Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 2721
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Trevisan Cristiane E - - 2008
The use of noninvasive positive-pressure mechanical ventilation (NPPV) has been investigated in several acute respiratory failure situations. Questions remain about its benefits when used in weaning patients from invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of bi-level NPPV for patients who fail weaning ...
Greenough A - - 2008
During synchronized mechanical ventilation, positive airway pressure and spontaneous inspiration coincide. If synchronous ventilation is provoked, adequate gas exchange should be achieved at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing baro/volutrauma, air leak and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Synchronous ventilation can potentially be achieved by manipulation of rate and inspiratory time during conventional ...
Paladino Lorenzo - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Recent manmade and natural disasters have focused attention on the need to provide care to large groups of patients. Clinicians, ethicists, and public health officials have been particularly concerned about mechanical ventilator surge capacity and have suggested stock-piling ventilators, rationing, and providing manual ventilation. These possible solutions are complex ...
Heudorf U - - 2009
The objective of the study was to measure the indoor air quality in classrooms with special emphasis on particulate matter (PM 10) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and the impact of cleaning and ventilation. MATERIAL AND METHOD: PM 10 was analysed via gravimetric method and by laser beam technology. CO(2) was ...
de Prost Nicolas - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a beta2-adrenergic agonist may reduce acute alveolo-capillary barrier alterations during high-volume ventilation. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: A total of 48 male Wistar rats. INTERVENTIONS: A zone of alveolar flooding was produced by liquid instillation in a distal airway. Proteins in the instilled ...
Hans Gregory A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Morbid obesity results in marked respiratory pathophysiologic changes that may lead to impaired intraoperative gas exchange. The decelerating inspiratory flow and constant inspiratory airway pressure resulting from pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) may be more adapted to these changes and improve gas exchanges compared with volume-controlled ventilation (VCV). METHODS: Forty morbidly ...
Babic Mark D - - 2007
BACKGROUND: One device that has been proposed to address the need for emergency ventilation is the Vortran Automatic Resuscitator. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that increasing load (ie, increasing resistance or decreasing compliance) significantly affects minute alveolar ventilation. METHODS: A Vortran Automatic Resuscitator was connected to a passive lung model ...
Bingold T M - - 2007
Intensive care unit patients are at particular risk of respiratory failure after major abdominal surgery. Non-invasive ventilation or application of continuous positive airway pressure through a face mask may stabilise respiratory function and avoid the need for endotracheal re-intubation. However; there are various contraindications to non-invasive ventilation and/or tracheal re-intubation, ...
Liu Tao-Yuan - - 2007
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) using small tidal volumes and maintaining sufficient end-expiratory lung volume may be beneficial in the treatment of airleak. However, few published guidelines exist to advise clinicians on appropriate ventilator settings in this clinical scenario. The present experiment aimed to determine the effect of frequency, stroke volume ...
Pytte Morten - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Ventilation with tidal volumes sufficient to raise the victim's chest is an integral part of guidelines for lay-rescuer basic life support, but optimal tidal volume, frequency and ratio to chest compressions are not known. METHODS: Adults with non-traumatic, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, who were not successfully resuscitated following advanced life ...
Fietze Ingo - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Nocturnal positive pressure ventilation (PPV) has been shown to be effective in patients with impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR). We investigated the effect of a bi-level PPV and adaptive servo ventilation on LVEF, CSR, and quantitative sleep quality. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients (New York heart ...
Lindgren S - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess lung volume changes during and after bronchoscopic suctioning during volume or pressure-controlled ventilation (VCV or PCV). DESIGN: Bench test and patient study. Participants: Ventilator-treated acute lung injury (ALI) patients. SETTING: University research laboratory and general adult intensive care unit of a university hospital. INTERVENTIONS: Bronchoscopic suctioning with ...
Gessner Christian - - 2008
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) contains small amounts of protein leaving the lung by aerosol droplet generation. Protein patterns in EBC might be useful in monitoring acute and severe pulmonary disease and in particular monitoring of mechanical stress during ventilation. EBC (10ml) was collected from 30 ventilated patients with respiratory failure ...
Peñuelas Oscar - - 2007
Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation is a type of mechanical ventilation that does not require an artificial airway. Studies published in the 1990s that evaluated the efficacy of this technique for the treatment of diseases as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure and acute respiratory failure have generalized its use in ...
Laier-Groeneveld G - - 2007
We attempted to decrease PCO2 during noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and studied he effects of this therapy both in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in its chronic state. Ninety six patients (63% male) with COPD and hypercapnia above 6.7 kPa were investigated. The mode and setting of ...
Munckton K - - 2007
Noninvasive ventilation by facemask is commonly used for patients with respiratory failure. We evaluated the pressure exerted by two types of facemask on the faces of 12 healthy volunteers while they were being given different levels of continuous or bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation. The mean (SD) pressure recorded on ...
