Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2729
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >
Rabus Fabienne C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Gastric inflation (GI) is a significant issue when ventilation is performed on unprotected airways. DESIGN: Experimental analysis on the respiratory effects of hose extended bag-valve ventilation devices designed to reduce inspiratory pressure and flow. SETTING: Laboratory with lung/oesophageal sphincter simulator and pressure-flow-volume analyser. Lung compliance: 300ml/kPa, airway resistance: 0.5kPa/l/s. ...
Elinoff Jason J Critical Care Medicine Department, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. - - 2008
The effects of mechanical ventilation on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) have not been systematically investigated and the anticipated changes such as rightward P and QRS axes shifts, reduced QRS voltage, and slow R-wave progression are not supported by definitive data. We sought to determine the effects of mechanical ventilation on ...
Manisty Charlotte H - - 2008
For disease states characterized by oscillatory ventilation, an ideal dynamic therapy would apply a counteracting oscillation in ventilation. Modulating respiratory gas transport through the circulation might allow this. We explore the ability of repetitive alternations in heart rate, using a cardiac pacemaker, to elicit oscillations in respiratory variables and discuss ...
Racca Fabrizio - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether additional helmet flow obtained by a single-circuit and a modified plateau valve applied at the helmet expiratory port (open-circuit ventilators) improves CO(2) wash-out by increasing helmet airflow. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized physiological study in a university research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: Helmet continuous positive ...
Bachiller Patricia R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: During mechanical ventilation of infants and neonates, small changes in tidal volume may lead to hypo- or hyperventilation, barotrauma, or volutrauma. Partly because breathing circuit compliance and fresh gas flow affect tidal volume delivery by traditional anesthesia ventilators in volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) mode, pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) using a circle ...
Marsik Tom - - 2008
Hilly areas around Fairbanks, Alaska, are known to have elevated soil radon concentrations. Due to geological conditions, cold winters, and the resulting stack effect, houses in these areas are prone to higher indoor radon concentrations. Key variables with respect to radon mitigation were addressed in this paper by using a ...
Bould M D - - 2008
We examined the pressures produced by a construction intended for emergency ventilation through a needle cricothyroidotomy. This construction consisted of a standard hospital wall oxygen supply, flowmeter, oxygen tubing and a three-way tap. We measured the flow achieved through a transtracheal catheter and compared the construction to a Manujet jet ...
Cadi P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We compared pressure and volume-controlled ventilation (PCV and VCV) in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric banding surgery. METHODS: Thirty-six patients, BMI>35 kg m(-2), no major obstructive or restrictive respiratory disorder, and Pa(CO(2))<6.0 kPa, were randomized to receive either VCV or PCV during the surgery. Ventilation settings followed two ...
Ferreira Juliana C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare the triggering performance of mid-level ICU mechanical ventilators with a standard ICU mechanical ventilator. DESIGN: Experimental bench study. SETTING: The respiratory care laboratory of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. SUBJECT: A computerized mechanical lung model, the IngMar ASL5000. INTERVENTIONS: Ten mid-level ICU ventilators were compared to an ICU ...
Thille Arnaud W - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To identify ventilatory setting adjustments that improve patient-ventilator synchrony during pressure-support ventilation in ventilator-dependent patients by reducing ineffective triggering events without decreasing tolerance. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective physiological study in a 13-bed medical intensive care unit in a university hospital. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS: Twelve intubated patients with more than ...
Wagner Peter D - - 2008
This brief review centers on the multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET). This technique, developed in the 1970s, measures the pulmonary exchange of a set of six different inert gases dissolved together in saline (or dextrose) and infused intravenously. It then uses those measurements to compute the distribution of ventilation/perfusion ...
Cong Yongzi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Propofol dosages required for upper GI endoscopy are often high enough to pose serious risks of respiratory depression. Stopping the procedure and bag ventilating a patient until the propofol wears off may be a safer management because traditional mask ventilation is not available. OBJECTIVE: We introduce the mask adaptor ...
