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Pierce J D - - 2001
Hypoxia is one of the most common conditions observed by PACU nurses after surgery. It may be caused by a reduced functional residual capacity, hypoventilation, and/or ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Hypoxia can also affect diaphragm contractility, making it difficult to wean postoperative patients from mechanical ventilation. Clinically, however, there is no method ...
Danielsson B R - - 2001
Class III antiarrhythmic drugs, like almokalant, dofetilide and ibutilide, cause a spectrum of malformations in experimental teratology studies. The pattern of developmental toxic effects is very similar to those reported for phenytoin, which is an established human and animal teratogen. The toxic effects are characterised by embryonic death, decreased fetal ...
Mohan R M - - 2001
We tested the hypothesis that 21 days of intermittent hypoxia (IH) increases the tolerance of the spontaneously beating guinea-pig double atria preparation to acute in-vitro hypoxia, and reduces cardiac stress protein expression. A total of 28 guinea-pigs were divided into four groups: (i) IH; (ii) IH + in-vitro hypoxia (IH ...
Bernardi L - - 2001
AIM: Interval hypoxic training was proposed as a technique for adapting hypoxia of various origins. Its effects on the hypoxic ventilatory response and on cardiovascular autonomic control are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recorded ventilation, end-tidal oxygen (PETO2) and carbon dioxide partial pressures, RR interval and blood pressure during progressive ...
Miserocchi G - - 2001
Pulmonary interstitial pressure was measured via micropuncture in anesthetized rabbits in normoxia and after breathing 12% O(2). In normoxia [arterial PO(2) = 88 +/- 2 (SD) mmHg], pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary interstitial pressure were 16 +/- 8 and -9.6 +/- 2 cmH(2)O, respectively. After 6 h of hypoxia (arterial ...
Bícego-Nahas K C - - 2001
Estivation is accompanied by a reduction of oxygen consumption in amphibians during drought. We tested the hypothesis that, during the dry season, the toad Bufo paracnemis selects a lower preferred body temperature (T(b)), and would be less sensitive to hypoxia, than during its active period. Therefore, during winter (dry season ...
Weissmann N - - 2001
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) matches lung perfusion with ventilation but may also result in chronic pulmonary hypertension. It has not been clarified whether acute HPV and the response to prolonged alveolar hypoxia are triggered by identical mechanisms. We characterized the vascular response to sustained hypoxic ventilation (3% O(2) for 120-180 ...
Gratton R J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to test the hypothesis that cytotrophoblasts, under low oxygen tension, release substances that affect vascular behavior. STUDY DESIGN: We studied the vascular response to the vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (receptor dependent) and potassium (receptor independent), the relaxation response to methacholine, and the vasomotor behavior of isolated resistance (mesenteric) ...
Ren X - - 2001
In humans exposed to 8 h of isocapnic hypoxia, there is a progressive increase in ventilation that is associated with an increase in the ventilatory sensitivity to acute hypoxia. To determine the relative roles of lowered arterial PO2 and oxygen content in generating these changes, the acute hypoxic ventilatory response ...
Leuenberger U A - - 2001
Obstructive apnea and voluntary breath holding are associated with transient increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and arterial pressure. The contribution of changes in blood flow relative to the contribution of changes in vascular resistance to the apnea-induced transient rise in arterial pressure is unclear. We measured heart rate, ...
Fletcher E C - - 2001
One of the major manifestations of obstructive sleep apnea is profound and repeated hypoxia during sleep. Acute hypoxia leads to stimulation of the peripheral chemoreceptors, which in turn increases sympathetic outflow, acutely increasing blood pressure. The chronic effect of these repeated episodic or intermittent periods of hypoxia in humans is ...
Kaufmann P A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Although only poor data exist on changes in myocardial blood flow (MBF) under acute hypoxia, patients with known coronary artery disease are advised not to exceed a moderate altitude exposure of about 2000 m above sea level. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured MBF with positron emission tomography using O-15--labeled ...
