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Marashi Seyed Mojtaba - - 2009
The present study was conducted to compare the effect of clonidine and gabapentin premedication in modifying the hyperdynamic response following laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Seventy-five ASA I-II patients of both sexes (37 males (49.3%), 38 females (50.7%)) 18 to 45 years (mean 32.8 +/- 8.65 yr.) were randomly allocated into ...
Brusberg Mikael - - 2008
The alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine, modulates colorectal sensorimotor functions in humans and, given intrathecally, has analgesic effects in the colorectal distension (CRD) model in rats. We tested the effects of systemic clonidine on the visceral pain-related viscerosomatic and autonomic cardiovascular responses to CRD and colonic compliance in rats using clinically relevant ...
Toader Emil - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Cardiac vagal activity is now considered as an important therapeutic target. However, there is a lack of direct data on how cardiac vagal motoneurons respond to parasympathomimetic agents. METHODS: Rats were anesthetized with urethane and mechanically ventilated. Single-unit activity was recorded in the nucleus ambiguus from cardiac vagal motoneurons, ...
Park-Holohan So-Jin SJ Hammersmith Imanet Ltd., GE HealthCare, Cyclotron Building, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London, - - 2008
An increase in human cardiac alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (alpha(1)-AR) density is associated with various diseases such as myocardial ischemia, congestive heart failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertension. Positron emission tomography (PET) with an appropriate radioligand offers the possibility of imaging receptor function in the normal and diseased heart. [(11)C]GB67, an analogue of prazosin, ...
Lyssand John S - - 2008
Hypertension is a cardiovascular disease associated with increased plasma catecholamines, overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, and increased vascular tone and total peripheral resistance. A key regulator of sympathetic nervous system function is the alpha(1D)-adrenergic receptor (AR), which belongs to the adrenergic family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Endogenous catecholamines norepinephrine ...
Dória Renata G S - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cardiorespiratory and behavioural effects of epidural xylazine (XYL) or clonidine (CLO) in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Blinded, randomized experimental study. ANIMALS: Twelve healthy Arabian yearling horses weighing 117-204 kg were randomly allocated into two groups: XYL (n = 6) and CLO (n = 6). METHODS: An epidural ...
Yilmaz Mustafa S - - 2008
The mechanism responsible for the initiation of endotoxic hypotension is not fully understood, although it is often attributed to a direct effect of LPS and other vasoactive mediators on the vasculature. Alternatively, recent evidence raises the possibility that endotoxic hypotension may be initiated through a central mechanism. Previous studies have ...
Mann Samuel J - - 2008
Paroxysmal hypertension always engenders a search for a catecholamine-secreting pheochromocytoma. Yet 98% of people with paroxysmal hypertension do not have this tumor. The cause and management of paroxysmal hypertension remain a mystery, and the subject of remarkably few papers. This review presents an approach to understanding and successfully treating this ...
Erkonen Gwen - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Dexmedetomidine is a centrally acting alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist which is currently FDA-approved for the short-term (less than 24 h) sedation of adults during mechanical ventilation. DISCUSSION: Given its beneficial physiologic properties, there has been increasing use of this agent in the pediatric population. As with any agent used for sedation ...
Cividjian A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In the post-operative setting, pressure lability is increased in hypertensive patients. alpha-2 agonists were shown qualitatively to reduce this lability qualitatively. Here, upon immobilization combined with emergence from anesthesia in rats and clonidine administration, pressure lability was quantitatively assessed and related to baroreflex sensitivity. METHODS: After local anesthesia of ...
Bruehl Stephen - - 2008
This study tested for alpha-2 adrenergic mediation of the inverse relationship between resting blood pressure and acute pain sensitivity in healthy individuals. It also replicated limited prior work suggesting this inverse blood pressure/pain association is altered in chronic pain, and provided the first test of whether chronic pain-related changes in ...
Brkovic B - - 2008
The local anaesthetic and haemodynamic parameters achieved by lidocaine with clonidine or epinephrine, administered for maxillary infiltration anaesthesia, were studied in 40 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists, physical status 1) who underwent upper third molar surgery. All patients received 2 ml of 2% lidocaine with clonidine (15 microg/ml; n=20) or ...
