Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1567
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Napoli Anthony M - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Previous analyses of physiologic parameter changes during ascent to altitude have incorporated small numbers of well-trained climbers. The effects of altitude illness are more likely to occur and may come to medical attention more frequently in unacclimatized recreational individuals. We sought to evaluate acute changes in physiologic parameters during ...
Breskovic Toni - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: Involuntary apnea episodes in obstructive sleep apnea patients result in selective potentiation of peripheral chemoreceptor regulation of sympathetic vasomotor tone. Breath-hold diving is associated with repeated "voluntary" apnea episodes and massive arterial oxygen desaturation, which could also perturb chemoreflex function. METHODS: We measured ventilation, heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac ...
Smith Thomas G TG Department of Physiology, Anatomy, and Genetics, University of Oxford, Sherrington Bldg, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PT, - - 2009
Hypoxia is a major cause of pulmonary hypertension in respiratory disease and at high altitude. Recent work has established that the effect of hypoxia on pulmonary arterial pressure may depend on iron status, possibly acting through the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor, but the pathophysiological and clinical importance of this interaction ...
Joseph Vincent - - 2009
Acclimatization to long-term hypoxia takes place at high altitude and allows gradual improvement of the ability to tolerate the hypoxic environment. An important component of this process is the hypoxic ventilatory acclimatization (HVA) that develops over several days. HVA reveals profound cellular and neurochemical re-organization occurring both in the peripheral ...
Ketabchi Farzaneh - - 2009
Acute respiratory disorders and permissive hypercapnic strategy may lead to alveolar hypoxia and hypercapnic acidosis. However, the effects of hypercapnia with or without acidosis on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and oxygen diffusion capacity of the lung are controversial. We investigated the effects of hypercapnic acidosis and hypercapnia with normal pH ...
Hemmingsson Tryggve - - 2009
Analysis of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) has become an accepted complementary tool in the management of inflammatory airway diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated reduced exhaled NO at altitude and ascribed their findings to hypoxia. We studied exhaled NO partial pressures (Pe(NO)) in eight healthy subjects at reduced ambient pressure down ...
Kelland N F - - 2010
BACKGROUND: We hypothesised that the potential protective effects of endothelial ET(B) are important in limiting pulmonary vascular muscularisation, vasoconstriction and the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension in response to hypoxia. METHODS: EC-specific ET(B) knockout mice (EC ET(B)(-/-)) and control mice (ET(B)(f/f)) were subjected to hypobaric hypoxic (10% FiO2) or normoxic ...
Harris Thomas A - - 2009
Perinatal asphyxia is a significant contributor to neonatal brain injury. However, there is significant variability in neurological outcome in neonates after global hypoxia-ischemia. The aims of this study were to identify which physiological response/s during global hypoxia-ischemia influence the severity of brain injury and to assess their relative importance. Hypoxia/hypercapnia ...
Gao Peng P Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, Center for Cerebrovascular Research, University of California, San Francisco, California 94110, - - 2009
Cerebral venous hypertension (VH) and angiogenesis are implicated in the pathogenesis of brain arteriovenous malformation and dural arteriovenous fistulae. We studied the association of VH and angiogenesis using a mouse brain VH model. Sixty mice underwent external jugular vein and common carotid artery (CCA) anastomosis (VH model), CCA ligation, or ...
Foster Glen E - - 2009
Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is thought to be responsible for many of the long-term cardiovascular consequences associated with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Experimental human models of IH can aid in investigating the pathophysiology of these cardiovascular complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of IH on the ...
Harris Thomas A - - 2009
The function of the cardiovascular system during hypoxia is an important determinant of neurologic outcome. Oscillations in blood pressure, particularly type-3 waves with a duration of 10 to 160 s, have been shown to occur in the presence of hypoxia in the neonatal rat. The aim of this study was ...
Irwin David - - 2010
Hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) are being developed as a potential therapy for increasing tissue oxygenation, yet they have not reached their full potential because of unwanted hemodynamic side effects (vasoconstriction, low cardiac output, and oxygen delivery) due in part to nitric oxide (NO) scavenging by cell-free Hb. It may ...