Staffey Kimberly S - - 2008
Induced external hypothermia during ventricular fibrillation (VF) improves resuscitation outcomes. Our objectives were twofold (1) to determine if very rapid hypothermia could be achieved by intrapulmonary administration of cold perfluorocarbons (PFC), thereby using the lungs as a vehicle for targeted cardiopulmonary hypothermia, and (2) to determine if this improved resuscitation ...
Polverino Francesca - - 2008
Sexual activity is an important component of quality of life in patients suffering from chronic illnesses. To our knowledge, the effects of sexual activity on gas exchange in patients with respiratory failure have not been yet studied. To such an extent, we evaluated the oxygen saturation (SaO2), by a pulse ...
Hoegl Sandra - - 2008
Though often lifesaving, mechanical ventilation itself bears the risk of lung damage [ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI)]. The underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, but stress-induced mediators seem to play an important role in biotrauma related to VILI. Our purpose was to evaluate an animal model of VILI that ...
Fessler Henry E - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of using respiratory frequencies up to 15 Hz during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) of adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Medical intensive care unit at a tertiary care university hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty adult patients receiving HFO at the discretion of ...
Terado Michihisa - - 2008
In modern emergency and critical care, physicians tend to choose the mode of mechanical ventilation based on spontaneous breathing for the purpose of promoting discharge of pulmonary secretion and preventing atelectasis in patients with acute respiratory insufficiency. However, we often observe "differences in recovery" among patients treated using the same ...
Odegaard Silje - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Professional rescuers only deliver chest compressions 39% of the available time before intubation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. In manikin-studies lay rescuers need approximately 15s to deliver two ventilations. It is not known how much time professional rescuers use for two ventilations and we hypothesised that the time used for ...
Vaporidi Katerina - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of respiratory rate (RR) at a constant PaCO2 and conventional tidal volume (VT) on the development of ventilator-induced lung injury in normal lungs. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, experimental study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Adult male C57BL/6 mice. INTERVENTIONS: Four ...
Frazier Susan K - - 2008
Mechanical ventilator support and the resumption of spontaneous ventilation or weaning create significant alterations in alveolar and intrathoracic pressure that influence thoracic blood volume and flow. Compensatory autonomic tone alterations occur to ensure adequate tissue oxygen delivery, but autonomic responses may produce cardiovascular dysfunction with subsequent weaning failure. The authors ...
Gregorius David D - - 2008
High altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) is a well-known potential hazard of activities at high altitudes but not a common disease presentation that most emergency physicians have experience treating. The mainstay of treatment is intuitive--early recognition with immediate descent, rest and oxygen--but what does the emergency physician do when a patient ...
Mosing Martina - - 2008
To describe anesthetic management of endoscopic electrosurgical removal of a bronchial carcinoma, partially blocking the right main stem bronchus in a Cocker Spaniel. Clinical case report. Dog with a bronchial carcinoma. To allow sufficient space for the endoscope and to avoid an oxygen-rich gas mixture in the trachea, which carries ...
Morley Colin J - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present recent data on the role of noninvasive ventilation in the respiratory management of newborn infants. RECENT FINDINGS: Noninvasive ventilation is growing in popularity but is applied using widely varying devices and settings. Although short-term physiological advantages were reported for bubble and variable-flow continuous positive airways ...
Rossi Felipe S - - 2008
Studies comparing high frequency oscillatory and conventional ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome have used low values of positive end-expiratory pressure and identified a need for better recruitment and pulmonary stability with high frequency. To compare conventional and high frequency ventilation using the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve ...
Andrieu Marie Claire - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Volume-targeted ventilation is associated with poor compensation for leaks yet is frequently used in neuromuscular patients, many of whom experience mouth leaks. Our objective was to test the feasibility and efficacy of a prototype ventilator designed to achieve leak compensation by feed-back control of the actual tidal volume based ...
