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Results 501 - 550 of 1552
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Salman Mahmoud - - 2005
It has been a long-term goal to develop non-invasive methods that can detect critical levels of tissue hypoxia to help in the management of chronic lower limb ischaemia. In the present study, skeletal muscle oxygenation was measured using a new Clark-type TCPO2 [transcutaneous PO2 (partial pressure of O2)]/PCO2 (partial pressure ...
Winmill Rachel E - - 2005
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cellular hypoxia, and the contribution of anaerobic metabolism, on respiratory activity in bullfrogs at different stages of development. Respiratory-related neural activity was recorded from cranial nerve rootlets in isolated brainstem preparations from pre-metamorphic (Taylor-Kollros (T-K) stages VIII-XVI) and postmetamorphic ...
Subotich D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The widespread explanation of patophysiology of tension pneumothorax is that compression to the mediastinum by the progressively accumulating intrapleural air causes torsion at the atrio-caval junction, impaired filling of the right heart and circulatory arrest as potentially life-threatening complication. Some experimental studies on animals put into question such an ...
Lynn Chen Maida - - 2005
Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS) is a rare disorder with failure of automatic control of breathing, defined by lack of an appropriate ventilatory response to hypercarbia and hypoxia. However, more detailed evaluation of cardiorespiratory coupling has not been previously performed in those with CCHS. We postulate that those with CCHS ...
Crossley Dane A DA - - 2005
Chronic hypoxic incubation is a common tool used to address the plasticity of morphological and physiological characteristics during vertebrate development. In this study chronic hypoxic incubation of embryonic American alligators resulted in both morphological (mass) and physiological changes. During normoxic incubation embryonic mass, liver mass and heart mass increased throughout ...
Kotani Kazutoshi - - 2005
PURPOSE: A large animal model of hypoxia is necessary to develop a new therapeutic method for respiratory failure. METHODS: The experiments were performed on six pigs weighing from 15 to 19 kg. Under general anesthesia the left chest was opened and the left main bronchus was closed by a stapler. ...
Katayama Keisho - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the magnitude and the time course of ventilatory changes resulting from a repeated series of hypoxic exposures. Eight healthy males participated in the present study. The subjects spent 1 h/day in normobaric hypoxia (12% inspired oxygen). Inspired minute ventilation (V(I)), end-tidal partial ...
Iturriaga Rodrigo - - 2005
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) show augmented ventilatory, sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to hypoxia. The facilitatory effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on the hypoxic ventilatory response has been attributed to a potentiation of the carotid body (CB) chemosensory response to hypoxia. However, it is a matter of debate ...
Koos Brian J - - 2005
Adenosine (ADO) receptor antagonists (aminophylline, caffeine) blunt the respiratory roll-off response to hypoxia in the newborn. This study was designed to determine the ADO receptor subtype involved in the respiratory depression. Chronically catheterized lambs of 7-16 days of age breathed via face mask a gas mixture with a fraction of ...
Thompson Loren P - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Chronic hypoxia causes redistribution of fetal cardiac output by mechanisms poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia alters vascular reactivity of arteries from near-term fetal guinea pigs. METHODS: Pregnant guinea pigs (50 days, term = 65 days) were exposed to either normoxia (room air) or hypoxia (12% ...
Milano Giuseppina - - 2004
In vivo exposure to chronic hypoxia is considered to be a cause of myocardial dysfunction, thereby representing a deleterious condition, but repeated aeration episodes may exert some cardioprotection. We investigated the possible role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in these mechanisms. First, rats (n = 8/group) were exposed for 14 days ...
Oliveira R D - - 2004
The jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus, is equipped with a modified part of the swim bladder that allows aerial respiration. On this background, we have evaluated its respiratory and cardiovascular responses to aquatic hypoxia. Its aquatic O2 uptake (V(O2)) was maintained constant down to a critical P(O2) (P(cO2)) of 40 mm Hg, ...
Halliwill John R - - 2005
We tested the hypothesis that individual differences in the effect of acute hypoxia on the cardiovagal arterial baroreflex would determine individual susceptibility to hypoxic syncope. In 16 healthy, nonsmoking, normotensive subjects (8 women, 8 men, age 20-33 yr), we assessed orthostatic tolerance with a 20-min 60 degrees head-upright tilt during ...