Chang Katherine - - 2009
Chronic hypoxia during pregnancy has profound effects on uterine artery (UA) contractility and attenuates uterine blood flow. The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia inhibits the pregnancy-induced reduction in pressure-dependent myogenic tone of resistance-sized UAs. UAs were isolated from nonpregnant ewes (NPUAs) and near-term pregnant ewes (PUAs) that ...
Oddo Mauro - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal hemoglobin (Hgb) target after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is not precisely known. We sought to examine the threshold of Hgb concentration associated with an increased risk of cerebral metabolic dysfunction in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage who underwent ...
Huang Jianhua - - 2009
Exposure to cyclic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is associated with elevated arterial pressure and sustained sympathoexcitation, but the causes of the augmented sympathetic activity remain poorly understood. We recorded arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve (RSN) activity in conscious rats previously exposed to either CIH or Sham for 3 ...
Heman-Ackah Yolanda D - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The laryngeal chemoreflex is a reflexive central apnea, bradycardia, and cardiovascular collapse that occurs in young, maturing mammals in response to exposure of the laryngeal mucosa to acidic and/or organic stimuli. The severity of the laryngeal chemoreflex varies within a species from one animal to another, and in some ...
Sasaki Clarence T - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Aspiration has been identified as one of the independent risk factors for development of respiratory tract infections, the incidence of which varies from 10% to 65% in patients in intensive care units. The primary defense mechanism for protection of the lower airway is the glottic closure reflex (GCR), elicited ...
Wilson Mark H MH Centre for Altitude, Space and Extreme Environment Medicine, University College London, London, UK. - - 2009
Cellular hypoxia is the common final pathway of brain injury that occurs not just after asphyxia, but also when cerebral perfusion is impaired directly (eg, embolic stroke) or indirectly (eg, raised intracranial pressure after head injury). We Review recent advances in the understanding of neurological clinical syndromes that occur on ...
Sandblom Erik - - 2009
Hypoxia and increased temperature alter venous blood pressures in teleosts through active changes in venous tone. Elasmobranchs possess a capacious venous system but have limited adrenergic vascular innervation and subambient central venous pressure (P(cv)). In this study, we explored venous hemodynamic responses to acute temperature increase and moderate (6.9 kPa) ...
Jin Chunhong - - 2009
It is unclear whether nitrous oxide (N(2)O) has a protective effect on cardiac function in vitro. In addition, little is known about the cardioprotective effect of anesthesia administered during hypoxia or ischemia. We therefore studied the cardioprotective effects of N(2)O and sevoflurane administered before or during hypoxia in isolated rat ...
Iturriaga R - - 2009
It has been proposed that chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) contributes to generate hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and animal models, due to an enhanced sympathetic outflow. A possible contributing mechanism to the CIH-induced hypertension is a potentiation of carotid body (CB) chemosensory responses to hypoxia, but early ...
Hauton David - - 2009
Chronic hypoxia in utero (CHU) is one of the most common insults to fetal development and may be associated with poor cardiac recovery from ischaemia-reperfusion injury, yet the effects on normal cardiac mechanical performance are poorly understood. Pregnant female wistar rats were exposed to hypoxia (12% oxygen, balance nitrogen) for ...
González-Martín M C - - 2009
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of complete (apnoea) or partial (hypopnoea) obstruction of airflow during sleep. The severity of OSAS is defined by the apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) or number of obstructive episodes. An AHI greater than 30 is considered severe, but it ...
Davies Andrew J - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS), the frequency of summiting success, and the factors that affect these in trekkers on Kilimanjaro, one of the world's most summitted high-altitude peaks. METHODS: The study group comprised 312 trekkers attempting Mt Kilimanjaro summit by the Marango Route. Trekkers ascended ...
Moore G W K - - 2009
Global warming impacts a wide range of human activities and ecosystems. One unanticipated consequence of the warming is an increase in barometric pressure throughout the troposphere. Mount Everest's extreme height and resulting low barometric pressure places humans near its summit in an extreme state of hypoxia. Here we quantify the ...