Busch T - - 2001
An exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is essential for development of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). We hypothesized that susceptibility to HAPE may be related to decreased production of nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous modulator of pulmonary vascular resistance, and that a decrease in exhaled NO could be detected during hypoxic exposure. ...
Giordano F J - - 2001
The initiating factors in angiogenesis during development and disease are often microenvironmental changes, which induce signaling to the vasculature from affected tissues. Among these, lowered oxygen pressure, hypoxia, is one of the most potent inducers/initiators of an angiogenic response. Significant evidence indicates that hypoxia acts as a morphogen during vascularization ...
Mitchell G S - - 2001
Time-dependent ventilatory responses to episodic and continuous isocapnic hypoxia were measured in unidirectionally ventilated, awake ducks. Three protocols were used: (1) ten 3-min episodes of moderate hypoxia (10% O(2)) with 5-min normoxic intervals; (2) three 3-min episodes of severe hypoxia (8% O(2)) with 5-min normoxic intervals; and (3) 30-min of ...
Katayama K - - 2001
The aim of the present study was to elucidate (1) the cardiovascular adaptations and response to hypoxic stimuli during short-term intermittent hypoxia and (2) whether the change in cardiovascular response to hypoxia is correlated to the change in hypoxic ventilatory chemosensitivity. Fourteen subjects were decompressed in a chamber to 432 ...
Ursino M - - 2001
This paper presents a mathematical model of cerebrovascular regulation, in which emphasis is given to the role of tissue hypoxia on cerebral blood flow (CBF). In the model. three different mechanisms are assumed to work on smooth muscle tension at the level of large and small pial arteries: CO2 reactivity, ...
Ruijtenbeek K - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological findings suggest an association between low-for-age birth weight and the risk to develop coronary heart diseases in adulthood. During pregnancy, an imbalance between fetal demands and supply may result in permanent alterations of neuroendocrine development in the fetus. We evaluated whether chronic prenatal hypoxia increases arterial sympathetic innervation. ...
Burggren W W - - 2000
The heart beat of vertebrate embryos has been assumed to begin when convective bulk transport by blood takes over from transport by simple diffusion. To test this hypothesis, we measured eye growth, cervical flexure and rates of oxygen consumption ( V(O2)) in day 3-4 chick embryos denied cardiac output by ...
Endoh H - - 2000
An intracellular mechanism that senses decreases in tissue oxygen level and stimulates hypoxia-related gene expression has been reported in various cell types including the cardiac cell. The mechanism can also be activated by Co(2+) in normoxia. Thus we investigated the effects of prior chronic oral CoCl(2) on mechanical functions of ...
Yasuma F - - 2000
To examine whether the impacts of hypoxia on autonomic regulations involve the phasic modulations as well as tonic controls of cardiovascular variables, heart rate, blood pressure, and their variability during isocapnic progressive hypoxia were analyzed in trained conscious dogs prepared with a permanent tracheostomy and an implanted blood pressure telemetry ...
Pulis R P - - 2000
We investigated the metabolic effects of buffering agents alpha-amino-4-imidazole-propionic acid (Histidine), N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine (bicine), N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (BES) on anaerobic energy production (via glycolysis) and conservation of key regulatory enzyme activity, and phosphofructokinase (PFK) throughout prolonged hypothermic hypoxia in porcine hearts. Hearts from 35 to 40 kg pigs were flushed ...
Weissmann N - - 2000
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) matches lung perfusion with ventilation. Controversy exists whether decreased or increased reactive oxygen species may elicit HPV and from which source such oxygen metabolites are derived. In rabbit lungs, we detected transcripts of a nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase subunit homologous to mitogenic oxidase-1 (Mox1) or NADPH oxidase ...
Zhu D - - 2000
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a cytochrome P-450 4A (CYP4A) metabolite of arachidonic acid (AA) in human and rabbit lung microsomes and is a dilator of isolated human pulmonary arteries (PA). However, little is known regarding the contribution of P-450 metabolites to pulmonary vascular tone. We examined 1) the effect of ...
