Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 2729
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Thomas Peter J - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of 90 degrees lateral positioning on oxygenation, respiratory mechanics, and hemodynamics in ventilated intensive care patients. METHODS: Thirty-four subjects (mean age = 46.1 +/- 17.3 years) with no, unilateral, or bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph participated. Arterial blood gas, respiratory mechanic, and hemodynamic data ...
Mutch W Alan C - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Mechanical ventilation can be lifesaving for status asthmaticus, but how best to accomplish mechanical ventilation is unclear. Biologically variable ventilation (mechanical ventilation that emulates healthy variation) and conventional control mode ventilation (monotonously regular) were compared in an animal model of bronchospasm to determine which approach yields better gas exchange ...
Mabe Tiffany G - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: To describe ventilator management using a high-frequency percussive ventilator (HFPV), after other modes of mechanical ventilation failed. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Previously healthy 11-month-old male with severe aspiration pneumonitis from mineral oil. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was initially placed on a conventional ventilator in a ...
Fessler Henry E - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Ventilator settings typically used for high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) in adults provide acceptable gas exchange but may not take best advantage of its lung-protective aspects. We provide guidelines for HFO in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome that should optimize the lung-protective characteristics of this ventilation mode. DESIGN: Roundtable ...
Frerichs I - - 2007
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has the potential to become a new tool for bedside monitoring of regional lung ventilation. The aim of our study was to assess the reproducibility of regional lung ventilation distribution determined by EIT during mechanical ventilation under identical ventilator settings. The experiments were performed on 10 ...
Lerou J G C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The delay between changes in end-expired sevoflurane concentrations and bispectral index (BIS) may be characterized by a 'rate constant' (ke0). A smaller ke0 reflects a longer delay. Values for ke0 vary substantially among studies. The question arises how ke0 depends on experimental conditions, including ventilation and apparatus. METHODS: Increasing ...
Misiolek H - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Thoracic surgery requires immobilization of the operating area. Usually, this is achieved with one-lung ventilation (OLV), however this may still lead to some movement. High-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) may be an alternative way of ventilation in thoracic surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the ...
Cepkova Magda - - 2007
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to test whether an elevated systolic pulmonary artery (PA) pressure or an elevated pulmonary dead space fraction (Vd/Vt) in early acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with poor clinical outcomes in the era of lung-protective ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. ...
Vignaux Laurence - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is often applied with ICU ventilators. However, leaks at the patient-ventilator interface interfere with several key ventilator functions. Many ICU ventilators feature an NIV-specific mode dedicated to preventing these problems. The present bench model study aimed to evaluate the performance of these modes. DESIGN AND SETTING: ...
Greenough Anne - - 2007
A large number of ventilation strategies are now available for the neonate. This review has focused on new information, that is, studies published since 2000 and the implication of their results for current clinical practice. Meta-analysis of randomised trials has demonstrated that assist control and synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) ...
Masip Josep - - 2007
Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) refers to the delivery of mechanical ventilation to the lungs using techniques that do not require an endotracheal airway. Essentially, there are two modalities: continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and pressure support ventilation (NIPSV). In acute pulmonary edema (APE) both modalities have shown a faster improvement in ...
Chan Kenneth P W - - 2007
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is characterized by the rapid delivery of small tidal volumes (Vts) of gas and the application of high mean airway pressures (mPaws). These characteristics make HFOV conceptually attractive as an ideal lung-protective ventilatory mode for the management of ARDS, as the high mPaws prevent cyclical derecruitment ...
Hager David N - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: a) Characterize how ventilator and patient variables affect tidal volume during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation; and b) measure tidal volumes in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Research laboratory and medical intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Test lung and patients with acute respiratory ...
Chipman Daniel W - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Numerous mechanical ventilators are designed and marketed for use in patient transport. The complexity of these ventilators differs considerably, but very few data exist to compare their operational capabilities. METHODS: Using bench and animal models, we studied 15 currently available transport ventilators with regard to their physical characteristics, gas ...
Deakin Charles D - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The need for rescue breaths in bystander CPR has been questioned after several studies have shown that omitting ventilation does not worsen outcome. Chest compression may produce passive tidal volumes large enough to provide adequate ventilation in animal studies, but no recent clinical studies have examined this phenomenon. We ...
Fessler Henry E - - 2007
High-frequency ventilation is the application of mechanical ventilation with a respiratory rate > 100 breaths/min. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is the form of high-frequency ventilation most widely used in adult critical care. The principles of lung-protective ventilation have matured in parallel with the technology for HFOV. The 2 basic principles ...
Unzueta M Carmen - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) has been suggested as a tool to improve oxygenation during one-lung ventilation (OLV) for patients undergoing thoracic surgery. In this study we investigated whether PCV results in improved arterial oxygenation compared with volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) during OLV. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with good preoperative pulmonary function scheduled ...
Seymour Christopher W - - 2007
Airway pressure release ventilation and biphasic positive airway pressure ventilation are being used increasingly as alternative strategies to conventional assist control ventilation for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury. By permitting spontaneous breathing throughout the ventilatory cycle, these modes offer several advantages over conventional strategies ...