Raux Mathieu - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is delivered to sedated patients during anesthesia, but also to nonsedated patients (ventilator weaning, noninvasive ventilation). In these circumstances, patient-ventilator asynchrony may occur, provoking discomfort and unduly increasing work of breathing. In certain cases, it is associated with an increased inspiratory load. Inspiratory loading in awake humans ...
Pladeck T - - 2007
Continuous positive airway pressure ventilation (CPAP) and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) are accepted treatments in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE) and acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). The aim of the study was a comparison of effectiveness, safety, and management of NPPV in ACPE and AECOPD trying ...
Chiumello Davide - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: During pressure support ventilation, ventilator inspiration ends when inspiratory flow drops to a given percentage of the peak inspiratory flow cycling-off criteria. This study evaluated the effect of two different cycling-off criteria on breathing pattern, respiratory effort, and gas exchange in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. DESIGN: Clinical ...
Harris Keith W - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Aerosolized iloprost, an inhaled synthetic analogue of prostacyclin, is an approved therapy for stage III and IV pulmonary hypertension. However, currently iloprost is delivered via a device that requires a clinically stable patient who can use a hand-held nebulizer. We designed separate aerosol delivery systems to nebulize iloprost to ...
Conti Giorgio - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a relatively common complication after abdominal surgery. METHODS: We compared the efficacy of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) delivered via helmet versus via face mask in patients with ARF after abdominal surgery in 2 intensive care units (31 beds) in the hospital affiliated with the ...
Prinianakis George - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: During pressure support ventilation (PS), an abrupt increase in ventilator pressure above the pre-set level is considered to signify expiratory muscle activity. However, relaxation of inspiratory muscles may also cause the same phenomenon, and this hypothesis has not been explored. The aim of this study is to examine the ...
Lovat Robin - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare in intubated patients manually ventilated in order to mirror the ventilator, the respiratory and hemodynamic effects induced by a bag device equipped with an inspiratory gas flow-limiting valve (Smart Bag, 0-Two Medical Technologies Inc., Mississauga, ON, Canada) and a Standard bag. DESIGN: Non-randomized crossover study comparing 13 ...
Schaefer Raik - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Special equipment for emergency percutaneous transtracheal ventilation is often not immediately available. We used a self-made device consisting of a three-way stopcock connected between a G-15 transtracheal airway catheter and an oxygen supply in a simulated 'cannot intubate, cannot ventilate' scenario and tested the hypothesis that the effectiveness of ...
McEvoy Cindy - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Varying effects of pancuronium on neonatal pulmonary mechanics have been documented, including a decrease in pulmonary compliance or no significant change in compliance; but measurements of respiratory mechanics or quantification of episodes of hypoxemia in preterm newborns receiving vecuronium (Norcuron, Bedford Labs, Bedford, OH, USA) have not been reported. ...
George Ige Abraham - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has been shown to decrease the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients presenting with acute respiratory failure (ARF). We conducted a prospective study to assess if NIPPV use, in a developing country, was associated with clinical and physiological improvements. DESIGN: Prospective observational ...
De Jonghe Bernard - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Although critical illness neuromyopathy might interfere with weaning from mechanical ventilation, its respiratory component has not been investigated. We designed a study to assess the level of respiratory muscle weakness emerging during the intensive care unit stay in mechanically ventilated patients and to examine the correlation between respiratory and ...
Adachi Takehiko - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase produces carbon monoxide (CO) during the breakdown of heme molecules. A variety of stressors upregulate this enzymatic activity and can increase exhaled CO levels. Recently, exhaled CO levels have been reported to increase in critically ill patients and after anesthesia and surgery. To use this measurement during ...
Jouvet Philippe - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the applicability, tolerance, and efficacy of a closed-loop protocol to wean children from mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective single-center pilot study. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty mechanically ventilated children aged between 1 and 17 yrs, with a body weight > or =10 kg, no inotropes, and ...
Liu Rong - - 2007
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) preserves systemic arterial oxygenation during lung injury by diverting blood flow away from poorly ventilated lung regions. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is characterized by pulmonary inflammation, lung edema, and impaired HPV leading to systemic hypoxemia. Studying mice congenitally deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and ...
Vilke Gary M - - 2007
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Sudden death after a conducted electrical weapon exposure has not been well studied. We examine the effects of a single Taser exposure on markers of physiologic stress in healthy humans. METHODS: This is a prospective trial investigating the effects of a single Taser exposure. As part of their ...
Kramer-Johansen Jo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Undetected malpositioned or dislodged ventilation tubes during cardiac arrest have fatal consequences, and no single method can detect the tube position reliably during such low-flow states. We wanted to test the ability of impedance changes as measured across the chest via the standard defibrillation pads to distinguish between oesophageal ...
Di Marco Fabiano - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Measurement of functional residual capacity (FRC) during controlled and especially during assisted ventilation remains a challenge in the physiological evaluation of ventilated patients. To validate a bag-in-box closed helium dilution technique allowing measurements both during pressure-controlled (PCV) and pressure-support ventilation (PSV). DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study on lung models ...