Marcus Noah J - - 2009
In rats, acute exposure to hypoxia causes a decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) caused by a predominance of hypoxic vasodilation over chemoreflex-induced vasoconstriction. We previously demonstrated that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) impairs hypoxic vasodilation in isolated resistance arteries; therefore, we hypothesized that the acute systemic hemodynamic responses ...
Millonig Gunda - - 2009
HIF1 (hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha) is considered a central oxygen-threshold sensor in mammalian cells. In the presence of oxygen, HIF1 is marked by prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) at the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain for ubiquitination followed by rapid proteasomal degradation. However, the actual mechanisms of oxygen sensing by HIF1 are still ...
Richardson Matt X - - 2009
Increased hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct), attributable to spleen contraction, raise blood gas storage capacity during apnea, but the mechanisms that trigger this response have not been clarified. We focused on the role of hypoxia in triggering these Hb and Hct elevations. After horizontal rest for 20 min, 10 ...
Vedam Hima - - 2009
This study examined the effects of hypoxia (80% arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation for 20 min) and the accompanying changes in heart rate and blood pressure on two components of arterial stiffness in healthy men. Augmentation index (AIx) and time to reflection (Tr) representing measures of muscular artery and aortic stiffness, respectively, ...
Copeland Jennifer - - 2009
Development in chronic hypoxia has been shown to have a significant negative impact on the developing cardiovascular system. The developing chicken embryo has two ductus arteriosi (DA) that shunt blood away from the lungs to the systemic circuit and constrict during hatching in response to an increase in arterial partial ...
Xia Hong-Ping - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia may result in multiple organ dysfunction such as lung injury. Inhalation of nebulized nitric oxide precursor can selectively reduce pulmonary hypertension. However, it is unknown whether such precursors can alleviate lung injury induced by hypoxia. We evaluated the effect of inhalation of nebulized nitroglycerine and sodium nitroprusside ...
Kourtidou-Papadeli C - - 2008
Thousands of people work and perform everyday in high altitude environment, either as pilots, or shift workers, or mountaineers.The problem is that most of the accidents in this environment have been attributed to human error. The objective of this study was to assess complex cognitive performance as it interacts with ...
Talbot N P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) helps match pulmonary perfusion to ventilation. The peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) may be involved in the cellular mechanisms of this response. We hypothesized that increasing plasma ET-1 concentration during hypoxia would enhance HPV in humans and might represent a strategy for improving gas exchange during single-lung ...
Ream Margie A - - 2008
The catecholamine norepinephrine is required for fetal survival, but its essential function is unknown. When catecholamine-deficient [tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) null] mouse fetuses die at embryonic day (E)13.5-14.5, they resemble wild-type (wt) fetuses exposed to hypoxia. They exhibit bradycardia (28% reduction in heart rate), thin ventricular myocardium (20% reduction in tissue), ...
Guner Ibrahim - - 2008
Hypoxia causes changes in the rate of synthesis or release of neurotransmitters in the brain. The accumulation of serotonin (5-HT) in the central nervous system might cause hypoxic respiratory depression. In the present study, we aimed to examine the role of central 5-HT on normoxic and acute hypoxic ventilatory depression ...
Rivera-Ch Maria - - 2008
Although the effects of acetazolamide (ACZ) on ventilation during acute mountain sickness are well known, there are no studies assessing its effect on ventilatory response in chronic hypoxia. We studied this effect in patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS). Subjects with CMS, living permanently at 4300 m, were assigned in ...
Gilmartin Geoffrey S - - 2008
Recurrent and intermittent nocturnal hypoxia is characteristic of several diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea. The contribution of hypoxia to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these disease states is unclear, however. To investigate the impact of recurrent nocturnal hypoxia on hemodynamics, ...
Wasserfuhr Daniela - - 2008
We have previously shown that 2 weeks of hypoxia protect the right ventricle of the rat heart from subsequent ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). In the present study, we examined the following: (1) Do shorter periods of hypoxia protect from subsequent I/R? (2) Does intermittent normoxia increase the cardioprotective effect? (3) ...