Ursella S - - 2007
The patient with acute heart failure may present with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE), a condition accompanied by severe respiratory distress, with crackles over the lung and orthopnea, and an O2 saturation usually < 90% on room air, prior to treatment. Non-invasive ventilation is the delivery of assisted ventilation without ...
Wheeler Adam D - - 2007
Although the accumulation of gas is the most common cause of an expanding interpleural space, the presence of other structures or substances (hydrothorax, gastrothorax, hemothorax, urohemothorax, pyothorax, and chylothorax) under pressure may be sufficient to cause hemodynamic and respiratory compromise. We present two pediatric patients that developed hemodynamic and respiratory ...
Nikischin Werner - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: In ventilated neonates, only the applied pressure of the ventilator is adjusted and monitored. When an endotracheal tube leaks, intratracheal pressure decreases depending on the size of the endotracheal tube and of the leak. Furthermore, an increase in resistance and/or compliance might delay the increase of intratracheal pressure during ...
Yun Anthony J - - 2007
Programmed diaphragmatic pacing using implanted neuromodulators represents an emerging method for providing pulmonary support using negative pressure ventilation. The implantable, rechargeable, programmable and miniaturized nature of diaphragmatic pacers may obviate many of the management issues associated with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation devices. Closed loop systems may facilitate the implementation of ...
Robert Dominique - - 2007
This chapter addresses the use of long-term non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) (to the exclusion of continuous positive airway pressure) in the different clinical settings in which it is currently proposed: principally in diseases responsible for hypoventilation characterized by elevated PaCO(2). Nasal masks are predominantly used, followed by nasal pillow ...
Ng Ju-Mei - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Noninvasive partial CO2 rebreathing (NICO; Novametrix Medical Systems, Inc, Wallingford, CT) is a relatively new alternative to thermodilution (TDCO) for measurement of cardiac output. This study compares the 2 methods during thoracic surgery and one-lung ventilation. DESIGN: A prospective, observational study. SETTING: A tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve adult patients ...
Muellenbach R M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Lung protective ventilation can reduce mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, many patients with severe ARDS remain hypoxemic and more aggressive ventilation is necessary to maintain sufficient gas exchange. Pumpless arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist (av-ECLA) has been shown to remove up to 95% of the systemic CO(2) ...
Barreiro Timothy J - - 2007
Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) is the delivery of mechanical-assisted breathing without placement of an artificial airway such as an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy. During the first half of 20th century, negative-pressure ventilation (iron lung) provided mechanical ventilatory assistance. By the 1960s, however, invasive (ie, by means of an endotracheal tube) ...
Branson Richard D - - 2007
Traditional mechanical ventilation is provided with either a constant volume or constant pressure breath. In recent years, dual-control (adaptive pressure control) has been introduced in an attempt to combine the attributes of volume ventilation (constant tidal volume and minute ventilation) with the attributes of pressure ventilation (rapid, variable flow and ...
Ottonello G - - 2007
AIM: The aim of the present study is to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of noninvasive pressure ventilation in the 24-bed Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of the G. Gaslini Institute during a 24-month period. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the characteristics (pH, CO2, SpO2, respiratory rate, oxygen requirement) of patients ...
Bosma Karen - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To understand the role of patient-ventilator asynchrony in the etiology of sleep disruption and determine whether optimizing patient-ventilator interactions by using proportional assist ventilation improves sleep. DESIGN: Randomized crossover clinical trial. SETTING: A tertiary university medical-surgical intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Thirteen patients during weaning from mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: Patients ...
Koh Shin Ok - - 2007
The primary goal of ventilator support is the maintenance of adequate, but not necessarily normal, gas exchange, which must be achieved with minimal lung injury and the lowest possible degree of hemodynamic impairment, while avoiding injury to distant organs such as the brain. Modes of MV are described by the ...
Nichols Dane - - 2007
As mechanical ventilators become increasingly sophisticated, clinicians are faced with a variety of ventilatory modes that use volume, pressure, and time in combination to achieve the overall goal of assisted ventilation. Although much has been written about the advantages and disadvantages of these increasingly complex modalities, currently there is no ...
Myers Timothy R - - 2007
Airway pressure-release ventilation (APRV) is a mechanical ventilation strategy that is usually time-triggered but can be patient-triggered, pressure-limited, and time-cycled. APRV provides 2 levels of airway pressure (P(high) and P(low)) during 2 time periods (T(high) and T(low)), both set by the clinician. APRV usually involves a long T(high) and a ...
Kleinsasser Axel - - 2007
Independent of airway pressure, pulmonary resistance is known to fall with increasing tidal volumes, traditionally thought to result from radial traction on the airways. R. C. Anafi and T. A. Wilson (J Appl Physiol 91: 1185-1192, 2001) recently presented a model of a single terminal airway that explains the tidal ...
Hayes Melinda M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The deleterious effects of positive pressure ventilation may be prevented by substituting passive oxygen insufflation during advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: We compared 24-h neurologically normal survival among three different ventilation scenarios for ACLS in a realistic swine model of out-of-hospital prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF) ...
