our procedure calculates and displays the difference between the actual pulse morphology and the expected morphology given a predictor ...
Thomale U-W - - 2005
N-acethylcysteine (NAC) is known to have direct and indirect antioxidant abilities. We investigated the potential protective effect of NAC on ICP, brain edema and contusion volume after Controlled Cortical Impact (CCI) injury. A moderate CCI injury was induced on the left hemisphere in 48 Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were ...
Gasco J - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between stable decrease in intracranial pressure (ICP) following mannitol administration and variations in regional oxygenation (PtiO2) in severe traumatic brain injured (STBI) patients. METHODS: Fourteen STBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score < or = 8) admitted to the neurointensive care unit during a 12-month period ...
Ragauskas A - - 2005
A new absolute ICP (aICP) measurement method was designed which does not need calibration. In this study we compared a new method with invasive aICP method in ICU on the patients with closed severe traumatic brain injury. A new method is based on two-depth TCD technique for aICP and external ...
Balestreri M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between slow vasogenic waves ('B waves') of intracranial pressure (ICP), pressure-reactivity and outcome after traumatic brain injury. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 193 head-injured patients (age 34 +/- 16.7 years; median GCS 6) were monitored from 1997 to 2002. ICP, arterial blood pressure (ABP) were continuously monitored. ...
Kirkness C J - - 2005
This study examined the relationship of cumulative percent time that cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) fell below set thresholds to outcome in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The sample included 157 patients (16 to 89 years of age, 79%, male) admitted to an intensive care unit at an academic medical ...
Santamarta D - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To establish a more accurate indication for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in patients with noncommunicating hydrocephalus through the analysis of the evolution of postoperative mean intracranial pressure (ICPM). METHOD: Intracranial pressure (ICP) was recorded overnight during 8-hour periods with an intraventricular probe. A personal computer connected to the ICP ...
Barbiro-Michaely Efrat - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Over the last 20 years, mannitol has replaced other osmotic diuretics. Its beneficial effects on intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain metabolism are widely accepted. In the present study, we tested the effect of mannitol injection on brain hemodynamic, metabolic, ionic and ...
Ahn Gook Jun - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, DA-8159, in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-induced rat erectile dysfunction model by measuring intracavernous pressure (ICP). METHODS: Erectile dysfunction was induced by oral administration of either paroxetine or fluoxetine in rats. The changes in ICP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) ...
Ying Cai - - 2005
Intracranial pressure (ICP) research has significant importance in clinic. There are many internal or external factors which cause the vibration of ICP, including heart beat, breath, neural regulation, and so on. A lumped parameter mathematical model of ICP dynamics is established based on animal (dogs) experiments, which includes cerebrovascular bed, ...
Zygun David A - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: The use of methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, has been described in patients with septic shock who are unresponsive to inotropic agents. However, the effects of methylene blue on the human cerebral circulation are not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: This article presents a case report of a ...
Chan M T V - - 2005
Neurological change is more likely to occur when jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2) is less than 50%. However, the value indicating cellular damage has not been clearly defined. We determined the critical SjvO2 value below which intracerebral extracellular metabolic abnormalities occurred in 25 patients with severe head injury. All patients ...
Marmarou A - - 2005
The aim of this study was to determine to what degree hypotension and ICP contribute to the reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), particularly in light of the shift in emphasis to CPP management by the use of pressors. The study population consisted of severely head injured patients extracted retrospectively ...
Hu Xiao - - 2005
Methodologies of deriving phase information from pulsatile intracranial pressure (ICP) signal and characterizing its phase coordination with electrocardiogram (ECG) signal were discussed. The application of ICP phase characterization methods to data from several clinical contexts showed that 1) Unstable periods of ICP were associated with a decreased ICP phase coordination ...
Manwaring P - - 2005
Non-invasive techniques to explore intracranial compliance and pressure have been extensively explored in recent years. Previous techniques have used expensive technologies to make these measurements, often with difficulty. We present a novel, inexpensive method and algorithm to observe trends in intracranial compliance measurement targeted towards the treatment and management of ...
Daley M L - - 2005
To test the validity of the hypothesis that active vasodilatation and vasoconstriction underlie the occurrence of intracranial pressure (ICP) plateau waves by evaluating corresponding changes of cerebrovascular pressure transmission of arterial blood pressure (ABP) to ICP. Digitized recordings of ICP and ABP sampled at 30 Hz were obtained from nine ...
Wakeland W - - 2005
A model of intracranial pressure (ICP) dynamics that uses fluid volumes as primary state variables is presented, along with clinical data for two subjects with elevated ICP. The data includes annotations to indicate the precise timing of clinical changes in cerebral spinal fluid drainage, head of bed elevation, and minute ...
Battison Claire - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effects of equimolar doses of hypertonic saline and dextran solution (HSD, Rescueflow) with 20% mannitol solution for reduction of increased intracranial pressure. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled, crossover trial in the intensive care unit of a large teaching hospital. SETTING: ...
Nakanishi Kazuya - - 2005
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To study the influence of our artificial liver support (ALS) on intracranial pressure (ICP) and to evaluate the significance of ICP monitoring in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) patients treated with ALS. METHODS: ICP was measured in 13 consecutive FHF patients treated with ALS. Maximum value in ICP every day ...
Marín-Caballos Antonio J - - 2005
Higher and lower cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) thresholds have been proposed to improve brain tissue oxygen pressure (PtiO2) and outcome. We study the distribution of hypoxic PtiO2 samples at different CPP thresholds, using prospective multimodality monitoring in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. This is a prospective observational study of ...
Andrews Peter J D - - 2005
Current recommendations regarding the management of patients after traumatic brain injury include reduction in brain tissue pressure (i.e. intracranial pressure) and maintenance of an adequate arterial pressure; these measures combined should result in cerebral perfusion pressure sufficient to achieve adequate oxygen delivery. After almost 20 years of observational studies comparing ...
Steiner L A LA Academic Neurosurgery, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, - - 2005
In volunteers, hyperventilation improves autoregulation. However, in head-injured patients, hyperventilation-induced deterioration and improvement of autoregulation have been reported. We have re-examined this question using an index of pressure reactivity. Thirty patients with severe or moderate head-injury were studied. Arterial blood pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and intracranial pressure (ICP) were ...
Berger Christian - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Osmotic agents such as glycerol are used to treat brain edema in stroke patients. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of glycerol in brain tissue by cerebral microdialysis. METHODS: Patients experiencing large middle cerebral artery infarction were included in this prospective study. The following variables were assessed before and ...
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