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Popli S - - 1986
In 30 patients with mild essential hypertension, clonidine hydrochloride was delivered from a skin patch reservoir designed to release medication at a constant rate for seven days. After a four-week washout period, patients were randomized (double-blind) into a clonidine- or a placebo-treated group. Clonidine or placebo was then given for ...
Charney D S - - 1986
Clonidine hydrochloride, an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonist that decreases noradrenergic function, was administered to 21 healthy subjects and 26 drug-free patients with agoraphobia and panic attacks. Clonidine produced significantly greater decreases in plasma MHPG levels and sitting and standing diastolic blood pressure and significantly smaller increases in growth hormone levels ...
Lowenthal D T - - 1986
Worldwide clinical trial data concerning the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of the clonidine transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) are reviewed with reference to its antihypertensive efficacy. The amount of clonidine delivered to the systemic circulation is a direct function of TTS size. After initial patch application, there is a delay of ...
Niemann J T - - 1986
Clonidine is a centrally acting antihypertensive agent used in the management of essential hypertension. Oral clonidine loading is now used frequently in the management of hypertensive urgencies (ie, increases in arterial pressure not associated with acute, life-threatening end-organ injury). We report the case of a patient with an acute inferior ...
Kellaway G S - - 1986
The effectiveness of transdermally administered clonidine using Catapres-TTS patches applied once a week was assessed in the control of mild to moderate hypertension by 16 general practitioners in 135 subjects. Following two weeks on placebo patches, subjects with mean seated diastolic pressures 90 to 104 mmHg were titrated to one, ...
Renard M - - 1986
Intravenous clonidine was used to treat systolic hypertension (systolic blood pressure greater than 160 mm Hg) in 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction and documented sympathetic overactivity (high plasma norepinephrine). Its effects on haemodynamics and blood gases were studied. After one hour, clonidine significantly reduced the systolic (195 +/- 7 ...
Harrison D G - - 1986
To determine if mature coronary collateral vascular smooth muscle contains functioning alpha-adrenergic receptors, we studied 13 dogs, 6-10 months after circumflex ameroid occlusion. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres in a blood-perfused heart preparation at constant aortic pressure (80 mm Hg). Normal zone resistance was calculated as ...
Lindgren B R - - 1986
To study the effect of inhaled clonidine on broncho-obstruction in asthmatics, 10 patients with extrinsic asthma were broncho-provoked twice with an allergen that had been shown to give positive skin prick test results. Before the provocations, saline or clonidine (75 micrograms) was inhaled via a DeVilbiss no. 40 nebulizer. Clonidine ...
Hyman A L - - 1986
The subtypes of postjunctional alpha adrenoceptors in the feline pulmonary vascular bed were studied by using selective alpha-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists. Under conditions of controlled pulmonary blood flow and constant left atrial pressure, intralobar injections of the alpha 1 agonists phenylephrine and methoxamine, and the alpha 2 agonists UK 14,304 ...
Robertson D - - 1986
We studied the effects of clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenoreceptor agonist, and yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist, on blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma catecholamines in 12 patients with autonomic dysfunction. Clonidine (0.1 mg, orally) lowered blood pressure 18 +/- 3 torr in six subjects and raised it 5 +/- 1 ...
Hamed A T - - 1986
The location of two distinct subtypes of alpha adrenoceptors on blood vessels is now well established. The present study was designed to assess the relative contribution of alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptors to the maintenance of sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone to the canine hindlimb. Bilateral hindlimb perfusion was carried out at controlled ...
Kelman A W - - 1986
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of trimazosin are described following both intravenous and oral administration to 6 normotensive, male volunteers. The IV and oral drug and metabolite (1-hydroxytrimazosin) concentration data are fitted simultaneously to the same pharmacokinetic model. The pharmacodynamic response, change in systolic blood pressure following 5 min in the ...
Larsson K - - 1986
The influence of circulating noradrenaline (in this context primarily a non-selective alpha agonist) and the alpha 1 selective agonist phenylephrine on bronchial tone, blood pressure, and heart rate was studied in eight patients with exercise induced asthma and eight age and sex matched controls. All subjects refrained from taking treatment ...