Deem S - - 2000
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) may modulate regional blood flow by mediating changes in extra- and intracellular pH. We hypothesized that CA inhibition with acetazolamide would inhibit the kinetics and magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Isolated rabbit lungs were ventilated and perfused in situ at constant flow, with buffer containing red ...
Clar C - - 2000
This study seeks to confirm the progressive changes in cardiac output and heart rate previously reported with 8 h exposures to constant hypoxia, and to examine the role of sympathetic mechanisms in generating these changes. Responses of ten subjects to four 8 h protocols were compared: (1) air breathing with ...
Lemler M S - - 2000
Previous studies have demonstrated that environmentally or genetically induced changes in the intracellular proteins that compose the cytoskeleton can contribute to heart failure. Because neonatal right ventricular myocytes are immature and are in the process of significant cytoskeletal change, we hypothesized that they may be particularly susceptible to pressure stress. ...
Kerbaul F - - 2000
In vitro, halogenated agents reduce the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to alveolar hypoxia in isolated perfused lungs. However, studies in intact animals have been less convincing. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of sevoflurane on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in anaesthetized piglets using the pressure/cardiac index ...
Loer S A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Erythrocytes influence the magnitude of hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery pressure increase. It is, however, unknown to what extent haemoconcentration and haemodilution affect this response and whether intrapulmonary blood volume (and thus vessel dimensions) alters the magnitude of pressure increase. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the haemodilution/ haemoconcentration-dependent pressure increase is ...
Ren X - - 2000
In humans, 8 h of isocapnic hypoxia causes a progressive rise in ventilation associated with increases in the acute ventilatory responses to hypoxia (AHVR) and hypercapnia (AHCVR). To determine whether 8 h of hyperoxia causes the converse of these effects, three 8-h protocols were compared in 14 subjects: 1) poikilocapnic ...
Ursino M - - 2000
A mathematical model of the acute cardiovascular response to isocapnic hypoxia is presented. It includes a pulsating heart, the systemic and pulmonary circulation, a separate description of the vascular bed in organs with the higher metabolic need, and the local effect of O(2) on these organs. Moreover, the model also ...
Nagamine J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the combination of the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor zaprinast and inhaled nitric oxide (NO) decreases hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in the rat. DESIGN: Prospective, experimental study. SETTING: Animal laboratory of a university medical center. SUBJECTS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS: Anesthetized rats were mechanically ventilated and instrumented for measurement ...
Ursino M - - 2000
The role of the different mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular response to hypoxia [chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, lung stretch receptors, and central nervous system (CNS) hypoxic response] is analyzed in different physiological conditions by means of a mathematical model. The results reveal the following: 1) The model is able to reproduce the ...
Pedersen M E - - 2000
After a period of ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude (VAH), a degree of hyperventilation persists after relief of the hypoxic stimulus. This is likely, in part, to reflect the altered acid-base status, but it may also arise, in part, from the development during VAH of a component of carotid body ...
- - 2000
Early postinjury episodes of hypotension or hypoxia greatly increase morbidity and mortality from severe head injury. At present, defining level of hypotension and hypoxia is unclear in these patients. However, ample class II evidence exists regarding hypotension, defined as a single observation of a systolic blood pressure of <90/mm Hg, ...
Kalinin AL - - 2000
Ventilation volume Vg - mlH2O.min-1 ), respiratory frequency (fR - breaths.min-1) and tidal volume (VT - mlH2O.breath-1 ) were measured in a group of Piaractus mesopotamicus (650.4 +/- 204.7 g; n = 10) during normoxia and in response to graded hypoxia. The fR was maintained constant, around 100 breaths.min-1, from ...
Xiao Q - - 2000
Hypothermic newborn piglets have a depressed ventilatory response to hypoxia, and this may be due to an increase in CNS gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels. To evaluate the effects of GABA(A) receptor blockade on the ventilatory response to hypoxia in hypothermic piglets, 31 anesthetized paralyzed mechanically ventilated newborn piglets (2-7 d) ...