Williams Sarah J - - 2005
In response to reduced oxygen or nutrient supply, the fetus may redistribute cardiac output to conserve brain and heart growth, at the expense of the peripheral tissues; however, it is not known whether alterations in vascular function are maintained after birth or whether reduced fetal oxygen versus nutrient supply produces ...
Kobs Ryan W - - 2005
Right heart failure due to pulmonary hypertension causes significant morbidity and mortality. To study the linked vascular mechanical and biological changes that are induced by pulmonary hypertension, we mechanically tested isolated left main pulmonary arteries from mice exposed to chronic hypobaric hypoxia and performed histological assays on contralateral vessels. In ...
Naik Jay S - - 2005
Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, as well as prolonged residence at high altitude, can result in generalized airway hypoxia, eliciting an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. We hypothesized that a portion of the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance following chronic hypoxia (CH) is due to the development of myogenic tone. Isolated, pressurized ...
Neff Robert A - - 2004
Maternal cigarette smoking and prenatal nicotine exposure are the highest risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). During hypoxia, respiratory frequency and heart rate transiently increase and subsequently decrease. These biphasic cardiorespiratory responses normally serve to prolong survival during hypoxia by reducing the metabolic demands of cardiac and respiratory ...
Laferrière André - - 2004
Respiratory responses to single intermittent hypoxia (5 min 21% O(2), 5 min 8% O(2) X6) in 5-6, 10-11, 21-22 and 26-27 day-old piglets, and to recurrent six daily intermittent hypoxia in 10-11 and 26-27 day-old piglets were assessed. Substance P binding in the piglets' brainstem immediately after the last hypoxic ...
Maury Philippe - - 2004
BACKGROUND/AIM: Excitation-contraction coupling is modulated by nitric oxide (NO) which otherwise has either beneficial or detrimental effects on myocardial function during hypoxia-reoxygenation. This work aimed at characterizing the variations of electromechanical delay (EMD) induced by anoxia-reoxygenation within the developing heart and determining whether atrial and ventricular EMD are modulated by ...
Tamisier Renaud - - 2005
Sustained and episodic hypoxic exposures lead, by two different mechanisms, to an increase in ventilation after the exposure is terminated. Our aim was to investigate whether the pattern of hypoxia, cyclic or sustained, influences sympathetic activity and hemodynamics in the postexposure period. We measured sympathetic activity (peroneal microneurography), hemodynamics [plethysmographic ...
Thews O - - 2004
This study investigated long-term microenvironmental responses (oxygenation, perfusion, metabolic status, proliferation, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and vascularisation) to chronic hypoxia in experimental tumours. Experiments were performed using s.c.-implanted DS-sarcomas in rats. In order to induce more pronounced tumour hypoxia, one group of animals was housed in a hypoxic ...
Yelmen N K - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to investigate the ventilatory response due to sustained isocapnic moderate hypoxia and the possible role of adenosine in hypoxic depression in anesthetized cats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cats anesthetized with pentothal sodium (30 mg kg(-1) i.p.) were divided into two groups: treated (n = 11) ...
Rey Sergio - - 2004
The carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors may play an important role in the enhanced hypoxic ventilatory response induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). We studied the effects of cyclic hypoxic episodes of short duration on cat cardiorespiratory reflexes, heart rate variability, and CB chemosensory activity. Cats were exposed to cyclic hypoxic ...
Thews Oliver - - 2004
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer from hypoxaemia even under normobaric conditions and the reduction of inspiratory PO2 (O2 partial pressure) during air travel corresponding to an altitude of 1,800-2,450 m might be a problem for these patients. Ten CF patients and 27 healthy control subjects were investigated in a ...
Höhne Claudia - - 2004
Acute hypoxia increases pulmonary arterial pressure and vascular resistance. Previous studies in isolated smooth muscle and perfused lungs have shown that carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition reduces the speed and magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). We studied whether CA inhibition by acetazolamide (Acz) is able to prevent HPV in the ...