Nolan A - - 1986
Xylazine and clonidine, given intravenously, cause an increase in airway pressure in the anaesthetized, ventilated sheep. This increase was dose dependent and was not mediated by histamine, nor was it blocked by the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. However, the increase was abolished by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan. When the ...
Kanawati I S - - 1986
CBF, as measured by the clearance of 133Xe or 85Kr in the pentobarbital-anesthetized cat, displays a monotonic increase as the PaCO2 is elevated over a range of 20-60 mm Hg (slope Xe, 1.65 +/- 0.14 ml/100g/min/mm Hg; slope Kr, 1.40 +/- 0.11 ml/100 g/min/mm Hg). Clonidine (20 micrograms/kg i.v.), a ...
Valentino R J - - 1986
In order to determine whether pharmacologically-induced alterations in the spontaneous activity of neurons in the locus coeruleus are associated with changes in blood pressure, the activity of the locus coeruleus and blood pressure were recorded simultaneously in anesthetized rats after the administration of agents known to affect both of these ...
Ito T - - 1986
The stainless steel cannula inserting method was used to observe vascular effects of 7 vasoactive substances on the isolated and cold-stored digital artery of the monkey. The arterial preparation was suspended in a bath at 37 degrees C and perfused with Ringer's solution under constant flow rate. Drugs were administered ...
Bousquet P - - 1986
We report here that topical application of clonidine displacing substance (CDS), an endogenous brain extract, directly in the nucleus reticularis lateralis (NRL) region of anaesthetized cats regularly produced hypertension. CDS (5 units) increased the mean blood pressure by 40 +/- 8%. Pretreatment of anaesthetized rabbits with intracisternal CDS (500 units) ...
Pitts D K - - 1986
The present studies examined the role of alpha 1- versus alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the cardiovascular effects of clonidine administered into the anterior hypothalamic/pre-optic (AH/PO) region of the forebrain by the push-pull perfusion technique. Push-pull cannulas were placed bilaterally into the AH/PO region of anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated rats. Perfusion of ...
Goering J - - 1986
The adrenoceptor blocking properties and hypotensive effects of the alpha-1 blocking agents urapidil and prazosin were compared in conscious instrumented rats. Both urapidil and prazosin in i.v. doses of 3 and 6 mg/kg and 0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg, respectively, blocked the pressor response to the alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. The ...
Given M B - - 1986
Morphine is generally regarded as having a centrally mediated depressant effect upon the cardiovascular system. We report here that in chronically instrumented conscious dogs, morphine produces a biphasic response; heart rate and mean arterial pressure initially increase followed by a reduction to below baseline levels. Differential inhibition by naloxone (NAL) ...
Wechsung E - - 1986
In anesthetized and conscious domestic hens i.v. injections of LTC4 (1 and 3 micrograms/hen) and LTD4 (0.1-10 micrograms/hen) induced a pronounced hypotension, initially interrupted by a small, upward pressure deflection. No significant changes in HR, ECG-characteristics, or hematocrit were observed. It is concluded that neither plasma leakage nor myocardial ischemia ...
Vincent J - - 1986
The possible racial differences in alpha 1-adrenoceptor responsiveness and the blood pressure and heart rate responses following alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonism with trimazosin have been investigated in matched groups of six Caucasians and six Nigerians. There were no significant differences between the racial groups in the blood pressure and heart rate ...
Luft F C - - 1986
To test the hypothesis that the hypotensive action of urapidil is in part related to a direct action on the brain, the central (intracerebroventricular) and peripheral (intravenous) effects of urapidil were studied and compared with those obtained with clonidine and prazosin. All studies were conducted in conscious, chronically instrumented stroke-prone ...
Dalvi S S - - 1986
The drug interaction between clonidine (Cl) and enphenamic acid (En.A.), a newer non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was studied in anaesthetized dogs. Prior administration of En.A. in animals modified the blood pressure response to clonidine. Thus En.A., administered 1 hr before clonidine, potentiated the hypertensive response and blocked the subsequent hypotensive ...
Houston M C - - 1986
Oral clonidine hydrochloride rapid titration or loading is a safe, effective method to control severe elevations of blood pressure in hypertensive crisis in many clinical situations. An initial oral dose of 0.1 to 0.2 mg of clonidine hydrochloride followed by hourly doses of 0.05 or 0.1 mg until goal blood ...
Campion T - - 1986
The use of prostacyclin (PGI2) infusions has been recommended in the management of patients with severe distal arteriopathy, who are not candidates for conventional bypass procedures. Further clarification regarding the route of administration and the optimal dose of this potent vasodilator, however, is needed before controlled clinical trials are initiated. ...
Czarnecka E - - 1986
The combined effect of ethanol and clonidine on rabbit EEG, and the effect of clonidine on ethanol sleep in mice, as well as on acute ethanol toxicity were investigated. Moreover, the effect of clonidine on ethanol level in rabbit blood and in mouse brain and the combined effect of ethanol ...
Atkinson J - - 1986
We have studied the effects of withdrawal from chronic clonidine treatment in the adult male spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). SHR received clonidine, 0.1 mg X kg-1 X day-1 i.v. for 10 days. Clonidine was delivered via osmotic minipumps. After 7 days of treatment there was a 16.5 +/- 2.5 mm ...
Kletzky O A - - 1986
A prospective study of 22 women with hyperprolactinemia from various causes was performed with use of bromocriptine in nine patients and pergolide in 13 patients. The administration of 50 micrograms of pergolide followed by 100 micrograms on the second day showed significant decrements (p less than 0.01) in systolic and ...
Burris J F - - 1986
This study assessed the antihypertensive efficacy and side effects of clonidine administered transdermally. Twenty-five patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension (seated diastolic blood pressure 95-120 mm Hg with diuretic therapy alone) controlled with oral diuretic plus oral clonidine were enrolled. Transdermal clonidine was substituted for oral clonidine and titrated ...
Masotti G - - 1986
Serious complications of treatment in hypertensive crises have been reported for nearly all drugs, so that testing of further antihypertensive drugs in the management of hypertensive emergencies is desirable. In the present study, the clinical efficacy and effects on cardiac function of intravenously infused clonidine were tested in 20 hypertensives ...
Charney D S - - 1986
The effect of single doses of alprazolam (1.5 mg) and yohimbine (30 mg) and alprazolam and yohimbine given together on plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), cortisol, blood pressure, and subjective behavioral ratings was studied in eight healthy subjects. In comparison to placebo, alprazolam significantly reduced plasma MHPG and cortisol, systolic and ...
Mitrović V - - 1986
In 10 patients (aged 46 to 72 years) with essential hypertension (grade III to IV), the acute effects on the haemodynamics in the systemic and pulmonary circulation were analysed following intravenous administration of clonidine. Pressure measurements in the right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV), and the pulmonary artery (PA) were ...
Clementy J - - 1986
A few cases of sinus node dysfunction (SND) and AV block (AVB) were described with clonidine therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the electrophysiologic properties of clonidine in volunteers with normal electrophysiologic data. Twenty-eight subjects were investigated by endocavitary techniques. The following parameters were measured before and ...
Ghignone M - - 1986
The effects of clonidine, a centrally acting alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonist, on depth of fentanyl anesthesia and on cardiovascular response to laryngoscopy and intubation were studied. Twenty-four patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass surgery (ACBS) with a history of arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease (NYHA class 3-4), and well-preserved left ventricular function ...
Stornello M - - 1986
A single-blind, randomized controlled study was conducted to assess and compare the antihypertensive effectiveness and the effects on glucose tolerance and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone balance of nitrendipine (Bay e 5009), a new dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, and clonidine. Twenty-six outpatients with uncomplicated mild to moderate essential hypertension were randomly allocated to receive 20 ...
Domino L E - - 1986
The time course of toxicity in a 28 year old man following a 100 mg accidental overdose of clonidine hydrochloride is compared with the decline of plasma clonidine over 5 days. The concentration data were analyzed by nonlinear least squares regression, and fitted to a model which dissociated the blood ...
Falkner B - - 1985
The effectiveness of transdermally administered clonidine in normalizing blood pressure in 22 adolescents with sustained diastolic hypertension was studied. The clonidine transdermal device consisted of an adhesive disc which delivered a low, but continuous, dose of drug through the skin for at least 1 week. Following a placebo disc, subjects ...
Wallin J D - - 1985
The effectiveness and safety of transdermally administered clonidine hydrochloride was assessed in 16 patients with type-II diabetes mellitus. This group of patients was chosen because of the frequent occurrence of hypertension in diabetic patients and potential problems with transdermal absorption of medication because of small vessel disease. A skin patch ...
Cavero I - - 1985
In pentobarbital-anesthetized normotensive dogs, clonidine (20.0 micrograms/kg i.v.), in contrast to pergolide (30.0 micrograms/kg i.v.), reduced significantly both aortic blood pressure and plasma concentration of norepinephrine. However, in dogs that had been made hypertensive by sectioning the vagi and carotid sinus nerves, pergolide, like clonidine, lowered the blood pressure and ...
Klein C - - 1985
Twenty patients aged 60-74 years entered a study on the effect of transdermal clonidine (Catapres-TTS) as monotherapy for mild hypertension [diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 90-104 mmHg]. Seventeen patients (85%) had a positive therapeutic response (DBP reduced to less than 90 mmHg or by greater than or equal to 5 mmHg). ...
Jie K - - 1985
Effects of exogenous and endogenous noradrenaline, released by tyramine and lower body negative pressure (LBNP), on vascular post-synaptic alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors have been compared in healthy volunteers. Intra-arterial (i.a.) infusions of noradrenaline and tyramine into the forearm were given in the presence of saline, of yohimbine and of ...
Mathias C J - - 1985
The putative role of the central nervous system in the maintenance of elevated blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension (EH) and renal hypertension [unilateral renal parenchymal disease (RPD) and unilateral renal artery stenosis (RAS)] was studied by investigating the cardiovascular and hormonal effects of the predominantly centrally acting sympatholytic ...
Parving H H - - 1985
The effect of acute arterial blood pressure lowering upon albumin extravasation was studied in 10 patients with nephropathy and retinopathy due to long-standing Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. The following variables were measured: transcapillary escape rate of albumin (initial disappearance of intravenously injected 125I-labelled human serum albumin), and urinary albumin excretion ...
Thornhill J A - - 1985
The present study was designed to determine the blood pressure (BP) responses of conscious rats given intravenous (IV) injections of enkephalin derivatives (D-ala2-methionine enkephalinamide, DAMEA; D-ala2-leucine enkephalinamide, DALEA; methionine enkephalinamide, MEA; leucine enkephalinamide, LEA) and the receptor mechanisms mediating the resultant change in BP. IV injection of 1.6-16.0 nmoles of ...
Schiller L R - - 1985
Clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, has been reported to stimulate the rate of electrolyte absorption in vitro, to alter intestinal motility in vivo, and to have antidiarrheal effects in animals. Experiments were performed in 8 healthy volunteers in order to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of clonidine in humans. When diarrhea ...
Bentley G A - - 1985
Blood pressure, heart rate and evoked cardiovascular reflexes were examined in cats following chronic treatment with haloperidol, at a dose of 1 mg kg-1 per day, orally for 23 days. Five days after the final dose the animals were anaesthetized and tested for their reaction to various cardiovascular stimuli and ...
Harron D W - - 1985
The effects of oral administration of azepexole 10 mg, clonidine 300 micrograms and placebo on baroreceptor mediated reflex bradycardia and physiological tremor were investigated in six healthy volunteers. Both azepexole and clonidine reduced (P less than 0.05) systolic (120.5 +/-2.5 to 105.0 +/- 3.3 mm Hg; 115.8 +/- 2.6 to ...
Pedrinelli R - - 1985
The relationship between central opioidergic and noradrenergic central control mechanisms of blood pressure was investigated in normal men by evaluating the interference exerted by naloxone, a specific opiate antagonist, on the cardiovascular (blood pressure and heart rate) and neuroendocrine [human growth hormone (HGH) stimulation] effects of clonidine, a centrally acting ...
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