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Results 601 - 650 of 1015
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Stein C - - 1988
This study examined a possible peripheral site of action of opiates in the modulation of the response to noxious pressure on inflamed paws. Rats received an injection of Mycobacterium butyricum suspension into one hindpaw which resulted in an ipsilateral inflammatory response (swelling) and decreased threshold to noxious pressure within 1-2 ...
Good A P - - 1988
The effects of prazosin, clonidine, and indoramin on central and regional hemodynamic parameters and left ventricular performance were analyzed in a congestive heart failure population to compare the pharmacodynamic responses to different levels of alpha-adrenergic interruption in this condition. The sympathetic nervous system is blocked at the peripheral alpha1-receptor by ...
Van Nueten J M - - 1988
Serotonin enhances (amplifies) the vasoconstrictor effect of norepinephrine not only on isolated large blood vessels and isolated perfused vascular beds but also in vivo. This amplification can be observed with endogenous serotonin released from aggregating platelets and with endogenous norepinephrine released from the adrenergic nerves in the blood vessel wall. ...
Gillis R A - - 1988
The major purpose of our study was to determine whether urapidil acts in the central nervous system (CNS) to lower arterial blood pressure. Once demonstrating a CNS antihypertensive action of urapidil we further set out to determine: (1) the relative role of a CNS antihypertensive action to the total antihypertensive ...
Spencer D G DG - - 1988
Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were trained to discriminate the effects of saline injection from the interoceptive stimuli associated with the blood-pressure-reducing effect of clonidine (0.02 mg/kg, IP) in a drug discrimination procedure. Anise/ethanol and ethanol odors were then systematically paired with clonidine and saline treatment, respectively, outside the drug discrimination ...
Knudsen K - - 1988
The effect of clonidine on amitriptyline-induced cardiotoxicity was investigated in an experimental rat mode. A continuous infusion of amitriptyline (30 mg/kg/h) was given until the animal died, usually within 2 hours. Fifteen minutes after starting the amitriptyline infusion, 50 micrograms/kg of clonidine was given intravenously over five minutes. This led ...
Hauger R L - - 1988
Responses to intravenous clonidine, a possible central noradrenergic probe, were examined in patients with depression before and after treatment with clorgiline, a selective monoamine oxidase type A inhibitor. Pulse rate, mean arterial blood pressure, plasma norepinephrine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, and growth hormone were measured. Clorgiline treatment (2.5 to 10 mg/day) produced a ...
Leonetti G - - 1988
In spite of the fact that plasma catecholamine levels, baroreflex activity, and hemodynamic pattern significantly change with age and drugs whose action is mediated via the sympathetic nervous system might be expected to cause different effects, the limited available data suggest that both alpha-methyldopa and clonidine lower blood pressure to ...
Kooner J S - - 1988
Evidence from studies in both animals and in tetraplegics with complete cervical spinal cord transection and preganglionic lesion, indicates that clonidine lowers blood pressure predominantly by a centrally mediated action. We have investigated the haemodynamic basis of this action and performed additional studies in patients with unilateral brachial plexus injury ...
Lee D D - - 1988
The effects of clonidine or relaxation therapy were determined in two separate groups of patients with primary hypertension. Ten patients were treated with clonidine monotherapy for 3 months. There were concurrent reductions of blood pressure, plasma and CSF norepinephrine, all p less than 0.01. The changes of blood pressure and ...
Goeptar A R - - 1988
In the present study, immunopharmacological effects of clonidine-TTS on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to non-related, established contact sensitizers were investigated in guinea pigs. First, to evaluate the hypotensive effect of clonidine-TTS in guinea pigs, intra-arterial blood pressure was recorded. After 4 days of treatment with one (or two) TTS per ...
Lewis G R - - 1987
The efficacy and patient acceptance of transdermal clonidine applied once a week were assessed in 62 mild hypertensives previously controlled on a diuretic and/or beta-blocker in a general practice setting involving 18 general practitioners. Patients underwent 3-5 week wash-out period and those patients whose mean seated diastolic blood pressure returned ...
Quintin L - - 1987
In vivo electrochemical recordings of the metabolism of catecholamines were obtained in the caudal ventrolateral medulla in anesthetized rats submitted to various experimental changes in systemic arterial pressure. Hypertension induced with phenylephrine and reversal of hypovolemia decreased the catechol metabolic activity. In contrast, controlled or hypovolemic hypotension, induced respectively with ...
Daul A E - - 1987
We studied in 32 patients on maintenance hemodialysis (duration of treatment 6 to 133 months) whether duration of dialysis treatment affects blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline levels and alpha 2-adrenoceptor density (assessed in platelet membranes by 3H-yohimbine binding). Plasma noradrenaline levels were a significant inverse correlation to platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptor density. ...
Glazer W M - - 1987
Yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist that increases noradrenergic function, was administered to 16 healthy subjects and 18 drug-free schizophrenic patients with (n = 10) and without (n = 8) tardive dyskinesia (TD). Outcome measures of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study included changes in behavior, plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (MHPG) level, blood pressure, ...
Montastruc J L - - 1987
The involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the central cardiovascular effects of a dihydropyridine, nicardipine, was investigated in pentobarbital-anaesthetized normotensive dogs. Nicardipine (1 microgram/kg) injected intracisternally (i.c.) induced a rise in both blood pressure and heart rate. This induced hypertension was suppressed by pretreatment with intravenous (i.v.) atropine or i.c. methylatropine ...
Pina I L - - 1987
We have previously reported an increased prevalence of elevated blood pressure in Hispanic adolescent males. The pressure elevation did not correlate with weight. In this study, we evaluated the response to antihypertensive therapy of eight adolescent Hispanic males found to have elevated pressure during high school screening. All patients were ...
Sherman S - - 1987
The acute intrathecal (i.t.) injection of 50, 100, 200, 250 and 300 nmol of oxymetazoline produced dose-dependent antinociception in rats assessed by tail flick and paw pressure tests. Significant antinociception was observed with all doses of oxymetazoline except 50 nmol in the paw pressure test. The ED50 values for i.t. ...
Charney D S - - 1987
The effects of yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on anxiety, blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma levels of the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and cortisol were determined in 20 healthy subjects and 68 patients who had agoraphobia with panic attacks or panic disorder. Yohimbine produced panic attacks meeting DSM-III ...
Gross M D - - 1987
To assess adrenal medulla activity in states of hyperfunction, a single 0.3 mg oral dose of clonidine hydrochloride (Catapres) was given to twelve patients with varying evidence of familial adrenal medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytomas from kindreds with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2 syndrome (MEN-2), seven patients with sporadic pheochromocytomas and ...
Williams C A - - 1987
The effects of an alpha 2 adrenoceptor blocker, yohimbine, and an alpha 1 adrenoceptor blocker, phenoxybenzamine, and the central alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine, on changes in arterial blood pressure and heart rate were studied during fatiguing muscular contractions to determine whether an adrenergic-opioidergic system might be involved in the ...
Ramage A G - - 1987
Thoracic preganglionic sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure, heart rate and femoral arterial conductance were recorded in anaesthetised, paralysed cats. Cumulative dose-response curves were constructed for 8-OH-DPAT, ipsapirone and clonidine. All three drugs caused dose-related falls in blood pressure which were associated with minimal changes in femoral arterial conductance. However, 8-OH-DPAT ...
Morita T - - 1987
Experiments were carried out in the dog by the use of experimental procedure which permits to assess independently changes in uretheral peristaltic frequency, bolus volume and intraluminal pressure and flow volume in order to characterize alpha-adrenoceptor subtypes involved in regulation of ureteral urine transport. Norepinephrine caused an increase in ureteral ...
Prokocimer P G - - 1987
Hypertension due to pheochromocytoma is generally considered to be a straightforward, direct consequence of the elevated concentrations of circulating catecholamines. However, clonidine, a centrally acting antihypertensive drug, has been reported to lower blood pressure in patients with pheochromocytoma, suggesting the possibility that the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the ...
Mallory D L - - 1987
Intramuscular (im) pentamidine isethionate can cause substantial local pain and inflammation at the injection site. This drug is being used more frequently in recent years to treat Pneumocystis pneumonia, particularly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clinicians began administering it iv despite warnings that iv administration might cause severe hypotension. ...
Okuda C - - 1987
Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in a range from 0.1 to 100 micrograms induced a dose-related increase in blood pressure in conscious rats, whereas TRH-free acid (TRH-OH) and histidyl-proline diketopiperazine (His-Pro-DKP), metabolites of TRH, did not. The blood pressure responses to intravenous (i.v.) injection of 5 mg/Kg TRH ...
Kubo T - - 1987
The cardiovascular effects of selective alpha 1 and alpha 2 agonists and antagonists injected into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) were studied in urethane-anesthetized rats. Methoxamine (0.3-3 micrograms) injected bilaterally into the NTS caused a dose-dependent increase in blood pressure and heart rate. Phenylephrine (6 micrograms) and an imidazolidine derivative ...
van Zwieten P A - - 1987
Ketanserin, when infused into the left thoracic vertebral artery of chloralose-anaesthetized cats, induced a significantly stronger hypotensive effect than when administered via the systemic circulation. The effect of ketanserin, which is initiated most likely in the pontomedullary region of the brain, proved to be dose dependent. The central hypotensive effect ...
Plänitz V - - 1987
In a six-week multicenter, double-blind comparison study, moxonidine and clonidine HCl were tested in 122 and 30 outpatients, respectively, with mild to moderate hypertension (World Health Organization stage I and II; highest measured diastolic blood pressure, 90 to 115 mm Hg). Each agent reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure to ...
Bousquet P - - 1987
Cats and rats anaesthetized with pentobarbital were used to study the central cardiovascular effects of the clonidine displacing substance (CDS). The potential influence of centrally applied CDS on the cardiovascular effects of clonidine was also investigated in both species. CDS is a brain substance which is not a catecholamine (CA) ...
Kuchel O - - 1987
To evaluate the mechanisms of the hypertensive action of dopamine and its dependence on its metabolic patterns we infused a borderline hypertensive dose of free dopamine into healthy subjects. The moderate rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure with an expected considerable increase of plasma free dopamine concentrations was associated ...
Mathias C J - - 1987
In renal artery stenosis activation of the renin-angiotensin system elevates blood pressure by direct peripheral effects and probably through stimulation of sympathetic activity, which can be induced by angiotensin-II either centrally or peripherally. In animals specific brain lesions and afferent renal denervation can either attenuate or prevent renovascular hypertension. We ...
Metz S - - 1987
Three (and possibly all four) elderly hypertensive patients who were followed sequentially after discontinuation of transdermal clonidine monotherapy manifested a rapid rise in blood pressure to levels above control (pre- and post-therapy) readings. No signs of an "overshoot" in plasma norepinephrine levels or symptoms of beta-adrenergic overactivity were seen. Such ...
Kishimoto T - - 1987
Plasma prostaglandins (PGs; PGE2, PGF2 alpha, 6-keto-PGF 1 alpha and TXB2) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were measured in 94 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients including 15 undialyzed, 74 maintenance-hemodialyzed and 5 anephric patients, and in 27 healthy controls. In the healthy controls, 6-keto-PGF 1 alpha inversely correlated with age, ...
Kraft K - - 1987
Opioid peptides are thought to be involved in blood pressure regulation, possibly via an interaction with the sympathetic nervous system (CNS). To further elucidate this hypothesis the plasma concentrations of beta-endorphin, leucine-enkephalin and noradrenaline were determined overnight (9 p.m. to 8 a.m.) in young patients with mild essential hypertension and ...
Onrot J - - 1987
Animal studies have suggested that vasoconstrictor alpha-2 adrenoreceptors exist on vascular smooth muscle cells. We tested this hypothesis in a patient with severe autonomic failure who demonstrated a pressor response to oral clonidine (a selective alpha-2 adrenoreceptor partial agonist). After clonidine 0.8 mg orally, mean arterial pressure rose by 54 ...
Motz W - - 1987
Since left ventricular hypertrophy is considered to be a precursor of later hypertensive heart failure, a treatment that can prevent or even reverse myocardial hypertrophy is a highly desirable goal. In order to evaluate which type of antihypertensive treatment is able to induce regression of hypertensive hypertrophy, experimental and clinical ...
Mathias C J - - 1987
The central nervous system may initiate or maintain hypertension in humans by a variety of mechanisms. Increased cerebral pressor activity can cause hypertension in some patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome, where disinhibition of cerebral centres may result from an afferent baroreflex lesion. The brain itself initiates hypertension in patients with ...
Schulte W - - 1987
To evaluate the role of the sympathetic nervous system in essential hypertension and the influence of clonidine, 28 male subjects with mild to moderate hypertension were either treated with low-dose clonidine (n = 14, mean age: 42.4 +/- 2.1 years) or were randomized to a nontreated control group (n = ...
Kubo T - - 1987
The effects of various alpha adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists injected into the spinal subarachnoid space on blood pressure and heart rate were investigated in pentobarbital-anesthetized male rats. A dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure and heart rate was induced by intrathecal injections of clonidine (0.3-3 micrograms), at the T6-T7 level. Guanabenz ...
Achimastos A - - 1987
We have studied the efficacy of clonidine hydrochloride administered transdermally once a week for 9 to 15 weeks in 12 patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Clonidine reduced both supine and standing blood pressures on average, but only 8 subjects were responders, i.e. had a decrease in supine diastolic blood ...
Mancia G - - 1987
Transdermal clonidine (TTSC) has been proposed as a means to improve compliance to treatment of hypertensive patients because of the reported 7-day duration of its antihypertensive effect. However, no detailed information is available on the onset, the time course, and the day and night distribution of this effect throughout the ...
Montastruc J L - - 1987
The action of several dopamine agonists on blood pressure was investigated. In dogs, apomorphine induced a decrease in blood pressure and an increase in heart rate. These effects were suppressed by intravenous haloperidol or phentolamine. Intravenous but not intracisternal domperidone suppressed the hypotensive responses elicited by intravenous or intracisternal apomorphine. ...
Izzo J L JL - - 1987
We investigated the relationship between hypertension and increased sympathoadrenal activity in previously normotensive, stable maintenance hemodialysis patients (uremics) who developed hypertension subsequent to the onset of chronic renal failure. In age-matched groups, supine morning plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentrations (pg/ml) were elevated in uremics (401 +/- 26, p less than 0.00001, ...
Mercuro G - - 1987
The effect of the intravenous administration of dihydroergotoxine (6 micrograms/kg) on arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (the deaminated dopamine metabolite) was studied in 20 subjects with essential hypertension (8 men and 12 women aged 32-68 years old, World Health Organization Class I-II). ...
Timio M - - 1987
Previous studies have shown that some antihypertensive drugs, beside controlling arterial pressure (AP), reverse left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by reducing adrenosympathetic activity. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between AP levels, echocardiographic LVH and 24-h urinary excretion of epinephrine (UE) and norepinephrine (UNE) in 23 previously ...
Mohanty P K - - 1987
To determine whether clonidine treatment affects cardiopulmonary baroreflex induced sympathetic activation, we assessed the hemodynamic and hormonal responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) before and after 3 weeks of treatment with low-dose (0.2 mg daily) clonidine in eight older (mean age, 62 years) patients with established mild-to-moderate hypertension. Arterial ...
Leckman J F - - 1986
Following an open trial of clonidine hydrochloride (3 to 8 micrograms/kg/day for 12 weeks), we studied the behavioral, cardiovascular, and neurochemical effects of abrupt clonidine withdrawal in seven patients with Tourette's syndrome aged 9 to 13 years. Five patients showed marked worsening of tics. After reinitiation of clonidine therapy, the ...
Bamford O S - - 1986
1. The alpha 2-adrenergic agonist clonidine was given by aortic injection to three groups of unanaesthetized fetal lambs in utero near term. One group was intact, the second had the brain stem transected just above the pons, and the third had bilateral section of the carotid sinus nerves and cervical ...
Giles T D - - 1986
Alpha-adrenoceptor (alpha-AR) mechanisms may contribute to systolic and diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. Centrally acting alpha 2-AR agonist drugs, including methyldopa, clonidine, and guanabenz, activate brainstem alpha 2-AR and this activation results in a decrease in overall sympathetic tone and an increase in parasympathetic tone. Peripherally acting alpha 1-AR ...
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