Tamisier Renaud - - 2004
Exposure to hypercapnic hypoxia (asphyxia), but not hyperoxic hypercapnia, results in increased sympathetic activity that persists after exposure. To determine the contribution of CO2 to the post-hypoxia sympathoexcitation, we exposed 12 normal volunteers to hypocapnic and hypercapnic hypoxia (SaO2 approximately 85%) for 20 min each on different days. We measured ...
Hlatky Roman - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of change in microdialysate concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glutamate in the brain during periods of hypoxia/ischemia identified by monitoring brain tissue pO2 (PbtO2). Of particular interest was a better understanding of what additional information could be obtained by ...
Izumizaki Masahiko - - 2004
We examined the effects of carotid body denervation on ventilatory responses to normoxia (21% O2 in N2 for 240 s), hypoxic hypoxia (10 and 15% O2 in N2 for 90 and 120 s, respectively), and hyperoxic hypercapnia (5% CO2 in O2 for 240 s) in the spontaneously breathing urethane-anesthetized mouse. ...
Lundby Carsten - - 2004
We aimed to test effects of altitude acclimatization on pulmonary gas exchange at maximal exercise. Six lowlanders were studied at sea level, in acute hypoxia (AH), and after 2 and 8 wk of acclimatization to 4,100 m (2W and 8W) and compared with Aymara high-altitude natives residing at this altitude. ...
Corno Antonio F - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic and intermittent hypoxia on myocardial morphology. METHODS: Rats randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 14 per group) were exposed to room air (Fio(2) = 0.21), chronic hypoxia (Fio(2) = 0.10), and intermittent hypoxia (chronic hypoxia with ...
Hafström O - - 2004
AIMS: To determine whether combined pre- and postnatal nicotine exposure compared with prenatal exposure alone results in more compromised postnatal hypoxia defense mechanisms and further alteration of the postnatal breathing pattern (reduced tidal volume and increased respiratory rate). METHODS: Seven lambs exposed to nicotine prenatally (pN) (approximate maternal dose: 0.5 ...
Datta Borunendra - - 2004
BACKGROUND: A respiratory cycle for nitric oxide (NO) would involve the formation of vasoactive metabolites between NO and hemoglobin during pulmonary oxygenation. We investigated the role of these metabolites in hypoxic tissue in vitro and in vivo in healthy subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: ...
Juránek I - - 2004
The present study was designed to investigate mechanisms of adenosine (ADO)-mediated prolongation of conductivity through the atrioventricular (AV) node during myocardial ischemia. Using the Langendorff preparation of the guinea pig heart, we tested the hypothesis that extracellular potassium concentration elevated due to ischemia could augment ADO effect. Exposure of the ...
Magosso E - - 2004
The present study analyses the cardiovascular response to acute hypocapnic hypoxia (simulating the effect of respiration at high altitude) both in healthy, unacclimatised subjects and in subjects with moderate anaemia, by means of a mathematical model of short-term cardiovascular regulation. During severe hypoxia, cardiac output and heart rate (HR) exhibit ...
Villecco Aldo S AS Department of Internal Medicine and Aging, Clinica Medica 11, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, - - 2004
Background: Hypertension is associated with obesity. Recent studies have indicated that therapy with an angiotensin II antagonist, in addition to having an antihypertensive effect, may cause a reduction in body weight. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of valsartan in the treatment of ...
Fike Candice D - - 2004
We performed studies to determine whether chronic hypoxia impairs nitric oxide (NO) signaling in resistance level pulmonary arteries (PAs) of newborn piglets. Piglets were maintained in room air (control) or hypoxia (11% O(2)) for either 3 (shorter exposure) or 10 (longer exposure) days. Responses of PAs to a nonselective NO ...
Tamisier Renaud - - 2004
Healthy subjects exposed to 20 min of hypoxia increase ventilation and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). After return to normoxia, although ventilation returns to baseline, MSNA remains elevated for up to an hour. Because forearm vascular resistance is not elevated after hypoxic exposure, we speculated that the increased MSNA might ...