Rey Sergio - - 2008
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) contributes to the development of hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and animal models. However, the early cardiovascular changes that precede CIH-induced hypertension are not completely understood. Nevertheless, it has been proposed that one of the possible contributing mechanisms to CIH-induced hypertension is a potentiation ...
Wang Qianwen Q Department of Physiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, - - 2008
During ischemia and heart failure, there is an increase in cardiac glycolysis. To understand if this is beneficial or detrimental to the heart, we chronically elevated glycolysis by cardiac-specific overexpression of phosphatase-deficient 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK-2) in transgenic mice. PFK-2 controls the level of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2), an important regulator of phosphofructokinase and ...
Zhou Zhao-Nian - - 2008
Could the intrinsic characteristics of tolerance to hypoxia be retained in Tibetan high-altitude natives after they had migrated to a low altitude? To answer this question, we undertook a study of 33 healthy male adolescent Tibetans born and raised in a high plateau (3,700 m [12,140 ft] above sea level) ...
Serebrovskaya Tatiana V - - 2008
During acute episodes of hypoxia, chemoreceptor-mediated sympathetic activity increases heart rate, cardiac output, peripheral resistance and systemic arterial pressure. However, different intermittent hypoxia paradigms produce remarkably divergent effects on systemic arterial pressure in the post-hypoxic steady state. The hypertensive effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) vs. the depressor effects of ...
Dine C Jessica - - 2008
A large number of patients with underlying pulmonary disease travel by air each year and are therefore at risk for significant cardiopulmonary effects of induced hypoxia at higher altitudes. The hypoxia altitude simulation test provides a simple way to identify those patients at risk by simulating conditions encountered at high ...
Cathcart Mary-Clare - - 2008
Exogenous prostacyclin is effective in reducing pulmonary vascular resistance in some forms of human pulmonary hypertension (PH). To explore whether endogenous prostaglandins played a similar role in pulmonary hypertension, we examined the effect of deleting cyclooxygenase (COX)-gene isoforms in a chronic hypoxia model of PH. Pulmonary hypertension, examined by direct ...
Joynt Chloë - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal asphyxia causes cardiogenic shock and pulmonary hypertension with decreased brain perfusion. We examined the dose-response of milrinone on systemic, pulmonary, and carotid circulations in a model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Controlled, block-randomized study in a university research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Mixed breed piglets (1-3 days, 1.5-2.3 kg). ...
Kaufmann B A - - 2008
An exaggerated increase in pulmonary arterial pressure is the hallmark of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and is associated with endothelial dysfunction of the pulmonary vasculature. Whether the myocardial circulation is affected as well is not known. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether myocardial blood flow reserve ...
Jakoubek Vít - - 2008
An increase in fetoplacental vascular resistance caused by hypoxia is considered one of the key factors of placental hypoperfusion and fetal undernutrition leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), one of the serious problems in current neonatology. However, although acute hypoxia has been shown to cause fetoplacental vasoconstriction, the effects of ...
Ainslie Philip N - - 2008
We examined the cardiorespiratory and cerebrovascular responses to hyperoxic and hypoxic rebreathing at low attitude and high altitude. We measured ventilation, middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) and arterial blood pressure in conditions of eucapnia, hypocapnia (voluntary hyperventilation) and during hyperoxic and hypoxic rebreathing firstly at low altitude (1400 ...
Uenoyama M - - 2008
AIM: Experimental pulmonary hypertension induced in a hypobaric hypoxic environment (HHE) is characterized by structural remodelling of the heart and pulmonary arteries. Osteopontin (OPN) has emerged as a key factor in cardiovascular remodelling in response to pressure or volume overload. We studied the possible effects of HHE on the OPN ...
Jones J Gareth - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Airliners at cruise altitudes have cabin pressures of 84.3-75.2 kPa, equivalent to 5000-8000 ft. Supplementary oxygen in flight is generally advised for patients whose ground-level arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2) is < 92%. However, some pulmonary patients with values above that threshold nevertheless develop profound in-flight hypoxemia ...
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