Fauroux B - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of all the ventilators proposed for home noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in children in France. The ventilators (one volume-targeted, 12 pressure-targeted and four dual) were evaluated on a bench which simulated six different paediatric ventilatory patterns. For each ventilator, ...
Frazier Susan K - - 2008
Because of their anatomic position in the closed thoracic cavity, the heart and lungs interact during each ventilation cycle. The application of mechanical ventilation and subsequent removal changes normal ventilatory mechanics and produces alterations in cardiac preload and afterload that influence global hemodynamic state and delivery of oxygen and nutrients. ...
Tiruvoipati Ravindranath - - 2008
PURPOSE: The use of prone ventilation in acute respiratory failure has been investigated by several randomized controlled trials in the recent past. To date, there has been no systematic review or meta-analysis of these trials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Systematic literature search was performed between 1966 and July 2006 to identify ...
Hui David S C - - 2008
Antiviral therapy and vaccination are important strategies for the control of human influenza/H5N1 disease, but the efficacy of these modalities is limited by timing of administration and shortage of supply. Lung protective ventilation strategy with a low tidal volume and low pressure, in addition to a conservative fluid management approach, ...
Gama de Abreu Marcelo - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To describe and evaluate the effects of the new noisy pressure support ventilation (noisy PSV) on lung physiologic variables. DESIGN: Crossover design with four modes of mechanical ventilation. SETTING: Experimental research facility of a university hospital. SUBJECTS: A total of 12 pigs weighing 25.0-36.5 kg. INTERVENTIONS: Animals were anesthetized, ...
Yildizdas Dincer - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation through a new interface helmet in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema due to scorpion sting envenomation in children. CLINICAL PICTURE: Three patients presented with fever, and respiratory distress following scorpion sting. Their cardiac ...
Budweiser Stephan - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite its widespread use, the role of noninvasive home mechanical ventilation for the management of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure is still controversial. The majority of randomized controlled trials show methodological weaknesses, including issues of patient selection, insufficient pressure support and poor ...
Guerin Claude - - 2008
Bronchodilators are frequently used in ICU patients, and are the most common medications administered by inhalation during mechanical ventilation. The amount of bronchodilator that deposits at its site of action depends on the amount of drug, inhaled mass, deposited mass, and particle size distribution. Mechanical ventilation challenges both inhaled mass ...
Hamlin Shannan K - - 2008
Turning critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients every 2 hours is a fundamental nursing intervention to reduce the negative impact of prolonged immobility from preventable pulmonary complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia and atelectasis. Unfortunately, when coupled with positive pressure ventilation, the benefits of turning may come at the expense of cardiovascular ...
Taylor James T - - 2008
Using a modified noninvasive volume-displacement plethysmography system, we investigated the effects of inhaled dichlorvos (2,2-dimethyl-dichlorovinyl phosphate, or DDVP) vapor on the respiratory mechanics and blood cholinesterase activity of guinea pigs. Data revealed significant dose-dependent changes in several pulmonary parameters. Animals exposed to a DDVP concentration of 35 mg/m(3) did not ...
Hsu Jane-Yi - - 2008
Ventilation with higher fraction of inspired oxygen (F(I)O2) is one of the commonly-chosen strategies executed for treatment of hypoxemia during one lung ventilation (OLV) for thoracic surgery. In this study, we investigated the effect of F(I)O2 on pulmonary ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) distribution during OLV. Six pigs, weighing 27 to 34 kg, ...
Verbanck Sylvia - - 2008
It has long been assumed that the ventilation heterogeneity associated with lung disease could, in itself, affect the measurement of carbon monoxide transfer factor. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential estimation errors of carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (Dl(CO)) measurement that are specifically due to conductive ventilation ...
Fonseca E B - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dynamic indices represented by systolic pressure variation and pulse pressure variation have been demonstrated to be more accurate than filling pressures in predicting fluid responsiveness. However, the literature is scarce concerning the impact of different ventilatory modes on these indices. We hypothesized that systolic pressure variation or ...