Hafström O - - 2000
A decreased ability to arouse from sleep in response to arterial hypoxemia may lead to severe asphyxia and has been proposed as a mechanism of sudden infant death syndrome. Based on previous observations that nicotine exposure, a major environmental risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome, may impair hypoxic defense ...
Jundi K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that prolonged alkalosis decreases cardiac output and, furthermore, exacerbates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, as respiratory alkalosis is frequently induced as a therapy for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn despite a lack of controlled evidence of improved outcomes. Potential adverse effects of prolonged alkalosis have been ...
Rudinsky B - - 2000
We studied the hemodynamic responses of 29 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated piglets to acute hypoxia [reduction of Pao2 from 130 to 38 mm Hg induced by inhalation of 7% fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) for 7.5 min] before and during group B beta-hemolytic streptococci (GBS) sepsis. During hypoxia, nonseptic piglets ...
Weilenmann D - - 2000
Cardiac stimulation threshold of implanted pacemakers may be influenced by a variety of endogenous and exogenous factors. High altitude provokes hypoxemia, which may change stimulation thresholds, besides causing other important physiological changes. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of high altitude on ventricular stimulation thresholds in ...
Prisk G K - - 2000
We measured the isocapnic hypoxic ventilatory response and the hypercapnic ventilatory response by using rebreathing techniques in five normal subjects (ages 37-47 yr) before, during, and after 16 days of exposure to microgravity (microG). Control measurements were performed with the subjects in the standing and supine postures. In both microG ...
Lucy S D - - 2000
Neural mediation of the human cardiac response to isocapnic (IC) steady-state hypoxaemia was investigated using coarse-graining spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Six young adults were exposed in random order to a hypoxia or control protocol, in supine and sitting postures, while end-tidal PCO2 (PET,CO2) was clamped at resting ...
Bandopadhyay P - - 2000
A study was conducted to evaluate the responses of chemoreceptors and pulmonary vascular bed to hypoxia, on two groups of soldiers exposed to similar altitudes, one group which did not suffer from high altitude (HA) maladies (Gp A) and the other when exposed to similar altitudes suffered from HA maladies ...
Schneider H - - 2000
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) acutely increases systemic (Psa) and pulmonary (Ppa) arterial pressures and decreases ventricular stroke volume (SV). In this study, we used a canine model of OSA (n = 6) to examine the role of hypoxia and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in mediating these cardiovascular responses. Hyperoxia ...
Ooi H - - 2000
Chronic hypercapnia is commonly found in patients with severe hypoxic lung disease and is associated with a greater elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure than that due to hypoxia alone. We hypothesized that hypercapnia worsens hypoxic pulmonary hypertension by augmenting pulmonary vascular remodeling and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Rats were exposed ...
Fletcher E C - - 2000
One of the major manifestations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is profound and repeated (episodic) hypoxia during sleep. Acute hypoxia leads to stimulation of the peripheral chemoreceptors, which in turn directly increase sympathetic outflow. It is believed that this increase in sympathetic outflow is directly responsible, at least in part, ...
Hildebrandt W - - 2000
We studied the contributions of hypoxemia, hypocapnia, and hyperpnea to the acute hypoxic diuretic response (HDR) in humans and evaluated the role of peripheral O(2) chemosensitivity and renal hormones in HDR. Thirteen healthy male subjects (age 19-38 yr) were examined after sodium equilibration (intake: 120 mmol/day) during 90 min of ...
Kujaník S - - 2000
Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the occurrence of extrasystoles in higher decennia is proportional to the altitude. The occurrence of supraventricular (SVPB) and ventricular (VEB) extrasystoles, values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the heart rate were studied in 20 healthy elderly men (50-64 years) during ...
Nieuwenhuijs D - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia has a dual effect on ventilation: an initial period of hyperventilation, the acute hypoxic response, is followed after 3-5 min by a slow decline, the hypoxic ventilatory decline. Because of hypoxic ventilatory decline, subsequent acute hypoxic responses are depressed. In this study, the influence of a sedative concentration ...
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