Martinelli Giorgio P - - 2007
A substantial body of research has led to the recognition that the vestibular system participates in blood pressure modulation during active movements and changes in posture, and that this modulation is effected at least partly by the caudal vestibular nuclei. The I-4 isomer of imidazoleacetic acid-ribotide (IAA-RP) is a putative ...
Westropp Jodi L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vivo response of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors to medetomidine administration in cats with feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) during periods of stress and after environmental enrichment. ANIMALS: 13 cats with FIC and 12 healthy cats. Procedures-Cats were subjected to an acute-onset moderate stressor for 8 days. After stress, 20 ...
Honarmand A - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Preoperative oral dextromethorphan and intravenous clonidine attenuate arterial pressure and heart rate increases during tourniquet inflation under general anaesthesia. The effect of preoperative oral clonidine on these variables has not been investigated. METHODS: We designed this study to compare the effect of preoperative oral dextromethorphan or clonidine ...
Rafael DeRossi
The objective of this study was to evaluate 3 different doses of clonidine as a premedicant in dogs prior to etomidate-halothane anaesthesia. Six healthy dogs were anesthetized. Each dog received intravenously (i.v.) three different preanaesthetic protocols: CL6 (clonidine, 6 μg kg<SUP>-1</SUP> i.v.), CL8 (clonidine, 8 μg kg <SUP>1</SUP> i.v.) or ...
Goddeau Richard P RP - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: A 38-year-old man with severe head trauma complicated by paroxysmal severe intracranial pressure elevation associated with tachypnea, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and extensor posturing was diagnosed as suffering from paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia (PAID). These events were unresponsive to standard medical therapy, which included morphine, fentanyl, labetalol, lorazepam, metoprolol, and ...
Madden Kenneth M - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To determine if centrally reducing sympathetic tone with clonidine will reverse the downregulation in the alpha-adrenergic (alphaAR) and beta-adrenergic (betaAR) responses seen with normal aging. METHODS: Twelve rigorously screened young adult (mean age, 26 years) and 15 older adult (mean age, 69 years) subjects were studied before and after ...
Young Tim M - - 2006
We assessed the effects of clonidine on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in multiple system atrophy (MSA), where the autonomic nervous system lesion site is preganglionic, and in pure autonomic failure (PAF), where it is postganglionic. In normal subjects, intravenous infusion of the selective alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine reduces ...
Onyüksel Hayat - - 2006
We have previously shown that self-association of human vasoactive intestinal peptide with sterically stabilized liposomes (VIP-alpha) alters peptide conformation from random coil in aqueous solution to alpha-helix. This, in turn, protects the peptide from hydrolysis and amplifies and prolongs its bioactivity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ...
Kaplan Steven A - - 2006
The prevalence of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and erectile dysfunction (ED) both increase with age, and increasing evidence suggests a common cause rather than independent age-related changes. Arterial hypertension often accompanies these urological disorders, suggesting the possibility that increased alpha-adrenoceptor activity may be causal in all three conditions. As evidence ...
Sy Guata Yoro - - 2006
This work aimed to study the respective effects of central alpha2-adrenergic receptors (alpha2-ARS) and I1 imidazoline receptors (I1Rs) in the facilitatory effects of imidazoline-like drugs on the reflex bradycardia (RB). Experiments were performed in anaesthetized rabbits. The reflex bradycardic response was induced by phenylephrine injected i.v. LNP 509, rilmenidine and ...
Le Mével Jean-Claude - - 2006
In this review, we summarize the most significant data concerning the cardiovascular effects of centrally and peripherally administered synthetic trout corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urotensin-I (U-I) in our animal model, the unanesthetized trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Although there is more than 60% sequence identity between these two stress-related neurohormonal peptides, CRF ...
Shibao Cyndya - - 2006
Patients with autonomic failure are disabled by orthostatic hypotension, which can be worsened by the nighttime pressure natriuresis induced by associated supine hypertension. Several pharmacological agents are available that effectively reduce nighttime hypertension, but none of them prevent pressure natriuresis. Because hypertension of autonomic failure can be driven by residual ...
Kaczyñska Katarzyna - - 2006
The respiratory effects of stimulation of alpha2-adrenergic receptors were studied in spontaneously breathing anaesthetized rats that were neurally intact, or bilaterally vagotomized, or subjected to bilateral combined midcervical vagotomy and section of the carotid sinus nerves. An intravenous clonidine bolus (15 microg kg(-1)) evoked a prolonged slowing of the respiratory ...