Jia Xiaoming X Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, - - 2008
Low tidal volume (Vt) ventilation for ARDS is a well-accepted concept. However, controversy persists regarding the optimal ventilator settings for patients without ARDS receiving mechanical ventilation. This study tested the hypothesis that ventilator settings influence the development of new ARDS. Retrospective analysis of patients from the Multi Parameter Intelligent Monitoring ...
Caruso Pedro - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: It is known that mechanical ventilation and many of its features may affect the evolution of inspiratory muscle strength during ventilation. However, this evolution has not been described, nor have its predictors been studied. In addition, a probable parallel between inspiratory and limb muscle strength evolution has not been ...
Graf Jerónimo - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the evidence that airway secretions may have an underappreciated role in acute respiratory distress syndrome, contributing to physiologic disarrangements, ventilator dependence and perhaps to injury generation. As common manipulations of ventilator settings, position and fluid status have the potential to influence these problems, explorations into ...
Chen Chang-Wen - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Ineffective triggering (IT) is the most common manifestation of patient-ventilator asynchrony in mechanically ventilated patients. IT in the expiratory phase (ITE) accounts for the majority of IT and is associated with characteristic features of flow and airway pressure deflection, caused by ineffective effort from the patient. The purpose of ...
Renner J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in adult patients and animal models have demonstrated that pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV) can be used to predict the response to fluid administration. Currently, little information is available on the performance of these variables in infants and neonates. The aim of our ...
Lozano S - - 2008
A closed-loop system (AUTOPILOT-BT) for the control of mechanical ventilation was designed to: 1) autonomously achieve goals specified by the clinician, 2) optimize the ventilator settings with respect to the underlying disease and 3) automatically adapt to the individual properties and specific disease status of the patient. The current realization ...
Kundra Pankaj - - 2008
The presence of kyphoscoliosis can adversely affect gas exchange because of restriction to gas flow and reduction of lung volume. The effects become more exaggerated during positive-pressure ventilation due to the uneven distribution of ventilation. The use of a double-lumen tube helps to reduce the ventilation perfusion mismatch that occurs ...
Obladen Michael - - 2008
The construction of manual ventilators by Hunter, Chaussier, and Gorcy seemed to set the stage for artificial ventilation of the neonate at the end of the 18th century. When Leroy d'Etiolles recognized pneumothorax as a complication of ventilation in 1828, the Paris Academy of Science advised against positive pressure ventilation. ...
Paal P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Retention of mouth-to-mouth, mouth-to-mask and mouth-to-face shield ventilation techniques is poorly understood. METHODS: A prospective randomised clinical trial was undertaken in January 2004 in 70 candidates randomly assigned to training in mouth-to-mouth, mouth-to-mask or mouth-to-face shield ventilation. Each candidate was trained for 10 min, after which tidal volume, respiratory ...
Sriram Krishna B - - 2008
The increased morbidity and mortality resulting from respiratory failure in patients with neuromuscular disorders and/or kyphoscoliosis can be reversed with non-invasive ventilation. Spontaneous mode bilevel pressure ventilation is preferred to other modes of ventilation, due to relative ease of use, but may not be suitable for all patients. We report ...
Ball Jonathan - - 2008
Recent papers discussed include two large, multicentre, high-positive end-expiratory pressure trials in acute lung injury and reflects upon the usefulness of such trial designs. Further papers considered include the emerging story of beta2-agonists for pulmonary oedema, highlights the newly described, iatrogenic demon, of ventilator-induced diaphragm injury, promotes the addition of ...
Jobe Alan H - - 2008
We review information about how the preterm lung can be injured with the initiation of mechanical ventilation at birth. Although multiple variables such as pressure, tidal volume, positive end expiratory pressure, and the gas used for ventilation may contribute to the injury, the relative contribution of each is not known. ...
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >