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Results 451 - 500 of 2729
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Dhand Rajiv - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to discuss the various factors that influence aerosol delivery in mechanically ventilated patients and clarify optimal techniques for aerosol administration in this patient population. Clinical use of various inhaled therapies in patients receiving invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation is also discussed. ...
Escombe A Roderick - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Institutional transmission of airborne infections such as tuberculosis (TB) is an important public health problem, especially in resource-limited settings where protective measures such as negative-pressure isolation rooms are difficult to implement. Natural ventilation may offer a low-cost alternative. Our objective was to investigate the rates, determinants, and effects of ...
Snow Timothy M - - 2007
The need for conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) is a common one in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The goals of CMV are to facilitate adequate gas exchange, minimize the risk of lung injury/damage, decrease the patient's work of breathing, and optimize the patient's comfort. Although time-cycled, pressure-limited ventilation remains ...
Smarick Sean D - - 2007
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 9-year-old dog was evaluated for traumatic cervical myelopathy after a surgical attempt to realign and stabilize the C2 and C3 vertebrae. CLINICAL FINDINGS: The dog could not ventilate spontaneously and was tetraplegic; positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) was maintained. Myelography and computed tomography revealed spinal cord compression with subluxation ...
Dang Bao P - - 2007
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess if common mobile communication systems would cause significant interference on mechanical ventilation devices and at what distances would such interference occur. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested all the invasive and noninvasive ventilatory devices used within our region. This consisted of 2 ...
O'Rourke J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the intracranial, cardiovascular and respiratory changes induced by conversion to high-frequency oscillator ventilation from conventional mechanical ventilation at increasing airway pressures. METHODS: In this study, 11 anaesthetized sheep had invasive cardiovascular and intracranial monitors placed. Lung injury was induced by saline ...
Ishida Susumu - - 2007
PURPOSE: The very high solubility of carbon monoxide (CO) in blood suggests that its elimination depends predominantly on ventilation and not perfusion. Nevertheless, hyperventilation is not used for CO elimination because of the adverse effects of hypocapnia. With isocapnic hyperpnea (IH), ventilation can be increased considerably without hypocapnia. This raises ...
Hess Dean R - - 2007
There has been much clinical and academic interest in the use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with acute and chronic respiratory failure. The use of NPPV in appropriately selected patients improves survival and decreases the need for endotracheal intubation. The most commonly used interfaces for NPPV are nasal ...
Steinhorst Renata Campos - - 2007
The effects of hemodialysis (HD) on pulmonary function are still controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) and sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) on the respiratory mechanics of ICU patients under invasive mechanical ventilation. We prospectively studied 31 patients. Laboratory and respiratory evaluation ...
Hodgson Carol - - 2007
QUESTION: What is the effect of the Mapleson C circuit compared with the Laerdal circuit in removing secretions and improving ventilation and gas exchange during manual hyperinflation? DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, cross-over trial. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty patients from a tertiary-level intensive care unit who were being mechanically ventilated. INTERVENTION: Manual hyperinflation in ...
Berton Jerôme - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The AnaConDa filter permits administration of volatile anesthetic without the use of an anesthesia machine. It is intended for use in the intensive care unit. METHODS: We studied the AnaConDa reflection filter on the bench and in anesthetized patients. The bench analysis used a test lung, a gas analyzer, ...
Pavone Lucio A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Lung injury associated with the acute respiratory distress syndrome can be exacerbated by improper mechanical ventilation creating a secondary injury known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). We hypothesized that VILI could be caused in part by alveolar recruitment/derecruitment resulting in gross tearing of the alveolus. OBJECTIVES: The exact mechanism ...
Dellinger R Phillip - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: There are several ventilator modes that are used for maintenance mechanical ventilation but no conclusive evidence that one mode of ventilation is better than another. Vibration response imaging is a novel bedside imaging technique that displays vibration energy of lung sounds generated during the respiratory cycle as a real-time ...
Wong Frankie W H - - 2007
Human physiology changes are often amplified in disease states and may be altered when a patient is mechanically ventilated. Normally, systolic blood pressure is slightly lower during inspiration than expiration due to the change in intrathoracic pressure. Pulsus paradoxus is a phenomenon in which the difference in systolic blood pressure ...
Holland Anne E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) delivers air at a high flow, which is associated with airway mucosal drying and impaired airway functioning. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of mechanical ventilation parameters on relative humidity and absolute humidity during NPPV, and to evaluate the effect of a heated passover humidifier on ...
Uttman Leif - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: To prevent further lung damage in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), it is important to avoid overdistension and cyclic opening and closing of atelectatic alveoli. Previous studies have demonstrated protective effects of using low tidal volume (VT), moderate positive end-expiratory pressure and low airway pressure. Aspiration of ...
Krishnan Jambunathan - - 2007
Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a relatively new mode of mechanical ventilation (MV) first described in animal studies in 1987 and in humans in 1988. It is a time-triggered, time-cycled, pressure-limited mode where a high level of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is maintained with brief regular releases in ...