Zakynthinos Epaminondas - - 2008
A 38-year-old polytraumatized man was admitted with signs of cardiogenic shock (low blood pressure, tachycardia, tachypnea, and elevated central venous pressure). A near tension pneumopericardium was revealed by thorax CT. Air from the pericardial sac remissed 4 days later conservatively, avoiding invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. The use of positive-pressure ...
Sarkar Subrata - - 2007
Present generation mechanical ventilators are available with advanced microprocessor-based technology. Greater emphasis is being placed on the patient controlling the ventilator, rather than the physician controlling it. Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is a form of patient-triggered ventilation that supports spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation. It is flow-cycled, allowing the patient ...
Beck Jennifer - - 2007
With increasing pressure support ventilation (PSV), a form of pneumatically triggered ventilation, there can be an increase in wasted inspiratory efforts (neural inspiratory efforts that fail to trigger the ventilator). With neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), a mode of ventilation controlled by the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi), synchrony ...
van Kaam Anton H - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating various lung-protective ventilation modes or strategies in newborn infants have failed to show clear differences in mortality or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This review tries to identify possible reasons for this observation, applying modern concepts on ventilator-induced lung injury and lung-protective ventilation. DATA SOURCE: Published RCTs ...
Keszler Martin - - 2007
Recognition that volume, not pressure, is the key factor in ventilator-induced lung injury and the association of hypocarbia with neonatal brain injury demonstrate the importance of better control delivered tidal volume. New microprocessor-based ventilator modalities combine advantages of pressure-limited ventilation with the ability to deliver a more consistent tidal volume. ...
Singh Jaideep - - 2007
Traditional management of neonatal respiratory failure has been accomplished with mechanical ventilation delivered by time-cycled, pressure-limited techniques. Although easy to use, this modality results in the delivery of tidal volumes that vary according to pulmonary compliance. In contrast, volume-targeted ventilation delivers a selected tidal volume at variable peak inspiratory pressure, ...
Brunherotti Marisa Afonso - - 2007
PURPOSE: This study investigated the correlations obtained by using the Egen Klassifikation (EK) and Barthel Index (BI) functional scales and respiratory function parameters in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. METHODS: Spirometry, maximal respiratory pressures, and arterial blood gases were analyzed and graded according to the EK and BI scales in ...
Bellani Giacomo - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Measuring the work of breathing of patients undergoing spontaneous assisted ventilation can be useful to monitor and titrate ventilatory support. The aim of this study was to obtain measurements of the pressure generated by the respiratory muscles (PMUSC) and the derived pressure-time product (PTP; a good indicator of the ...
Meyappan Raju T - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of CO2 removal during conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) with and without expiratory phase intratracheal pulmonary ventilation (expiratory ITPV or Exp-ITPV); and to compare CO2 clearance during Exp-ITPV, in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and in volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) modes. Seven anesthetized rabbits ...
Parkhouse Duncan A - - 2007
Phosgene is a chemical widely used in the plastics industry and has been used in warfare. It produces a life-threatening pulmonary edema within hours of exposure, to which no specific antidote exists. This study aims to examine the pathophysiological changes seen with low tidal volume ventilation (protective ventilation (PV)) strategies ...
Dreher M - - 2007
It was hypothesised that noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) applied during walking prevents exercise-induced hypoxaemia and improves exercise performance in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients already receiving long-term NPPV. A total of 20 COPD patients (mean+/-sd age 65.1+/-8.7 yrs, forced expiratory volume in one second 27+/-8% predicted and total ...
Battisti Anne - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of applying noninvasive ventilation (NIV) using a prototype algorithm implemented in a bilevel ventilation device designed to adjust pressure support (PS) to maintain a clinician-set alveolar ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure after initial stabilization. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective crossover interventional study in an ...
O'Neill John F - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Hyperventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is detrimental to survival. Several clinical studies of ventilation during hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have demonstrated respiratory rates far in excess of the 10 min(-1) recommended by the ERC. We observed detailed ventilation variables prospectively during manual ventilation of 12 cardiac arrest patients treated ...
Sharma Atul - - 2007
AIM: To test the hypothesis that in volume targeted ventilation modes, ventilator performance would vary according to ventilator type. METHODS: Four neonatal ventilators: Draeger Babylog 8000 (Draeger Medical, Germany), SLE 5000 infant ventilator (SLE systems, UK), Stephanie paediatric ventilator (F. Stephan Biomedical, German) and V.I.P. Bird gold (Viasys Healthcare, USA) ...
Turner David A - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mechanical ventilation is a common intervention provided by pediatric intensivists. This fact notwithstanding, the management of mechanical ventilation in pediatrics is largely guided by a few pediatric trials along with careful interpretation and application of adult data. RECENT FINDINGS: A low tidal volume, pressure limited approach to ...
Lellouche François - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the recent literature concerning the use of noninvasive ventilation for hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. RECENT FINDINGS: The benefits of noninvasive ventilation for patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure are unclear. In immunocompromised patients and following thoracic surgery, there is a strong rationale for using noninvasive ...
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