Iwase Michiko - - 2004
Hyperthermia and hypoxia influence ventilation and metabolism; however, their synergistic effects remain unanswered. We hypothesized that an enhancement of ventilation induced by hyperthermia is competitive with hypoxic hypometabolism. We then examined the relationship of body temperature, hypoxia, and respiration in conscious mice, measuring minute ventilation (VE), aerobic metabolism, and arterial ...
Ultsch Gordon R - - 2004
Rates of O(2) consumption (.VO(2)) were determined for adult northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) submerged at 3 degrees C at water PO(2)s (P(w)O(2)) ranging from 0-160 mmHg. The critical O(2) tension (P(c)) was 36.4 mmHg. Hematocrit and blood levels of PO(2), glucose, lactate, pH, [Na(+)], [K(+)], and osmolality were determined ...
Cooper A R - - 2004
Haemoglobin function and respiratory status of sub-adult sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni was investigated for up to 1 week following transfer from 100% to either 75% or 50% seawater. Metabolic rates were unusually low and arterial-venous differences in blood O2 small. Haemodilution from osmotic inflow lowered haematocrit and reduced blood O2 content ...
Muza Stephen R - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the effects of acute hyperoxia on resting-minute ventilation (VE) during altitude acclimatization to 4300 m. METHODS: Resting-minute ventilation, end-tidal partial pressure carbon dioxide (PETCO2) and oxygen (P(ET)O2), and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured during chronic poikilocapnic hypobaric hypoxia, supplemental oxygen breathing, and the subsequent ...
Young Karen C KC Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, - - 2004
NONOates, novel NO donors, are complexes of NO with nucleophiles which spontaneously and nonenzymatically release NO in aqueous solution. This study sought to determine the cardiopulmonary effects of the nebulized NONOate dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)/NO in newborn piglets with acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Twenty sedated and mechanically ventilated piglets (4-10 days old) ...
Barton Cyril H - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to hypobaric hypoxia has been shown to increase arterial pressure in genetically normal rats. The associated increase in blood pressure is unrelated to the hypoxia-induced erythrocytosis and persists indefinitely after restoration of normoxia. It is accompanied by a marked reduction in urinary excretion of nitric oxide metabolites ...
Mateika Jason H - - 2004
We hypothesized that the acute ventilatory response to hypoxia is enhanced after exposure to episodic hypoxia in awake humans. Eleven subjects completed a series of rebreathing trials before and after exposure to eight 4-min episodes of hypoxia. During the rebreathing trials, subjects initially hyperventilated to reduce the partial pressure of ...
Hui Anna S - - 2003
Chronic intermittent hypoxia, a characteristic feature of sleep-disordered breathing, induces hypertension through augmented sympathetic nerve activity and requires the presence of functional carotid body arterial chemoreceptors. In contrast, chronic sustained hypoxia does not alter blood pressure. We therefore analyzed the biosynthetic pathways of catecholamines in peripheral nervous system structures involved ...
Oh HyunSoo - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of interventions that were applied to prevent endotracheal suction-induced hypoxia by meta-analysis. To obtain a sample for this meta-analysis, a computerized search was performed through MEDLINE in addition to tracking down additional references cited in bibliographies of past reports. Finally ...
O'Driscoll Denise M - - 2004
The cardiovascular response to an arousal occurring at the termination of an obstructive apnea is almost double that to a spontaneous arousal. We investigated the hypothesis that central plus peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation, induced by hypercapnic hypoxia (HH), augments the cardiovascular response to arousal from sleep. Auditory-induced arousals during normoxia and ...
Sakai Akio - - 2003
The blue-sheep, pika, and yak live in the Tibetan highlands at an altitude of 6,100 m and are typical mammals adapted to high-altitudes. These animals have a long history of habitation at high-altitudes and are considered to be "animals completely adapted to high-altitudes" because of their physiological and morphological traits ...
Springer J - - 2003
Substance P (SP) levels have been reported to be elevated in animal models of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and chronic administration of SP has been shown to induce PH. In the present study, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as mediators of SP-induced vascular remodelling and PH was analysed. Vascular ...
Phillips Shane A - - 2004
The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of relatively short-term chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on endothelial function of resistance vessels in the skeletal muscle and cerebral circulations. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 14 days of CIH (10% fraction of inspired oxygen for 1 min at 4-min ...
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