Mainali E S - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of high-frequency jet ventilation for transporting critically ill hypoxic neonates to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) center. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 38 transported neonates. Safety was assessed by the comparison of cardiopulmonary variables before and after transport from ...
McCallion N - - 2008
BACKGROUND: During volume guarantee (VG) ventilation the peak inflating pressure (PIP) for each ventilator inflation is adjusted to ensure the expired tidal volume (V(Te)) is close to the set V(Te). Differences in the PIP between inflations triggered by the infant's inspirations and untriggered inflations are seen. AIM: To investigate the ...
Migliori Claudio - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine the effectiveness of continuous aminophylline infusion on refractory bronchospasm in long-term mechanically ventilated neonates. CASE REPORT: Presented are seven newborns with gestational ages from 24 to 38 weeks and mean age at treatment of 29.7 days. All were mechanically ventilated from birth because of ...
Conlon Niamh P - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The optimum timing for denture removal in edentulous patients before anesthesia and surgery is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of leaving dentures in during bag-mask ventilation at induction of general anesthesia. One hundred sixty-six edentulous patients were randomized to two groups. ...
Kirakli Cenk - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is being increasingly used in hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients but the most appropriate ventilation mode is still not known. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate if assisted pressure-controlled ventilation (APCV) can be a better alternative to pressure-support ventilation (PSV) for ...
Balick-Weber C-C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The effects of pressure-controlled (PC) ventilation on the ventilatory and haemodynamic parameters during laparoscopy procedures had not been carefully assessed. This prospective cross-over study was undertaken to compare how volume-controlled (VC) and PC modes could affect pulmonary mechanics, gas exchange, and cardiac function in patients undergoing laparoscopy. METHODS: Twenty-one ...
Mulqueeny Qestra - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Imperfect patient-ventilator interaction is common during assisted ventilation, and the detection of clinically relevant mismatching requires visual monitoring of the ventilator screen. We have assessed the feasibility, sensitivity and specificity of an algorithm embedded in a ventilator system that is able to automatically detect the occurrence of ineffective triggering ...
Baral P R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare subjective experience of comfort associated with various commonly used supportive modes of mechanical ventilation for weaning in the intensive care unit (ICU). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in general ICU of a community-based teaching hospital in 30 healthy adult Nepalese volunteers of either sex ...
Plurad David - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A reduction in the incidence of posttraumatic Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) has been demonstrated. It is hypothesized that ventilation strategies and restrictive transfusion policies are contributory. The purpose of this study is to examine the changes in ventilation and transfusion parameters over time and their associations with late ...
Thomas Peter J - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of 90 degrees lateral positioning on oxygenation, respiratory mechanics, and hemodynamics in ventilated intensive care patients. METHODS: Thirty-four subjects (mean age = 46.1 +/- 17.3 years) with no, unilateral, or bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph participated. Arterial blood gas, respiratory mechanic, and hemodynamic data ...
Mutch W Alan C - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Mechanical ventilation can be lifesaving for status asthmaticus, but how best to accomplish mechanical ventilation is unclear. Biologically variable ventilation (mechanical ventilation that emulates healthy variation) and conventional control mode ventilation (monotonously regular) were compared in an animal model of bronchospasm to determine which approach yields better gas exchange ...
Mabe Tiffany G - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: To describe ventilator management using a high-frequency percussive ventilator (HFPV), after other modes of mechanical ventilation failed. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Previously healthy 11-month-old male with severe aspiration pneumonitis from mineral oil. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was initially placed on a conventional ventilator in a ...
Fessler Henry E - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Ventilator settings typically used for high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) in adults provide acceptable gas exchange but may not take best advantage of its lung-protective aspects. We provide guidelines for HFO in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome that should optimize the lung-protective characteristics of this ventilation mode. DESIGN: Roundtable ...
Frerichs I - - 2007
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has the potential to become a new tool for bedside monitoring of regional lung ventilation. The aim of our study was to assess the reproducibility of regional lung ventilation distribution determined by EIT during mechanical ventilation under identical ventilator settings. The experiments were performed on 10 ...
Lerou J G C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The delay between changes in end-expired sevoflurane concentrations and bispectral index (BIS) may be characterized by a 'rate constant' (ke0). A smaller ke0 reflects a longer delay. Values for ke0 vary substantially among studies. The question arises how ke0 depends on experimental conditions, including ventilation and apparatus. METHODS: Increasing ...
Misiolek H - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Thoracic surgery requires immobilization of the operating area. Usually, this is achieved with one-lung ventilation (OLV), however this may still lead to some movement. High-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) may be an alternative way of ventilation in thoracic surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the ...
Cepkova Magda - - 2007
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to test whether an elevated systolic pulmonary artery (PA) pressure or an elevated pulmonary dead space fraction (Vd/Vt) in early acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with poor clinical outcomes in the era of lung-protective ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. ...
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