Vagts D A - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Clonidine, which is used for induction of sympatholysis and prevention or treatment of alcohol withdrawal in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine, may have deleterious effects on intestinal mucosal perfusion. This study was designed to investigate the effects of clonidine on intestinal perfusion and oxygenation. METHODS: Following ethical ...
Shiratsuch Hiroe - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Cytokine production by macrophages is essential for the inflammatory response. Normal human interstitial tissue pressure is 20 to 30 mm Hg, but generally decreases in acute inflammation. METHODS: We compared the effect of 20 mm Hg increased pressure (approximating normal interstitial tissue pressure) with that of ambient pressure (resembling ...
Hou R H - - 2005
RATIONALE: Modafinil is a wakefulness-promoting drug which is likely to activate some wakefulness-promoting and/or inhibit sleep-promoting neurones in the brain. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a wakefulness-promoting noradrenergic nucleus whose activity can be "switched off" by the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine, leading to sedative and sympatholytic effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of ...
Li Guichu - - 2005
We tested the hypothesis that the I1 receptor mediates the reduction in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) neuronal norepinephrine (NE; index of sympathetic activity) that leads to hypotension independent of other brainstem areas or the alpha2-adrenergic receptor. To this end, we developed a model that permitted measurement of real-time changes in ...
Jacob Giris - - 2005
We reported previously that intravenous administration of tyramine induced a paradoxical forearm vasodilation and an increase in plasma dopamine, raising the possibility that dopamine is released by or converted from tyramine in vivo. Alternatively, tyramine can be nonenzymatically oxidized into dopamine in vitro, and this contamination may be responsible for ...
Brkovic B - - 2005
The admixture of clonidine or epinephrine to lidocaine for inferior alveolar nerve block was studied with regard to onset, duration, intensity of anaesthesia, postoperative analgesia, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), ST segment depression > or =1 mm and cardiac arrhythmias. ...
Adnan T - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Clonidine is often used as an adjuvant for local anaesthetics in regional anaesthesia; however, its effects on axillary block in chronic renal failure patients have not been investigated. These effects were the focus of this study. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult chronic renal failure patients (ASA physical status III) scheduled for ...
Kaye Alan D - - 2005
Availability of opiate substances through physicians and on the street has led to a rise in dependence and in addiction resulting in countless numbers of people hooked on these drugs. Long-term use of these agents results in reduction of endogenous supply of opiate replaced by these exogenous compounds. A technique ...
Mizobe T - - 2005
Perioperative hypothermia is common and results from anaesthesia-induced inhibition of thermoregulatory control. Hypothermia is blunted by baroreceptor unloading caused by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and is mediated by an increase in the vasoconstriction threshold. Premedication with clonidine impairs normal thermoregulatory control. We therefore determined the effect of clonidine on PEEP-induced ...
Cabrales Pedro - - 2005
A surface-modified polyethylene glycol-conjugated human hemoglobin (MP4) and alpha alpha-cross-linked human hemoglobin (alpha alpha Hb) were used to restore oxygen carrying capacity in conditions of extreme hemodilution (hematocrit 11%) in the hamster window model preparation. Changes in microvascular function were analyzed in terms of effects on capillary pressure and functional ...
Mitchell Anna - - 2005
PURPOSE: Clonidine is a classical sympatholytic drug that is widely used for the treatment of hypertension. Experimental and clinical studies suggest that Clonidine may activate baroreflex. The aim of this study was to determine the hemodynamic response to Clonidine under physiological conditions and to test the hypothesis that Clonidine would ...
Jacob A M - - 2005
The goal of this study is to assess the local mechanical environment of the pulmonary epithelium in a computational model of airway reopening. To this end, the boundary element method (BEM) in conjunction with lubrication theory is implemented to assess the stationary-state behavior of a semi-infinite bubble traveling through a ...
Estato V - - 2004
We investigated the acute effects of centrally acting antihypertensive drugs on the microcirculation of pentobarbital-anesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The effects of the sympatho-inhibitory agents clonidine and rilmenidine, known to activate both alpha2-adrenoceptors and nonadrenergic I1-imidazoline binding sites (I1BS) in the central nervous system, were compared to those of dicyclopropylmethyl-(4,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-3H-pyrrol-2-yl)-amine ...