Ratzenhofer-Komenda B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Inhalation of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been reported to decrease arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) in the early period after exposure. The current investigation aimed at evaluating whether and to what extent arterial blood gases were affected in mechanically ventilated intensive care patients within 6 h after HBO treatment. METHODS: ...
Maxwell L J - - 2007
Summary The aim of this prospective observational study was to document patterns of ventilation during manual hyperinflation by physiotherapists. Manual hyperinflation with a Mapleson-F system was performed on the same patients on two consecutive days. Patterns of ventilation were recorded using a heated pneumotachometer, pressure transducer and custom designed data ...
Malhotra Puneet - - 2007
Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) syndrome, a catastrophic cause of respiratory failure typically occurs during labour, or soon after delivery. Systemic hypotension is the most prominent haemodynamic alteration documented in patients with AFE, a consequence principally of severe left-sided heart failure. A 22-year-old female was admitted to the respiratory intensive care ...
Keyl Cornelius - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The respiratory variation in pulse pressure (PP) has been established as a dynamic variable of cardiac preload which indicates fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients. The impact of acute changes in cardiac performance on respiratory fluctuations in PP has not been evaluated until now. We used cardiac resynchronization therapy ...
Petrucci N - - 2007
Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury require mechanical ventilatory support. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury are further complicated by ventilator-induced lung injury. Lung-protective ventilation strategies may lead to improved survival. To assess the effects of ventilation with lower tidal volume on morbidity and ...
Stohler Fiona C FC Poliklinik für Orale Chirurgie, Zentrum für Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde, Universität Zürich, - - 2007
Infrequent training of artificial ventilation in dental facilities implies poor performance of this procedure under CPR. Gastric inflation is a significant issue when ventilation is performed on an unprotected airway. An Easy Grip (EG) Bag-Valve-Mask Resuscitator, a Laryngeal Tube (LT), size #5, and a SMART BAG (SB) resuscitator, a pressure-limiting ...
Tzavaras A A Medical Instrumentation Technology Department, Technological Education Institute of Athens, GR 12210 Athens, Greece. - - 2007
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized by increased work of breathing (WOB) and ventilatory muscle dysfunction. Mechanical ventilation is applied to unload the WOB; rest respiratory muscles decrease arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and treat hypoxemia. Since patients' needs are not static, ventilator settings have ...
Fassassi Mikaïla - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We set out to evaluate the efficacy of passive inspiratory gas conditioning in mechanically ventilated neonates and compared it with that of a heated humidifier (HH). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: Neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Fourteen mechanically ventilated neonates nursed in incubators. INTERVENTIONS: The HH ...
Heinemann Frank - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to study the long-term effects of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) on lung function and gas exchange in patients with the obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). DESIGN: Prospective observational study in OHS patients performing NPPV over a period of 24 months. RESULTS: We studied 35 clinically stable ...
Soro M - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of prone position on respiratory dead space and gas exchange in 14 anaesthetized healthy patients undergoing elective posterior spinal surgery of more than 3 h of duration. METHODS: The patients received a total intravenous anaesthetic with propofol/remifentanil/cisatracurium. They were ventilated at a tidal ...
Junker B - - 2006
Production of two related indole diterpenes (differing by a dimethyl leucine side chain) by Aspergillus alliaceus was improved through several pilot scale fermentations. Media were optimized through focus primarily on initial increases, as well as mid-cycle additions, of carbon and nitrogen sources. Fermentation conditions were improved by varying ventilation conditions ...
Fan Eddy - - 2006
Management of acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is largely supportive, with the use of mechanical ventilation being a central feature. Recent advances in the understanding of ALI/ARDS and mechanical ventilation have revealed that lung-protective ventilation strategies may attenuate ventilator-associated lung injury and improve patient ...
Ordodi Valentin L - - 2006
Major experimental surgery on laboratory animals requires adequate anesthesia and ventilation to keep the animal alive throughout the procedure. A ventilator is a machine that helps the anesthesized animal breathe through an endotracheal tube by pumping a volume of gas (oxygen, air, or other gaseous mixtures), comparable with the normal ...
Heimberg C - - 2006
One-lung ventilation is limited by hypoventilation and hypoxemia because of increasing airway pressure and intrapulmonary shunt. Previous clinical studies compared pressure-controlled versus volume-controlled ventilation during one-lung ventilation in patients with pre-existing pulmonary disease. We studied 50 patients undergoing thoracotomy and one-lung ventilation because of cardiovascular disease. After two-lung ventilation with ...
Tsuruta Ryosuke - - 2006
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) in obese patients, we assessed their respiratory and hemodynamic functions during IPV superimposed on conventional ventilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten obese patients with acute respiratory failure due to compression atelectasis who had not improved by conventional ventilation were ...
Schönhofer Bernd - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The mechanism responsible for chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (HRF) in patients with COPD remains unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic HRF in patients with COPD is associated with low-frequency fatigue (LFF) of the diaphragm. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we measured the twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure ...
Siddiqui Rashad - - 2006
A young male with no pre-operative medical illness underwent corrective surgery for a deviated nasal septum under general anesthesia. At the end of surgery, patient was extubated but went into severe laryngospasm that did not improve with gentle Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV) and small dose of Suxamethonium. As the ...
Donahoe Michael - - 2006
Acute respiratory failure is manifested clinically as a patient with variable degrees of respiratory distress, but characteristically an abnormal arterial blood partial pressure of oxygen or carbon dioxide. The application of mechanical ventilation in this setting can be life-saving. An emerging body of clinical and basic research, however, has highlighted ...
Linton David M - - 2006
Flail chest after blunt trauma usually requires good pain control and positive pressure support. Continuous negative extrathoracic pressure (CNEP) causes a splinting effect around the anterior chest wall and upper abdomen which increases functional residual capacity and improves lung mechanics. We report an 82-year-old woman with flail chest after cardiopulmonary ...
Jaecklin Thomas - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Volume-targeted modes are designed to deliver a constant tidal volume (V(t)) at lowest possible pressure independently of changes in compliance, resistance, and leak of the respiratory system. We examined whether these volume-targeted modes respond rapidly enough to sudden changes in respiratory mechanics (e.g., selective intubation, surfactant administration, endotracheal tube ...
Duperret Serge - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on the systolic and pulse pressure variations induced by positive pressure ventilation in a porcine model. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study in a research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Seven mechanically ventilated and instrumented pigs prone to normovolaemia and hypovolaemia by blood withdrawal. ...
Delong Peter - - 2006
The occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is now common in intensive care units throughout the world. The diagnosis of ARDS is based on a definition that includes bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiographs, impaired oxygenation, and the absence of clinical evidence of elevated left atrial pressure. ARDS is ...
Michelet Pierre - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Esophagectomy induces a systemic inflammatory response whose extent has been recognized as a predictive factor of postoperative respiratory morbidity. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a protective ventilatory strategy to reduce systemic inflammation in patients undergoing esophagectomy. METHODS: The authors prospectively investigated 52 patients ...
Quong Michael C - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A substantial percentage of the aerosol produced by a nebulizer is lost down the expiratory limb of the ventilator circuit. We describe a method for the capture, return, and re-aerosolization of that undelivered aerosol. METHODS: We designed an expiratory-limb setup in which an "entraining jet" of gas accelerates unused ...
Sereno Robin L - - 2006
Mechanical ventilation has long been used to maintain ventilation in humans when the lungs are rendered incapable of oxygenation or when respiration is affected by central nervous system depression, but it has only recently been applied to similar cases in dogs and cats. Although manual ventilation is still the more ...
Frazier Susan K - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Cardiac dysfunction can prevent successful discontinuation of mechanical ventilation. Critically ill patients may have undetected cardiac disease, and cardiac dysfunction can be produced or exacerbated by underlying pathophysiology. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare hemodynamic function and cardiac rhythm during baseline mechanical ventilation with function and rhythm during a trial ...
Jaber Samir - - 2006
BACKGROUND: During the past few years, many manufacturers have introduced new modes of ventilation in anesthesia ventilators, especially partial-pressure modalities. The current bench test study was designed to compare triggering and pressurization of five new anesthesia ventilators with four intensive care unit ventilators. METHODS: Ventilators were connected to a two-compartment ...
Robert Raymond - - 2006
Liquid ventilation using perfluorochemicals (PFC) offers clear theoretical advantages over gas ventilation, such as decreased lung damage, recruitment of collapsed lung regions, and lavage of inflammatory debris. We present a total liquid ventilator designed to ventilate patients with completely filled lungs with a tidal volume of PFC liquid. The two ...
Langham Gregory L - - 2006
Reactions to allergens created by laboratory animals are among the most frequently encountered occupational illnesses associated with research animals. Personnel are exposed to these allergens through airborne particulate matter. Although the use of microisolation caging systems can reduce particulate matter concentrations in rooms housing mice, the operating parameters of ventilated ...
Sato Tetsuya - - 2006
We report the case of a rescued 84-year-old patient with atrial septal defect (ASD) who was emergently admitted to our intensive care unit with progressive dyspnea requiring mechanical ventilation for severe anoxia and respiratory arrest. She had no history of congenital heart diseases. ECG and chest X-ray revealed overload of ...
Doelken Peter P Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine 7D, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY 10003, - - 2006
This study reports the effect of thoracentesis on respiratory mechanics and gas exchange in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Prospective. University hospital. Eight patient receiving mechanical ventilation with unilateral (n = 7) or bilateral (n = 1) large pleural effusions. Therapeutic thoracentesis (n = 9). Resistances of the respiratory system measured ...
Keszler Martin - - 2006
Recognition that volume, not pressure, is the key factor in ventilator-induced lung injury and the association of hypocarbia and brain injury dictate the need to better control delivered tidal volume. Volume-controlled ventilation, though much improved, still suffers from loss of volume due to endotracheal tube leak and gas compression in ...
Luria Oded - - 2006
A non-linear mathematical model of the oesophagus was developed to study the effects of non-invasive ventilation variables on the severity of gastric inflation. The model was based on the non-linear physical characteristics of biological tissue. The model simulated oesophageal mechanical function during non-invasive ventilation in cardiac arrest (2:30 ventilations/chest compressions ...
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