Ohtake Akiyoshi - - 2004
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of tamsulosin, an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, on hypogastric nerve stimulation-induced intraurethral pressure elevation in anesthetized male and female dogs and to evaluate sex differences in these effects. Additionally, the effects of tamsulosin were also compared with those of other alpha(1)-adrenoceptor ...
de Padua Adriana Inacio - - 2004
Several drugs have been employed for sedation during flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB). Clonidine attenuates stress-induced sympathoadrenal responses and has sedative properties. We investigate the effects of clonidine premedication on hemodynamic and comfort parameters of patients submitted to FOB under airway topical anesthesia only. Patients received placebo (n = 22; men ...
Missant Carlo - - 2004
PURPOSE: Intrathecal clonidine prolongs total duration of spinal bupivacaine analgesia. However, there are contradictory reports about its effect on maternal blood pressure and only limited data are available on fetal and neonatal outcome. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of spinal clonidine combined with ropivacaine and sufentanil and its ...
El-Mas Mahmoud M - - 2004
The present study investigated the influence of 12-week ovariectomy (OVX) and estrogen supplementation (OVXE2) on the acute effects of the centrally acting antihypertensive agent clonidine on blood pressure, hemodynamic variability, and locomotor activity in Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of estrogen depletion and repletion on the peripherally mediated hypotensive response to ...
Gulec S - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Clonidine has cardiac and systemic effects that can modify the potentially lethal cardiovascular effects of local anaesthetics. We evaluated the effects of clonidine pre-treatment on cardiotoxicity induced by an infusion of bupivacaine or ropivacaine and the success rate of resuscitation in anaesthetized rats. METHODS: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats ...
El-Mas Mahmoud M - - 2004
Our previous studies have demonstrated that acute ethanol administration counteracts imidazoline I(1) receptor but not alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated hypotension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic ethanol administration on hypotensive responses elicited by acute administration of selective imidazoline I(1) receptor (rilmenidine) or alpha(2)-adrenoceptor (alpha-methyldopa) ...
Tauzin-Fin P - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery for phaeochromocytoma can cause excessive catechol amine release with severe hypertension and sinus tachycardia. i.v. calcium antagonists may be used to prevent increases in blood pressure during phaeochromocytoma resection. We investigated the effects of perioperative alpha(1) adrenergic block with urapidil on intraoperative haemodynamic events. The aim was ...
Maruyama Koichi - - 2004
Clonidine premedication prevents tourniquet pain and reduces sympathetic nerve activity. We evaluated hemodynamic changes and catecholamine release following tourniquet deflation during spinal anesthesia in patients who received oral clonidine premedication. The final analysis included 24 otherwise healthy patients undergoing lower-limb surgery randomly assigned to two groups: those receiving approximately 5 ...
Morin Astrid M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In many studies investigating measures to attenuate the hemodynamic and humoral stress response during induction of anaesthesia, primary attention was paid to the period of endotracheal intubation since it has been shown that even short-lasting sympathetic cardiovascular stimulation may have detrimental effects on patients with coronary artery disease. The ...
Bousquet P - - 2003
Clonidine-like drugs (hybrid drugs) reduce blood pressure by acting centrally at both alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(2)AR) and I(1) receptors (I(1)R). Some attempts at cloning I(1)R have failed, probably because of the lack of selectivity of the ligands. Recently, compounds acting exclusively at I(1)R were synthesized: LNP 911, LNP509, and S23515. For ...
Sinclair Melissa D - - 2003
Medetomidine is a relatively new sedative analgesic drug that is approved for use in dogs in Canada. It is the most potent alpha2-adrenoreceptor available for clinical use in veterinary medicine and stimulates receptors centrally to produce dose-dependent sedation and analgesia. Significant dose sparing properties occur when medetomidine is combined with ...
Marthol H - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Patients with familial dysautonomia (FD) frequently experience hypertensive crises after gastrostomy feeding. The central alpha2-agonist clonidine attenuates feeding-induced crises. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of clonidine on cardiovascular autonomic modulation and particularly baroreflex sensitivity in familial dysautonomia after gastrostomy feeding. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In ...
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